Based On Its Prefix, Which Is The Correct Definition Of Impersonal”? Not Personal Between Persons Someone Who Takes Something Personally Someone Who Has A Certain Personal Quality (2023)

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  • 30 Jun 2023 · Based on its prefix, which is the correct definition of “impersonal”? ... Impersonal refers without human warmth and compassion. Explanation: This ...

  • Based on its prefix, which is the correct definition of “impersonal”?

2. Based on its prefix, which is the correct definition of impersonal A ...

  • not personal B. between persons C. someone who takes something personally D. someone who has a certain personal quality. Based on its prefix, the correct ...

  • Based on its prefix, which is the correct definition of impersonal A. not personal B. between persons C. someone who takes something personally D. someone who has a certain personal quality

3. Based on its prefix, which is the correct definition of "impersonal"?

  • In English, the prefix “im” means “not”. The correct answer, therefore, is not personal. The prefix “im” is generally used for negation so, when “im” is added ...

  • Answer: A. not personal In English, the prefix "im" means "not". The correct answer, therefore, is not personal. The prefix "im" is generally used for negation

4. Based on its prefix, which is the Correct definition of “Impersonal”?

  • 18 May 2023 · In the condition, impersonal indicates deprived of human warmth and compassion. Explanation: This word can have diverse meaning founded on the ...

  • Based on its prefix, which is the Correct definition of “Impersonal”?

5. Solved: Based on its prefix, which is the correct definition[algebra]

Solved: Based on its prefix, which is the correct definition[algebra]

6. Which is the correct definition of impersonal

  • ... Based on its prefix, which is the correct definition of "impersonal"? ⚪ not personal ⚪ between persons ⚪ someone who takes something personally ⚪ someone ...

7. Formal Register: Definition, Examples & Use | StudySmarter

  • generally somewhat impersonal and unemotional · uses complete sentences, complex or longer sentence structures, and standard grammar · most commonly uses Standard ...

  • Formal Register: ✓ Definition ✓ Conversation Example ✓ Use ✓ Writing ✓ Communication ✓ StudySmarter Original

8. [PDF] John Dewey - National Society For Experiential Education

  • sponse to a thing in its meaning; the former does not. A noise may make me ... means that each individual has a certain limited place and function, requiring ...

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10. DonaldLaingPhDThesis.pdf.txt - St Andrews Research Repository

  • ... persons develop an increasingly mature faith. This thesis is a study of some ... based on evaluation and organizational principles similar to those discussed ...

  • WORSHIP AND EDUCATION IN FAITH DEVELOPMENT : A STUDY OF SOME MEANS BY WHICH CORPORATE WORSHIP AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION COULD PROMOTE FAITH DEVELOPMENT IN A COMMUNITY OF FAITH Donald William Laing A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of PhD at the University of St Andrews 1982 Full metadata for this item is available in St Andrews Research Repository at: Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: This item is protected by original copyright UNIVERSITY OP ST. ANDREWS WORSHIP AND EDUCATION IN FAITH DEVELOPMENT by Donald William Laing (a thesis submitted to the Department of Practical Theology, St. Mary's College, in candidacy for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, February 1982, St. Andrews, Fife) ABSTRACT A central objective of many Christian churches is to help persons develop an increasingly mature faith. This thesis is a study of some means by which corporate worship and Christian education could promote faith development in a community of faith. After identifying certain background considerations, the writer examines and compares the writings of four worship scholars and subsequently the works of five Christian education scholars. Two recent theories of faith development are examined and compared with other carefully researched psychosocial and moral development theories. It is contended that, given the proper environment and necessary encouragement, a person's faith may expand or develop through at least four identifiable styles: experienced faith (in early childhood), affiliative faith (in childhood), searching faith (during adolescence) and mature faith (in adulthood). Through worship and education, the church plays a significant role in the provision of the required ProQuest Number: 10166464 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a com p le te manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. uest ProQuest 10166464 Published by ProQuest LLO (2017). Copyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code Microform Edition © ProQuest LLO. ProQuest LLO. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.Q. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346 environment and encouragement. However, since the church is an all age community, persons have vastly different needs and abilities at various developmental stages; this indicates limitations and opportunities for both intergenerational and peer group worship and education paradigms. Within this context, the writer develops definitions of worship and Christian education: Worship is our coming together in faith, responding to God's revelation in Jesus Christ and celebrating life in God's world; Christian education is a deliberate process employed by the community of faith to assist persons at each stage of their lives to develop in faith and to make personal decisions by hearing, reflecting upon, understanding, sharing and applying the word of God in their individual and corporate lives. Features of worship and education are compared and contrasted in the light of their ability to meet various faith development needs of persons during each faith style. From this study, the writer develops thirty-one criteria for faith development; these working hypotheses are subsequently employed to examine two worship and two education paradigms, one each in a Scottish church and three North American churches, and next to study four curricula that are designed for persons at each faith style. The criteria are then used to outline congruent congregational leadership styles and organizational patterns. Carefully established criteria for faith development are potentially significant instruments for evaluating or developing worship and educational paradigms in a congregation. Their application could indicate major changes to existing procedures or the provision of a variety of paradigms to meet a variety of needs and tastes. UNIVERSITY OF ST. ANDREWS WORSHIP AND EDUCATION IN FAITH DEVELOPMENT A STUDY OF SOME MEANS BY WHICH CORPORATE WORSHIP AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION COULD PROMOTE FAITH DEVELOPMENT IN A COMMUNITY OF FAITH A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PRACTICAL THEOLOGY ST. MARY'S COLLEGE IN CANDIDACY FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY BY DONALD WILUAM LAING ST. ANDREWS, FIFE FEBRUARY 1982 11 DECLARATION I hereby declare that the following thesis is based on the results of research carried out by myself, that it is my own composition and that it has not previously been presented for a higher degree. The — learch was carried out at the University of St, Andrews under the supervision of Professor James A. Whyte and Rev, J. Douglas Trotter, Ill STATEMENT I was admitted as a research student under Ordinance General No, 12 and as a full-time candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, under Resolution of the University Court, 19^7, No, 1 with effect from 1 August 1979; I completed five terms while resident in St. Andrews as a full-time candidate (summer and Martinmas terms, 1979, and Candlemas, Whitsunday and summer terms, I980); since 1 August 1980, I have been a part-time student, completing my research in Canada, This thesis is submitted during the fourth part-time term. IV CERTIFICATE We certify that Donald W, Laing has fulfilled the conditions of the Resolution of the University Court, 196?, No, 1, and that he is qualified to submit this thesis in application for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. St, Mary's College, St, Mary's College,University of St. Andrews. University of St. Andrews, TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE . .................................................... vii INTRODUCTION ............................................... 1 CHAPTER 1 : BACKGROUND CONSIDERATIONS IN WORSHIP AND EDUCATION . . 7 A, Some Insights from the Biblical Record (7)B. The Church Facing The 1980s (21) CHAPTER 2: A WORSHIPING C O M M U N I T Y ................................. 34 A. Four Approaches To Worship (35)B. A Comparison of some Background Theories (39)G, Towards a Definition Of Worship (4?)D, Components of The Liturgy (53)E. The People of a Worshiping Community (6o)F. Other Worship Considerations (67) CHAPTER 3: A LEARNING COMMUNITY...................................72 A, Some Approaches to Christian Education (73)B. The People of a Learning Community (8l)G, Gatechesis, Nurture, Education Or Indoctrination? (85)D, Towards a Definition And Objectives (94)S, Scope And Content (IO3)F, Context And Process (ill)G. Seeing the Learning Community Whole (II9) CHAPTER 4; CONCEPTS OF FAITH DEVELOPMENT .................123 A, Fowler's Faith Development Theory And Research (124)B. Westerhoff's General Concepts in Faith Development (134)G. Westerhoff's Four Styles of Faith Development (146)D, Some Principles For Process (162)E, Readiness For Religion? (I69)F, Peer Group and Intergenerational Considerations (I80) CHAPTER 5; SUMMARY AND CRITERIA FOR THE COMMUNITY OF FAITH . . . I90 A, Worship, Education and Faith Development Summary (I90)B, Worship and Education in Faith Development (I98)C, Suggested Criteria for the Community Of Faith (2I3) CHAPTER 6: FOUR EXISTING PARADIGMS S T U D I E D ...................... 218 A, Hope Park Church Sunday School (220)B, Bethel United Church Coffee House Service (234)C. Calvary United Methodist Church Learning Together (253)D. South Congregational Church Service in Three Acts (270) VI CHAPTER 7 : A STUDY OF POTENTIAL PROGRAMS FOR FOUR FAITH STYLES , . 287 A. "Joint Educational Development" for Primary Children (287)B. "Canadian Girls In Training" For Intermediate Girls (307)C. "Venturers" for Middle Adolescents (322)D. "Telling My Story— Sharing My Faith" For Adults (337) CHAPTER 8; LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATION FOR PROMOTING FAITHDEVELOPMENT...........................................355 A. Some General Leadership Concepts (356)B, A Possible Organizational Pattern for A Congregation (364) CONCLUSION...................................................... 375 APPENDIXES...................................................... 380 A. Four Approaches To Worship (380)B. Some Approaches to Christian Education (406)C. Erik Erikson's Developmental Charts (434)D. Lawrence Kohlberg's Definition of Moral Stages (436)E. James Fowler's Faith Development Charts (438)F. John Westerhoff's Four Styles of Faith Chart (442)G. Instrument for Study of Hope Park Sunday School (443)H. Bethel United Church Coffee House Diagrams (448)I. Koehler's Intergenerational Learning Charts (449)J, JED; Primary Church School Sessions (452)K, Comparison: CGIT Statements and Westerhoff's Searching Faith (456)L. Venturer Religion in Life Program Outline (457)M, "Telling My Story— Sharing My Faith" Outline (458) SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY.......................................... 460 vil PREFACE This thesis in the field of practical theology arises out of my ministry among fellow members of a community of faith and out of my personal concern for continuing education. Twenty-four years ago, I was ordained by the church to the order of the ministry of word, sacrament and pastoral care. The present context of my work is among the congregation of Bethel United Church in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. I have been the minister of this church since 1971. There are several important roles, duties or functions within congregations that traditionally have been associated with the ordained minister. Among those, one could identify; administrator, challenger, counsellor, educator, enabler, evangelist, friend, leader, liturgist, organizer, preacher, presbyter, prophet, scholar, theologian and 1visitor. If indeed it is agreed that all or most of those roles are connected to the work of the ordained minister, it becomes clear that this work must be a shared ministry. The ordained minister, together with each member of the community of faith, engage in this ministry. Two of the areas implicit above, corporate worship and Christian education, are examined in this thesis in the light of their potential ability to promote faith development. This thesis then, is a scholarly work in those interrelated areas within the broad These selected duties come from a list prepared by officers and other members of Bethel Church; on two separate occasions they were exploring the work of the minister, I have listed them in alphabetical order in an attempt to avoid any prioritizing. Vlll field of practical theology. Not only do I regard a careful study of these two areas to he essential for the life of faith in a congregation at this point in history, hut my church council, committed to helping persons develop an increasingly mature faith, has prioritized my duties to suggest that my primary focus should he leadership in the worship and educational life of the congregation, I am indebted to Bethel congregation which encouraged me and enabled me to spend five consecutive terms at St, Mary's College, St, Andrews on sabbatical leave, and to spend further terms in part-time studies in Saskatoon, in order that I might further pursue this important study. I also wish to express a very deep appreciation to my two supervisors, the Very Rev. James A, Whyte, Professor of Practical Theology and Principal of St. Mary's College, and the Rev. J. Douglas Trotter, Senior Lecturer in Practical Theology, for their suggestions and insights which have challenged and supported me throughout my studies. Finally, a special thanks to my wife, Margaret, for her continuing encouragement and for her typing this thesis. INTRODUCTION On a typical Sunday morning in most mainline Protestant churches one can observe a parade of families and other individuals entering the church door and immediately separating into two groups. Group A (the children), head for the Sunday church school rooms where they are further sub-divided by age or sex or both into separate parts of the building. Group B (the adults), travel along to the sanctuary and sit in rows of pews waiting for the service to begin,^ At the end of approximately one hour, the worship service concludes, the church school is dismissed, and once again families reunite and leave the building. Now if we call the community of faith "G," almost everyone will agree that A + B = C, G is not B alone nor is it A only; children, young people, adults and senior persons, male and female, constitute the family of God in that place. However, persons have become so accustomed to operating under the above pattern and assumptions that many persons would ask at this point, "Is there anything wrong with what we are doing?" The question can only be answered with further questions; How do the persons in B share and test and develop an ever-maturing faith? When do the persons in A experience the challenge, inspiration and other wealth of the liturgical life of G? Many adults today do not appear to have any identifiable exposure to Christian education, in the widest meaning of the term, apart from those parts of the Sunday worship services that are educational by A fairly common variation on this scenario will be seen in some congregations where the children of the church school come into the sanctuary for the first ten or fifteen minutes of the service. (For use of the word "sanctuary," see infra, p. 236, footnote 2.) 2 nature. Many children do not seem to have any experience of the church's rich liturgical tradition except for brief worship periods contained in church school classes or departments at a time when they are separated from the rest of the community. Then, great numbers of those children, at the instigation of their parents, attend membership classes in the church at the very age when their peers are not found in either A or B, and the resulting service of confirmation tends to become for than a "graduation" from the total life of G, Thus, if adults are at worship, children at the church school, and young people completely apart from both the education and worship experiences, when do all ages meet to be a community of faith together? How is faith shared, built up and given meaningful outlets under such conditions? Jesus asked a penetrating question that is recorded by Luke (18:8) "But will the Son of Man find faith on earth when he comes?" John Wes- terhoff ventures an answer for today to Jesus' question; the reply rings all too true: "Surely he will find religion (institutions, creeds, documents, artifacts and the like), but he may not find faith. Faith is deeply personal, dynamic, ultimate." Many sensitive members of the community of faith today are aware that there are serious shortcomings in their congregations. Rather than asking questions about faith, however, they are more likely to ask: "How long can our congregation continue with this state of affairs?" Some leaders at denominational headquarters may be heard asking; "Will the institutional church survive the present situation?" I am sure that God will forgive concerned persons who exhibit what some have labelled "a survival mentality," The church has been and will continue to be an ultimately important part of life for many persons in the community of John H, Westerhoff III, Will Our Children Have Faith? (New York. 1976), p. 21. 3 faith. They agonize to see signs of apparent lack of interest, loss of members and a diminishing influence of the church. However, for the purposes of this thesis, it is necessary to address a far more fundamen­ tal question arising out of that asked by Jesus: Will there be people of faith? In chapter four, faith is described as a dynamic, living power rather than assent to beliefs. It is contended in that chapter that members of all ages in the community of faith require a variety of experiences within a creative climate that will facilitate growth from their early childhood's experienced faith, through the supportive activities in the community that constitute affiliative faith, facing squarely the testing, difficult doubts, conflicts and uncertainties that characterize searching faith, on toward commitment to Christ and integrity of life and action that are indicative of mature faith,^ The two aspects of the church’s life which appear to contribute most to promoting faith development are corporate worship and Christian education. While the two areas have several things in common, each has a very distinctive nature. At this introductory stage, I will risk the imprecision of a tentative analogy to suggest the relationship between the two areas and set them in context. Picture a great family feast where the entire family joyfully shares in both preparations and dining. The food is supplied by the creating, sustaining God, The cooking and other preparations (with occasional tasting by all) is the educational dimension. The banquet itself represents a worship experience for the family. Then the nourishment supplied by the whole enterprise enables those who have shared to use the new energy in service for others. While such a picture could prove woefully inadequate if its ^These terms are explored in some detail, infra, pp. 146-157. 4 details were pressed too far, in its basic form I believe it to be helpful in indicating the vital interdependence of worship and education. Christian education and corporate worship have often been singled out as the two most distinctive and important features in the life of a community of faith. However, to juxtapose the terms is to risk the ire of many worship scholars ; generally their concern is caused by the way in which Christian education is frequently understood as a purely didactic enterprise. It is therefore critical in chapters two to five that I explore in some detail the nature of corporate worship and of Christian education, especially with reference to faith development, and that I define precisely what I mean by the two terms. The works of a number of scholars who have written in both fields will be considered. One scholar's work in particular will be examined throughout most of the thesis; John H, Westerhoff III, professor of religion and education at Duke University Divinity School, has written about faith development, Christian education and learning through liturgy. Westerhoff's sense of urgency about today's churches' promoting faith development through worship and education is complemented by challenges from other scholars like James White and Campbell Wyckoff who urge scholarship to be undertaken in this general area.^ Many scholars today use the word "community" to describe a con­ gregation or parish of the church. Occasionally a term like "Christian 1White, professor of worship at Perkins Theological Seminary, maintains: "The problem of the relation between Christian education and worship is a most complex one to which insufficient attention has been given," James F. White, The Worldliness of Worshiu (New York, I967), p. 25, Wyckoff, professor of Christian education at Princeton Theological Seminary, suggests that work "on stages in faith development. . , is indicative of what is needed in present study," D. Campbell Wyckoff, "Curriculum Theory And Practice," in Foundations for Christian Education in an Era Of Change, ed. Marvin J, Taylor (Nashville, 1976), p. 135. 5 community" may refer to many congregations or to the world church. Among a plethora of terms in modem writing, one will discover; Christian community, community of faith, worshiping community, learning community, covenant community, witnessing community, community of love, community of hope, missionary community, community for others, community of the baptised or community of Christ, Some of these phrases are fairly inclusive while others are intended to convey some specific direction or work or attribute of the church. This study uses three of those descriptive teims in particular; community of faith, worshiping com­ munity and learning community. Each of the latter two terms are employed to describe one major aspect of life of a Christian congregation. I use the designation "community of faith" as a synonym for congregation, parish or local church; I believe the term expresses something of the basic nature of a congregation,^ The content and process of the first five chapters seek to establish liturgical and educational criteria through which one may study existing paradigms or devise other models to promote faith development in a community of faith. The next two chapters examine selected paradigms in the light of the criteria developed. The final chapter suggests some ways in which a community of faith could order its total life to promote more effectively faith development among persons of all ages. Throughout this thesis the primary focus is on the worship and educational life of the community of faith. However, it needs to be understood from the outset that these two vital elements in the congregation's life must both be viewed in the wider perspective that For examples of typical uses of these terms or descriptions, see: David Lochhead, The Lordshiu Of Jesus (Toronto, 1978), p. 35, (community of faith); Ralph P. Martin, Worship in the Early Church (London, 1964), p. 10. (worshiping community); John Sutcliffe. Learning Community . (Nutfield, Surrey), pp. 22ff, 6 the church has a ministry to perform in the world and needs to he better equipped to perform it. As the church promotes faith development, that faith will require outlets of service. Therefore, underlying this whole thesis will also be a related, integral consideration of Westerhoff's contention: "In order for this company of gospel-bearers to faithfully witness through word and deed, the church will need to reform its life of liturgy and catechesis."^ ^John H. Westerhoff III, learning Through Liturgy (New York, 1978), p. 93. CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND CONSIDERATIONS IN WORSHIP AND EDUCATION This first chapter is in two parts. The first section is a con­ sideration of some biblical origins of worship and education, using the writings of some worship, Christian education and biblical scholars, and also employing some selected portions of scripture that are indicated in two concordances.^ The sacred writings of the early Hebrew and Christian communities have always been crucial to the church's worship and education. Contained in those writings are several clues about the origin, purposes and early methods of worship and education that appear to have continuing relevance to a community of faith. The second part of the chapter is a brief look at some of the special circumstances at the beginning of the 1980s that appear to influence the worship and educational life of a community of faith, A. Some Insights from the Biblical Record H. Wheeler Robinson suggests that "the Old Testament considered as a background for Christian worship is not a drop curtain but a stage, 2with many different kinds of worship at varying distances from us." For Old Testament passages I have used, John W, Ellison, Nelson's Complete Concordance to the Revised Standard Version Bible (Edinburgh, 1957), and for the New Testament, Michael Darton, Modern Concordance to the New Testament (London, 1976). Darton's new type of complete concordance is especially helpful since it groups entries by related words (e.g., worship, service, duty, bow, homage, fall down before, or, master, teaching, instruction, inform, train, tell, preach, proclaim) and also indicates the Greek for each term used, 2H, Wheeler Robinson, "The Old Testament Background," in Christian Worship, ed. Nathaniel Micklem (London, 1936), p. 20. He pictures the foreground, occupied by the New Testament church and the synagogue, as being a relatively narrow strip with the elaborate temple cult and earlier religions of Semitic nomads filling the major portion of the stage, James D. Smart, speaking of education in that same period, points out that little is known because the major educational locus was in the home. "In Israel the parents were charged with the responsibility of educating their family in the true faith, and there were religious festivals in the home which gave opportunity regularly 1for calling attention to essentials of that faith," From both Testaments, most scholars acknowledge that worship and education have complex and unclear origins, yet several of those scholars are able to trace 2tendencies in their development. It is clear that the many clues that are given in the biblical record do not present one consistent or 3harmonized story. Karl Barth’s warning in another context, that in the Bible we are not dealing with "the Revelation itself but the witness to the Revelation, and this is expressed in human terms," seems especially 4appropriate also at this juncture. With this very brief introductory paragraph, it is clear that I regard my statements in this section as tentative. Several scholars point to the Jewish synagogue as the key institution in the development of both worship and education in the James D. Smart, The Teaching Ministry of the Church (Philadel­phia, 1954), p, 46. See Roland de Vaux, Ancient Israel: Its Life And Institutions (London, I96I), pp. 48ff. 2See, Oscar Cullman, Early Christian Worship (London, 1953), p. 7; W. 0. E. Oesterley, The Jewish Background of the Christian Liturgy (Oxford, 1925), p, 101. ^See, Fred B, Craddock, Overhearing The Gospel (Nashville, 1978),p. 68. ^Karl Barth, Prayer And Preaching (London, 1964), p. I05. Christian church. The place and time of the origin of the synagogue Îappear to he shrouded in obscurity. Some archaeological finds indicate that there were some synagogues in Egypt from the middle of the third century B.C., but the earliest literary references to synagogues come from the New Testament record and the writings of Philo of Alexandria and Josephus. The institution is not likely older than the exile, 2suggest several scholars. However, it appears that by the time of Jesus there was probably a synagogue in most localities that were inhabited 3by Jews. By the time of the final destruction of the temple in 70 A.D., the synagogue was a well established institution, not only in Palestine 4but throughout the lands where Jews were resident. The synagogue was a multi-purpose institution. It served as a worship centre on Sabbaths and other holy days, as an educational place for children and adults and as a gathering place for other Jewish com­ munity concerns.^ The earliest Gentile converts to Judaism from outside Jerusalem were certainly influenced by the synagogue worship.^ James White suggests that the synagogue became for the Jews "the chief survival agency, and its worship became the prime means of keeping alive the ^See James F. White, Introduction to Christian Worship (Nashville, 1980), pp. 11, 112f. Massey H, Shepherd, The Psalms in Christian Worshiu (Minneapolis, 1976), p. 25, See, George Johnston, The Doctrine of the Church in the New Testament (Cambridge, 1943), p. 19; John Alexander Lamb, The Psalms in Christian Worshiu (London, I962) p. 10; Edward Lohse, The New Testament Environment (London, 1976), p. I58; Ferdinand Hahn, The Worship of the Early Church (Philadelphia. 1973), p. 10; William W, Simpson,Jewish Prayer And Worshiu (London, I965), pp. I6f. 3 ALohse, p. 159, Simpson, p. 17. ■^ Shepherd, p. 26; see Lohse, p. 167; Johnston, p. 19. ^Martin, Worship in the Early Church, p. 19, 10 corporate memories" of the people and passing them on to future gener­ ations.^ H, H, Rowley says that the synagogue tended to shape itself on the life of the temple, yet had an entirely different emphasis. He maintains, "It was the synagogue and not the Temple which fostered the study of the sacred literature of the Jews and elevated the Bible to the 2position it continued to have in Judaism," The picture that emerges from several scholars is of a synagogue where worship and education were very closely integrated. The synagogue worship itself, well before the time of Christ, made use of a triennial cycle of readings so that the Torah was systematically covered every three years, Simpson contends: "Its intention is clearly to ensure that all members of a community should be well grounded in the fun- damentals of their religion."^ Reading and reflecting upon these cor­ porate memories, the Jewish people rejoiced in what God had done for their ancestors. White suggests, "It is impossible to tell whether such an occasion at first was considered worship,"^ The study of the Law, teaching children and holding worship services were all essential elements of synagogue life,^ Marvin Taylor contends that in the synagogue "teaching became virtually synonymous with worship, and religion and education were inextricably welded together,"^ He goes on to claim that ^James P, White, Christian Worship In Transition (Nashville, 1976), p. 12. 2H. H. Rowley, Worship in Ancient Israel; Its Forms And Meaning (London, 1976), p. 240. ^Op.cit,, p. 37. 4Op. cit., p. 12, ■^ Lohse, p. 159. Earvin J. Taylor, Religious Education (New York, I960), p. 12, 11 this institution, with its strong teaching orientation became the model for later Christian worship. It seems to be generally agreed that the basic elements of synagogue services of worship in the early Christian time consisted of the recital of the Shema, readings from the Law and the Prophets, a homily upon one or more of the lessons, Psalms, set to music, benedictions and prayers. The Psalms, which have continued to be so important to Christian worship, developed out of the religious life of the Hebrew people; there appears to be no consensus about the date for the 2composition of the various Psalms, Generally there are three broad categories of Psalms: praise, lament and instruction. Shepherd maintains that there is no evidence to prove whether or not the didactic Psalms were used in worship in the temple;-'^ Lamb suggests that these could well have been used in worship at the synagogue where there was such a strong 4teaching emphasis. The evidence here, however, appears to be largely conjectural. It seems to be generally agreed that the homily or sermon was based on the scripture readings. Rowley maintains that the synagogue gave the early church the sermon as an instrument of worship.^ From the educational side, the synagogue was frequently called "the house of instruction."^ This was sometimes carried out in the same Shepherd, p. 26; see also, Michael H, Taylor, Variations on A Theme (London, 1973)» P. 13» T. ¥. Manson, "The Jewish Background" in Micklem, p. 38» Lohse, p. I6O; Hahn, p. 10. 2Iamb, pp. If. ^Op.cit., p. 19. 4Shepherd, p. 19; Lamb, p. 4, -^ Op.cit., p, 27O; see White, op.cit., p. 12. ^Lohse, p. 166, 12 room as that used for worship, and in other instances in a separate room that was designated for instruction. Smart describes the situation in New Testament times: In the time of Jesus there were synagogue schools, elementary and advanced, in which boys first learned to read and memorize the Scriptures and then went on to the problems of interpretation. In the early Christian Church, new emphasis was placed upon teaching because of the necessity that converts should be thoroughly instructed in their faith. The tradition of teaching in the home continued. So also in Christian preaching the synagogue tradition of a teaching ministry continued. The educational aspects of synagogue life were clearly of primary importance whether it was instruction in the Law or teachirg during worship. Rowley contends that Jesus’ intimate knowledge of the Old Testament was doubtless acquired in the synagogue,-^ The Shema occupies an especially significant place for both worship and education. Its three parts (Deut. 6:4-9; 11:13-21; Numb, 15:37-41) were used in the synagogue worship during the biblical period 4and continue to be used today. Many Christian educators consider it to be the "charter" for life-integrated religious education. Smart describes its significance from his standpoint; So important was the communication of faith from one generation to the other that the Israelite was expected to converse on the subject not only when sitting at home but when walking on the road, not only at the beginning of each day but also at its close, and to have symbols fastened on his body and on the gate of his house that would remind his family constantly of God's word of commandment. Clearly Smart has identified important aspects of the content of the ^See Martin, op. cit., p. 26; Lamb, p. 11. ^Op, cit., pp. 46f. ^Op. cit., p. 230. 4Lohse, pp. I6lf; Rowley, pp. 234, 259; Simpson, p. 16. •^ Op, cit., p. 14. 13 Shema. Several scholars note that its use in worship is very close to a creed; it was used originally in the temple worship and then taken over by the synagogue.^ Oesterley ventures that Jesus’ reference to the words of the Shema as recorded in Mark 12:29 is no-8^ only a biblical quotation, 2but suggests a liturgical element in the context. In various parts of the Old Testament there are both commands for people to worship God and regulations about the direction of that worship (e.g., Lev. 23:3; Ex. 34:14; 20:3; Deut. 5:7). H. Wheeler Robinson describes Israel’s worship as concrete, employing symbolic acts and gestures by both priest and worshipers, ’’Worship was full of colour, 3noise and movement," he writes, Isaiah’s experience in the temple (6:1-8) has often been regarded as an important description of what worship should be about: encountering God, renewal, forgiveness, a 4commission, and an offering of oneself to God. Some prophets like Isaiah or Amos challenged the people to make sure that both their worship and their lives were consistent with God's justice (Isaiah 1: 10-17; Amos 4:4ff; 5:21ff). Education also is commanded and described in various parts of the Old Testament. God himself is regarded in some Psalms as the teacher of the Law (32:8; 94:10, 12;119:12, 26, 29, 33, 64, 68, 108, 124, 135, 171). Teaching by the people is described in another verse as a response to God’s teaching (Ps. 71:17). The Law itself was considered to have an Oesterley, p. 44; D. Campbell Wyckoff, Theory and Design of Christian Education Curriculum (Philadelphia, I96I), p. 3I. ^Op. cit., p. 45. ^Op. cit., p. 20. 4Michael Taylor, pp. 20f. 14 especially significant content for teaching (Ex. 24:12; Psalm 78:_$f). Smart notes, however, that this teaching was far more than transmission of content; it was a response to God's love and the extension of a covenant relationship between God and God's special people. Smart maintains that the word of God that gave life to the covenant people required both prophets to challenge the people to fuller living and teachers to share the faith with children and neighbours. He notes that prophets like Isaiah and Jeremiah, and then John the Baptist in New 2Testament times, were both preachers and teachers. In the post exilic period. Smart suggests that prophets like Ezra were primarily concerned with teaching, reading and interpreting the sacred literature for the people (Neh. 8:1-8),^ Proverbs frequently speaks about the great importance of education for living (e.g., 4:13; 8:10, 33; 1503î 19:20). The Jewish family and later the Christian family were seen as the primary locus of religious instruction (e.g., Deut. 4:9f; Eph. 6:4).^ The usual morning service conducted by most Protestant churches today is regarded by most scholars as having been derived from the synagogue worship. White describes both as "survival services," by which the people remember God's actions,^ Michael Taylor, Evelyn Under­ hill and others contend that the basic framework of later Christian worship reflects the synagogue service.^ However, the Christian church ^Op. cit., pp. I3f, ^Op. cit., p. 15. ^Ibid., p. 16. ^Simpson, p. 18. Op-, cit., pp. Ilf. ^Taylor, p. 14; Evelyn Underhill, Worship (London, 1936), p. 23I. See also, Martin, op. cit., p. 19; Howley, p. 242; Manson, p. 41. î5 with its worship is more than a continuation of the Jewish synagogue, George Johnston provides a detailed word study on the Old Testament Hebrew word quhal, translated in the Septuagint as sunagoge in Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers, and as ecclesia in the balance of the Septuagint,^ Johnston suggests that ecclesia appeared to be the most accurate term to describe the nature of the Christian community and he offers the following three reasons for its use in preference to continuing with the word sunagoge: 1. The word ecclesia was the only word capable of conveying the sense of the church being a "Messianic community." 2, Sunagoge was so distinctively Jewish that it was unsuitable for a community that so readily accepted Gentiles. 3» Ecclesia has a scriptural authority that was familiar to 2all. Johnston sums up his study of these terms by contending that the word ecclesia embodied "a new conception for which the world was ready." The new church was not only the inheritor of its Jewish background and the fulfilment of its innate principles; it only came into being through the new life revealed in Jesus Christ.^ For the early church there was an intense conviction that the 4Spirit of Jesus was a continuing presence in worship. Worship was directed not only to the Father, but also to Jesus himself (e.g., Phil, 2:10f; Mat. 14:33; 28:17; Luke 24:52), Hahn summarizes five key New Testament concepts of worship, as he sees them, in these terms: 1, The community of faith worships on the basis of God’s saving act in Christ and the present power of the Spirit. 2. The upbuilding of the ^Op. cit., pp. 36ff. ^Ibid., pp. 43f, ^Ibid., pp. 44f. 4Underhill, pp. 218f.; 232; Hahn, pp. 33t. 16 church takes place in worship and the missionary element is also prominent. 3. Worship for the community of faith takes place in the existing world, and involves service in everyday life; it is not an activity in a separate realm. 4. Legalism is contrary to the nature of worship for those assembled in the name of Jesus; there must be room for the freedom of God's Spirit in worship, 5» Worship must remain open to God's further acts,^ While Hahn offers considerable support for these concepts, he wisely points out that the church today must exercise freedom in the same way that the early church did, and not consider these characteristics as binding upon present worship understandings. They may offer important clues to the church today about the original nature and intention of the New Testament church, but today's church cannot simply reach back 2and adopt the practice of the early church. From Acts 2:42 and 46 and 20:7, it appears that Christian worship in some settings at least contained instruction, preaching, prayer and breaking of bread.^ The important place given to the reading of biblical materials and their exposition in preaching is typical of synagogue worship.^ Luke reports that Jesus read from Isa, 6l:l-2 and then Jesus commented on the significance of the passage for his own ministry (Luke 4:l8f),-^ Luke records elsewhere that Jesus said; "'I must preach the Good News of the Kingdom of God in other towns also, because that is ■^ Op cit., pp. 105~l08. 2Ibid., p. 105. David Lochhead also warns against this restitutionism, Lochhead, pp. 38f, ^Cullman, pp. 12, 20; see Cooperative Curriculum Project, A Design For Teaching-Learning (St. Louis, Missouri, I967), p. 237. 4Manson, p. 41, ■^ See Oesterley, p. 42. 17 what God sent me to do.' So he preached in the synagogues throughout the country (4:43f)." It is apparent from Acts and Paul's writings that the disciples continued this strong emphasis on preaching (e.g.. Acts 8:40; 1 Cor. 9:16; Rom, 1:15). There is a contention among scholars as to whether the Lord’s Supper was "always" part of Christian worship, Cullman insists, especially on the basis of Acts 2:42 and 20:7, that the supper and the service of the word were always united in the New Testament,^ However, Michael Taylor, who strongly advocates that the two be united today as "the" liturgy, maintains: We could be forgiven for thinking that these two parts of Christian worship, one associated with a meal and the other with the synagogue, came together from the start. . . They may have been practiced together at times. They were almost certainly practiced separately at times.^ White also makes a strong case for a service of the word apart from any meal during the New Testament period.On the basis of the total evidence presented to this point, I am inclined to side with Taylor and White and to believe that Cullman's blanket contention is seriously lacking _ 4 in proof. Other New Testament elements in worship include the confession that "Jesus is Lord (Phil. 2:11),"^ There are numerous doxologies in the New Testament which some scholars believe owe their origin to services of ^Op cit., pp. 29, 31. ^Op. cit., p. 14. ^hite. Introduction to Christian Worship, p. 114. 4This appears to be a rather sweeping generality by Cullman; another example is: "All members take part in the liturgy," on p. 25. ^Ralph P. Martin, New Testament Foundations (Exeter, 1978),p. 271. 18 worship (e.g., Rom, 1:25; 9:5; 11:36; 2 Cor. 11:31; 2 Tim, 4:18; Eph. 1:3; Gal. 1:5; Phil, 4:20),^ Benedictions at the end of the epistles may also have had liturgical usage (Gal. 6:18; Phil, 4:23; 1 Cor. 16:23; 2 Cor, 13:13). The use of Psalms in New Testament worship lacks any conclusive evidence. Lamb points to five texts that merit consideration (Mat, 26:30 or Mark 14:26; 1 Cor, 14:26; Eph, 5:9; Col, 3:16; James 5:13) but explains how it is frequently difficult to determine if these situations were actually public worship,^ Cullman suggests that there are other passages in the New Testament which can be assumed to be words of the earliest distinctively Christian hymns for the liturgy (e.g.. Rev. 5:9, 12,13; 12:10-12; 19:1-2, 6).^ Martin draws attention to passages such as 1 Tim. 4:13: "give your time and effort to the public reading of scriptures and to preaching and teaching," and notes the special importance of scripture as outlined in 2 Tim. 3:151*1'.He says that it is not possible to determine with any certainty what these scriptures were, but notes how Celling denies that the Old Testament was used in New Testament period worship,^ Celling suggests, for example, that the sermons of Peter merely include inserted proof texts. However, I believe that Martin's evidence that Ceiling's denial "is too cautious" may well be valid, Martin, contends: "The way ^Cullman, pp. 23f, ^Ibid. ^Op. cit., pp. I8ff. 4Ibid., pp. 20f. %artin. Worship in the Early Church, p. 68, ^Ibid., p. 70; see Gerhard C. Celling, Worship in the New Testament (London, 1962), p. 92. 19 in which St, Paul expects his Gentile readers to be acquainted with the Old Testament seems conclusively to show that their services must have tincluded a lectionary reading of the sacred literature of Judaism." Much of the teaching or education described in the New Testament occurs in the context of Jesus talking to his disciples (e.g., Luke 11:1; Mat, 28:19f). The Synoptic gospels regularly portray Jesus teaching in the synagogues as well (Mat. 4:23; 905; Luke 13;22, 26; Mark l:2l),^ Jesus was regularly referred to with the title "teacher" or "rabbi," and was described as one who taught with authority (Mat, 22:l6; 7:28f; 22:33; Mark 1:22; Luke 4:32; John 1:38; 3:2). Paul and Barnabas are also described as teachers of a large group in Antioch for a whole year (Acts 11:26), Paul regularly referred to his task of fully pro­ claiming Christ's message, "With all possible wisdom we warn and teach them in order to bring each one into God's presence as a mature individ­ ual in union with Christ (Col. 1:25, 28). It appears that much of the New Testament church's education was 4included in the services of worship. Martin suggests that 1 Cor. 11;23ff. is probably teaching on the atonement handled in the context of the liturgy,-^ He lists some of the terms used in the New Testament for Op, cit,; see J. A. Lamb, "The Place of the Bible in The Liturgy," in The Oxbridge History of The Bible, eds. P. R. Ackroyd and C, F . Evans, Vol. 1, (Cambridge, 1970), p. 565. ^See William Neil, The Rediscovery of The Bible (London, 1954), pp. 208f. See also, John 6:59; Manson, p. 39. There are also numerous references to Jesus teaching in the temple (Mark 14:49; Luke 19:47f;21:37; John l8:19f); Manson, p. 35. 4See White, Introduction to Christian Worship, p. 114. •^ Op, cit., p. 252. 20 the teaching or preaching function: learning from the apostles (Acts 2:42);the message of life (Phil. 2:16);the truths found in the teaching (Rom, 6:1?);a true saying, to he completely accepted and believed (l Tim. 1:15); the true words (2 Tim 1:13); sound doctrine (2 Tim, 4:3). Oesterley also suggests that the main (but not exclusive) teaching of the faith to the New Testament Christians, as for the Jews, was through the services of worship. He points to Col, 4:16 as an example of specifically Christian writings being read during the public worship of the community of faith; he adds that such letters at the time were not yet regarded as scripture.^ There appears to be very close similarities between preaching and teaching, and Smart seems to be correct in his contention that it is impossible to draw a sharp line between the two functions; While he contends that the content of both preaching and teaching appears to be the same, he attempts to differentiate between the two in these terms: But preaching essentially is the proclamation of this Word of God to man in his unbelief, , . Preaching is the call to men in their sin and unbelief to repent and receive the good news that God is ready to come to them, and that, by the power of his Word and his Spirit dwelling in them, he will establish them in the glad free life of his Kingdom, . , ,Teaching essentialHy (but not exclusively) addresses itself to the situation of a man who has repented and turned to God and to the situation of children of believers who through the influence of their parents have in them a measure of faith, even though they have also in them a large measure of unbelief. Ibid., p. 269; see, Martin, Worshiu in the Early Church, p. 53. I have used the TEV translation in these passages to be consistent with my other usage. ^Op. cit., pp. Ill, 113. ^Op. cit., pp. 19f, 4Smart, The Teaching Ministry of The Church, pp. 19f. 21 This preaching and teaching is sometimes directed beyond the boundaries of the community of faith; there is regularly a resolve or a command to preach and teach to the whole world (Mat, 24:14; 26:13; Mark 13:10; 14:9; 16:15; Rom. 15:16, 19ff). Many passages also link the church's evangelistic task with teaching and preaching (Mat, 4:23; 9:35; 11:5; Mark 1:l4f; Luke 7:22). There does not seem to be any significant biblical precedent for maintaining a strict separation between corporate worship and the church's educational task. From the evidence available, it appears that synagogues and churches of the biblical period did not attempt to make the types of distinctions among worship, education and evangelism that are considered important by some twentieth century scholars.^ Again it must be reiterated that in many areas the biblical evidence is largely conjectural, I consider my observations in this section as being open to continuing revision as new evidence may become available. B. The Church Facing The 1980s The pages of the Old and the New Testaments thus provide several impressions about the early worship and education in the community of faith. Each subsequent generation has been faced with the application of these functions in its own situation. There is a long, detailed and interesting chronicle of worship and education throughout the years; however, that vast history is beyond the scope of this thesis. This brief section is an attempt to identify a few of the peculiar character­ istics at this point in time that may have an important bearing on worship and education in the community of faith. 1See infra, p. 69. 22 The following quotation is part of an editorial comment about some prospects that, according to the editors, are major concerns that con­ front the world at the beginning of the 1980s: We stand now at the threshold of a decade of doubt and uncertainty.The Seventies saw the progressive disintegration of post-war prosperity and optimism, while the Eighties carry the legacy of economic recession, third world instability and recent events in Afghanistan, undermining, as they do, the spirit of detente.Perhaps the only certainty to come out of the turbulence is the prospect, ever closer, of a devastating nuclear holocaust.This mass pessimism, fed to us each day through the press and television, must have a deep, although not immediately perceptible, psychological effect on all of us. We carry on our everyday work followed by a dark cloud of pessimism, constantly niggling us and weakening our morale. . . .The consciousness of the present decade seems to lie in the predominance of external, larger-than-life forces working insidiously and dangerously on the individual. An essential balance has been upset. . . This quotation of one portion of that editorial is perhaps a typical sample of sentiments being expressed by a number of observers at the beginning of the I980s, Again, it is beyond the scope of this thesis to make more than passing reference to these or a multitude of other social, political and economic factors that impinge upon the church as an institution and upon the lives of each of its members. At the same time, some of these factors cannot be ignored, because worship and education in the community of faith do not take place in a vacuum. During each generation, the Christian church has considered one of its roles to be helping persons discover and develop a faith adequate to meet the needs of daily life. Worship and education have been major means toward fulfilling this important task. My discussion in this section is concerned primarily with current comments by some scholars in the worship and Christian education fields who attempt to identify I S. J. Fraser, A. M. Charlton, G. S. Duncan, eds. Kate Kennedy Annual. 1980 (St. Andrews, I980), p. 6. 23 Ior describe some dimensions of the task. Having begun this chapter with some biblical observations about worship and education, it is perhaps appropriate to open the current discussion with comments about the use of the Bible in the church today. Westerhoff maintains that both Old and New Testaments must be central to the faith in every generation "because they contain the story of God'8 actions in history and his people's attempt to understand and respond. From the biblical story, we also leam who we are and how to 2live," In a similar vein, David Lochhead, associate professor of systematic theology at Vancouver School of Theology, and writer for the Committee on Christian Faith of the United Church of Canada, insists further that while the Bible's historical perspective is essential, it must never be left in the past. "These stories were retold and recorded because it is in the remembering of the great acts of God in history that our contemporary circumstances are seen in their relevance to God's continuing activity in history."^ However, Westerhoff contends that many churches today have solaced themselves in merely teaching persons about the Bible as history and may only have succeeded in producing "educated 4atheists." Michael Taylor, James White and John Killinger give a similar weight to the centrality of the Bible in worship and also express concern The identity or academic position of several scholars cited below is outlined in some detail in chapters two, three and four. In this section I will make reference only to those whose positions are not described in subsequent chapters. Westerhoff, Will our Children Have Faith?, pp. 33f. See my discussion on hermeneutics, infra, ppl i06ff. 3•^ Lochhead, p. 20; see also. Iris Cully, The Dynamics of Christian Education (Philadelphia, 1938), p. 26. 4Op. cit., p. 22; see, John Westerhoff, Tomorrow'.s Church (Waco, Texas, 1976), p. 63; Westerhoff, Learning Through Liturgy, p. 120. 24 that its message must be made relevant to the contemporary congregation.^ However, James Smart, for many years a prominent Christian educator and now professor of biblical interpretation at Union Theological Seminary in New York, goes further yet and raises an alarm about what he calls the "silence" of the Bible in the churches at this point in time. "The voice of the Scriptures is falling silent in the preaching and teaching of the church and in the consciousness of Christian people, a silence that is perceptible even among those who are most insistent 2upon their devotion to the Scriptures." He acknowledges that the Bible is still very much in evidence, honour is paid to it, preachers use it in readings and sermons, yet he insists that biblical illiteracy is widespread among graduates of church schools or in the congregation at 3large. He cites a lack of depth in much biblical preaching as being 4especially problematic. He describes his view of the seriousness of the situation in these terms; We call the church the body of Christ, but it remains his body only insofar as it is open, responsible and obedient to his mind and Spirit as they confront us ever afresh in the witness of Scripture. Let the Scriptures cease to be heard and soon the remembered Christ becomes the imagined Christ, shaped by the religiosity and unconscious desires of the worshipers.-^ I personally agree with the nature of this problem as identified by the several scholars cited and also agree with its seriousness as Wichael Taylor, pp. lyff; White, Christian Worship In Transition, p. 15; John Killinger, Leave it to The Spirit ILondon. 1971). uoT 158f. 2James Smart, The Strange Silence of the Bible in The Church (London, 1970), pp. 15f. Wbid., p. 24. Wbid., p. 22. -^Ibid., p. 25. 25 described in the quotation from Smart above. Smart employs even stronger language which may or may not prove ultimately to be true: "I am convinced that it constitutes the crisis beneath all other crises that endanger the 1Church's future." That highly emotional word "crisis" has become a recurrent term used by several current observers to describe many dimensions of life in the community of faith. H. W, Gant, minister of St. Magnus Cathedral in Kirkwall, draws special attention to the report on Worship in a Secular Age produced by the Fourth Assembly of the World Council of Churches, which said: "There is a crisis of worship and behind it a 2widespread crisis of faith," Cant proceeds from there to identify such concerns as lack of belief in the Resurrection, persons "leavetaking" the church, prayerlessness among Christians in general, a widespread inability of Christians to articulate their faith and the tendency of many congregations to take on "more and more the appearance of a geriatric community," as other "crises" that he regards contribute to 3the faith and worship crises. J. G. Davies describes that same crisis identified by the World Council of Churches "as the result of the passage from the sacral to the secular universe," and outlines some of its dimensions from his perspective in relation to worship,^ Writing from the Christian education perspective, Robert W. Lynn, ^Ibid., p. 10. 2Quoted by H, W, M. Cant, "Christian Worship Tcday: Its Crisis And Renewal," in Liturgical Review. Vol. V, Number 1 (Edinburgh, May,1975), p. 20. Cant makes reference to the "secular" concerns and also to J. G. Davies who comments on the same passage. Wbid., pp. 21 ff. W. G. Davies, Every Day God (London, 1973), p. 243; see my discussion, infra, p. 38?. 26 senior program officer of the Lilly Endowment, Inc., of Indianapolis, Indiana, contends; "If I read the signs of the times correctly, liberal Protestantism is undergoing a crisis of confidence far more severe than anything experienced even at the height of the controversy over biblical criticism in the early 1900s.Westerhoff, in one setting suggests that a major crisis is one of "self-understanding"; he regards this as essen- 2tially a theological problem. In another instance he suggests that there is a three-way crisis: "a crisis in faith, a crisis in the local church, and a crisis in Christian education. Obviously these three are not unrelated."-^ That word "crisis," then, is applied by various scholars and churchmen to faith, worship, Christian education, biblical silence, confidence, and a plethora of other concerns in the local congregation. Its use is intended to raise alarms in the church. Which crises are causes and which are effects are not always easy to ascertain. The primary concern of this thesis is with what I regard as real crises of faith, worship and education. Lynn describes a number of "distress signals" that he sees emanating from local congregations, denominational headquarters and theological colleges, and comments about his crisis of confidence; Few mainline Protestants can escape the sounds of these deep rumblings. They are echoed, for instance, in the pervasive loss of a sense of mission and direction in history, in the growing difficulty of defining purposes of church programs, in the diminishing self-confidence of denominational and ecumenical leaders, and above all in the quiet erosion of old loyalties and enthusiasms. These subtle and shadowy changes of the ethos are Robert W, Lynn, "A Historical Perspective on the Futures of American Religious Education," in Foundations for Religious Education in an Era Of Change, ed. Taylor, p. iW , 2John H, Westerhoff III, Who Are We? (Birmingham, Alabama, 1978)p. 6, 3John H, Westerhoff, A Colloquy on Christian Education (Philadelphia, 1972), p. 11. 27 of greater importance than crisp statistics about Sunday school attendance or church giving. I agree that such "subtle and shadowy changes of the ethos" are basically far more important concerns to be addressed by scholars and program developers in searching for solutions to today's various crises. However, at the same time, it seems that these problems need to be attacked from both ends; the scholar and program developer require the interest and concern of people in local congregations. It appears that a community of faith tends to become most strongly motivated to look seriously at its worship and education programs when the realities of the "crisp statistics" are most acute. There has been generally a noticeable drop in numbers of participants in church worship and in Sunday church schools since the mid I96OS, Robin Gill of New College, Edinburgh, has done a recent church attendance survey which seems to indicate a variety of reasons for 2persons either taking part or not attending worship. His survey in Edinburgh suggests that few of the social factors may be overtly religious.^ Factors such as age and sex seem to be important. Almost twice as many men as women claimed never to attend church and the twenty-five to thirty-four age group were least inclined to be present for worship,^ The most striking examples of losses of numbers of children occur among children in attendance at the Sunday church school. As an example, in a tentative study that I undertook in 1975, I noted that in 1954 there were 636,664 church school pupils and teachers in the United ^Op. cit., p. 14. 2Robin Gill, "Who Goes to Church In Scotland?," in Liturgical Review. Vol. VI, Number 1 (May, 1976), pp. 52f. Ibid., pp. 50f. 28 Church of Canada, peaking in I96I at 757,388, and then rapidly and steadily dropping to 262,256 by 1974, Many generalizations have been offered by observers to explain this phenomenon: changing Sunday patterns, religious apathy, declining birth rate, mobility of families and a host of others. Likely several of these factors are involved, but that is a detailed study in itself. Some research done in Birmingham indicates that the Sunday school may be a poor instrument to interest children in later adult church 2involvement. Even where Sunday schools may appear to have "content, happy and interested" children, Westerhoff contends that this is due in part to the fact that many children who had "hoped for different sorts of learning had already dropped out,"^ He and Sutcliffe suggest that a different and radically revised paradigm for Christian education 4is indicated. However, Iris Cully believes that the Sunday school still remains a highly desirable and useful paradigm for Christian education,^ Westerhoff generally maintains that Christian education is in an extremely problematic state in most congregations today and calls for a radical approach to the Wiole question.^ Donald Laing, Ideas for a Congregation's Education Program (study for Saskatchewan Conference, The United Church of Canada,November, 1975), pp. 31*. By 1979 this number had further decreased to 236,414. ^Sutcliffe, pp. 34f. See Ellis Nelson, "Is Church Education Something Particular?" in Who Are We? ed. Westerhoff, p. 194. Westerhoff, Learning Through Liturgy, p. II6. 4Westerhoff, Will Our Children Have Faith?, p. 7; Sutcliffe, pp. 37f. Wris Cully, New Life for Your Sunday School. (New York, 1976), p. 15; see, infra, pp. 115f; Joyce G, Gray, Over the Fence and Into The Church (Margate, I969), p. 16. ^Op. cit., pp. 1-5. 29 Killinger and Lynn, following the lead of scholars like Marshall McLuhan, describe the tremendous effect that electronic media have on life generally and mention some of the implications that they see for worship and education. Killinger describes his rationale; What are some of the primary characteristics of our cultural epoch, distinguishing marks which, if given a chance at interplay, might make important differences in the way we worehip?For one thing, the world has become Mediaville, We live with television, stereo, videotape, recording machines, computers, cameras, projectors, synthesizers, printing machines, duplicating machines— every imaginable extension of the self. , , ,We are the first people in history to sit at the dinner table eating frozen meals heated in microwave ovens while tuned in to a war in Indochina, a debate in the House of Commons, and a tribal dance in Pogo-Pogo, Lynn also speaks of the fantastic changes in life that have been wrought by a media oriented society and laments the lack of insight by many Christian educators; "Bom in a pretelevision era and largely dependent upon theories of education that were developed before the advent of broadcasting, (Christian) educators are inclined to treat television as 2another means of communication," Certainly McLuhan's writing in this field has revolutionized our understanding of media in life and underscores the concerns expressed by Killinger and Lynn.^ ^John Killinger, The 11 O'clock News (New York, 1975), p. 11. Wp, cit., p. 17. Wee Marshall McLuhan, The Medium is The Message (Watford, I967), p. 125; Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media (London.1964). pp. 335ff. However, for a serious modification on this viewpoint, see also, Ross Snyder, Young People and Their Culture (New York, I969), chapter 1.In particular, Snyder exposes the subtle emptiness of the apparent "integrity and engagement" that McLuhan contends is provided by television, Snyder demonstrates how television can create the illusion of the viewer having been involved in depth to the point where the viewer believes he has really participated and thinks he has actually done something about an issue at stake. In reality, the viewer has had an in-depth learning experience where information has been transmitted but not acted upon. Thus, television for many persons may not be the challenger or engager, but in fact may become a psychological crutch, a total experience that actually could impede commitment or action. 30 Several scholars lay stress on current society's tendency toward depersonalization. Harvey Cox points out that scholars employ terms like "loss of identity," "disappearance of selfhood" or "anonymity" to describe some manifestations of this phenomenon,^ Killinger contends that there is an "almost desperate craving for recognition and 2affirmation" among many persons in today's society. He asks: "Is the church as it was once known, as a fellowship of believers, doomed in the modern city?" He continues this line of questions pointing out the tendency for church worship to be "a kind of impersonal theatre" with a "spectator-actor" relationship between clergy and congregation,^ James White and J, G, Davies describe their concern over this condition in terms very similar to those of Killinger,^ "Pluralism" is a popular term employed by many scholars to describe Yet the other side cannot be forgotten either. In support of some of McLuhan's insights, James White writes: "Those under twenty-five havegrown up with different modes of perceiving reality than their parents.We older people expect information to be supplied to us in the sequential forms of print. We read about Guadalcanal the day after.Our children see war in Vietnam as it happens. We grew up on media where everything was spelled out for us. Our children see it for themselves. There is no need to reduce events to words when they are participants via television. And so their methods of perceiving reality are quite different from those of their parents who grew up under quite different circumstances, , , We must realize that people have changed. They are accustomed to much more immediate forms of communication than words from a book. And consequently the forms by which worship is expressed must change too," James F, White, New Forms of Worship (Nashville, 1971), pp, 3lf. 1 Harvey Cox, The Secular City (London, 1965), p. 39. Cox, however, unlike many other scholars, goes to some length to point out positive aspects of this condition (pp. 48f), 2Killinger, op, cit., p, 12. ^Killinger, Leave it to The Spirit, pp, 70f, 4White, The Worldliness Of Worship, pp. 45, 171; J. G. Davies,New Perspectives on Worship Today (London/ 1978), pp. 114, 126, 31 conditions, some of which are related to the identity crisis identified above, Westerhoff suggests some manifestations of this condition and comments on their seriousness from his viewpoint: The chief problem for life in a pluralistic, secular, technological, urban world is attaining, owning and maintaining one's identity as a person and follower of Jesus Christ. The claims for loyalty are legion, and the diverse communities which ask our allegiance are many. Killinger contends that, "McLuhan's 'global village' has caught up with a vengeance," and notes how the whole society is suddenly faced with 2persons from many different cultures living in the same neighbourhood. James White suggests that the pluralistic condition offers at the same time many positive results which enable us to share the richness of many other traditions. Several educators and worship scholars speak about the signifi­ cance of mission responsibility in the church at this point in time, Westerhoff says that the church must reform its worship and education to make it more effective in mission; White wants the church to join God in his work; Eeuel Howe calls the church to be God's instrument of salvation for the world, and not the object of salvation.^ While many Christians have supported the more traditional "mission" activities of the church over the generations, serious questions are being raised by numerous members today over questions such as the World Council of Church's financial support for the relief of families of some African groups who Westerhoff, Learning Through Liturgy, p. 103, 2Op. cit., p. 215. He mentions several positive aspects of this. ^hite, Christian Worship In Transition, p, 75. 4Westerhoff, op. cit., p. 93; White, The Wordliness Of Worship, p. 65; Reuel Howe, Man's Need and God's Action (New York, 1953), pp. 150f. 32 were engaged in violent revolutionary activities. Generally, violence used to be regarded as something that happened "out there" away from the church, but the brutal murder of archbishop Oscar Amulfo Romero of El Salvador, a militant reformer, in March, I98O, is another incident in an increasing world involvement by church people in the violence of this period. Davies points out that other prominent church leaders, like archbishop Helder Camara of Brazil, may personally reject violence, but Camara respects persons like Gamilo Torres who has accepted violence. Davies, Westerhoff, White and others contend that worship, education, theology, politics and the struggle (violent or otherwise) for world 2justice must interpenetrate one another in our generation. There are so many other concerns facing the community of faith at the beginning of the 1980sj these could occupy several studies in their own right, I have attempted in this introductory chapter to identify a few that have been highlighted in particular by the key worship and education scholars whose work is considered in the following chapters, I believe that Westerhoff is correct when he identifies two extremes of attitude in the church during this period. On the one hand he declares; "The church is filled with discouraged, depressed, disheartened people. There is too little faith, too little hope, too little memory."^ Then, on the other hand, he recognizes that there are others, who like himself maintain; "To respond to God's call is to live in faith. And G. Davies, Christians, Politics and Violent Revolution (London,1976), p. 161. 2Davies, New Perspectives on Worship Today, pp, 78, 95fj White, Christian Worship In Transition, p. 142; Westerhoff. Will Our Children Have Faith?, pp, 47ff, Westerhoff, Tomorrow' s Church. p, 63. 33 to live in faith is to know hope. All things are possible when our wills and God's will unite in historical action."^ In another more recent book, his overall message suggests; "Today is marked by new life 2in the community of faith," It is with both a recognition of many serious problems and an èye upon such hope that I turn now to an examination of worship, education and faith development in a community of faith in the 1980s, Wbid,, p. 69. 2Westerhoff, Learning Through Liturgy, p. 102. See John H, Westerhoff III, Inner Gro^h/Outer Change [New York, 1979), pp. 5ff., 31f, 130-146. 34 CHAPTER TWO A WORSHIPING COMMUNITY A community of faith by its very nature is a worshiping community. However, among denominations and among congregations within denominations there are a variety of interpretations about the nature and methods of corporate worship. Various worship scholars approach Christian worship from quite different perspectives. In this chapter I examine some of the most salient aspects of corporate worship in the light of the writings of four worship scholars; each of these scholars represents a different denominational background. I suggest that the two most prominent approaches for each scholar are: Jean-Jacques von Allmen, theological- practical; John Gordon Davies, sociological-theological; Michael Taylor, historical-practical; James Floyd White, practical-theological. In each case, the first mentioned approach appears to be the most conspicuous. The first section of this chapter will identify the scholars and suggest 1in very general terms some of their most prominent themes. The later sections compare and contrast aspects of their positions on a number of subjects that have special relevance to the question of promoting faith development. When appropriate, other scholars works will also be cited. 1Details of positions within the works of each scholar are identi­fied in Appendix A, Because of the complexity of some of their arguments, in a few instances involving a dozen quotations from up to five sources,I refer primarily to the appendix for the location of these concepts.Any statements not cited in the appendix are identified directly during the course of this chapter. 35 A, Four Approaches To Worship Jean-Jacques von Allmen, a professor at the university of Neuchâtel in Switzerland, writes from the Reformed Church perspective. The title of his major work, Worship; Its Theology And Practice, indeed appears to describe the two most prominent perspectives that he brings to worship; theological (profoundly biblical) and practical. Historical and educational elsaents are also conspicuous in his book; psychological and sociological considerations are also present but are less obvious. Von Allmen commences his book and maintains his theological affirmation throughout that the profound meaning of worship "is to sum up the history of salvation."^ Von Allmen suggests that there are parallels between the life of Jesus and the worship of the church today. He uses a concept of the "recapitulation of saving history" to describe the essential nature of Christian worship, and suggests that its primary concern is "to enable 2the church to find its orientation towards God and to live it out," He maintains a somewhat confusing distinction between the church and the world and between sacred and profane that appears to be more of an eschatological perspective than any tendency towards a docetism.^ Related to this and prominent in his writings are his arguments for separating any unbaptized persons from the baptized in the second phase 4of worship. For von Allmen, the Lord's supper is an essential part of worship each Sunday, His high doctrine of ministry is complemented by Î,J.-J. von Allmen, Worship; Its Theology And Practice (London,1965), p. 21. 2'Infra, p. 38I. %nfra, pp, 381f. 4Infra, p. 382, 36 a high doctrine of baptism that insists that baptized children should be given access to the whole liturgy, including communion.^ He leaves the general impression of a rather solemn and conservative stance in his suggestions about music for worship and methods of reading scriptures. He regards worship as the most significant act in the life of the community of faith, and contends that worship ought to be the norm against 2which all other works and acts of the congregation are to be measured, John Gordon Davies, professor of theology in the University of Birmingham, an Anglican, approaches the subject of Christian worship mainly from a sociological-theological perspective in his books. Every Day God and New Perspectives on Worship Today. While Davies also draws upon phenomenological, psychological, historical and biblical insights, his sociological criteria are the most prominent in many aspects of worship, even to his suggestion that the normal patterns of a family meal could provide the major outline for liturgical reform of the eucharist.^ A major portion of Davies' work is devoted to providing a positive alternative to Rudolf Otto's understanding of the holy,^ He insists that the essential unity of sacred and secular must be maintained if Christian faith is to be integrated,^ Worship in such a scheme is primarily seen as world involvement. The concept of celebrating life joyfully in God's world is perhaps the most prominent aspect of his ^Infra, p. 385. ^Infra, p. 386. 3-^ Davies, Every Day God, pp. 3^3f, In this thesis I employ the term "sociology" generally to include certain aspects of what some social scientists might call more strictly "social anthropology" or on occasion "phenomenolo^," Davies acknowledges that he uses all these methods (pp. ix, 3^3). For further discussion of the specific approach of phenomenology, see Marianne Micks, The Future Present; The Phenomenon of Christian Worship (New York, 1970), p^ xii. Sinfra, p. 386. -^nfra. 37 definitions of worship. Davies provides a major sociological perspec­ tive on the nature of the relationships among persons in a worshiping community.^ Davies sees worship as providing a special opportunity for meaningful participation hy all worshipers. The service of worship may also he a challenging experience with an element of conflict, acting as 3a change agent among the members. Connected with this stance is a strong 4emphasis on the connection between worship, social justice and mission. Michael Taylor is principal of the Northern Baptist College in Manchester. His book. Variations on A Theme, is sub-titled; "some guidelines for everyday Christians who want to reform the liturgy," In this book, Taylor's major approach to worship is historical-practical; theological, educational, psychological and sociological elements are evident as well. He begins with the affirmation that "the whole of life can be regarded as an act of worship," and then sets out to indicate the particular concern of his book which is dealing with organized services of worship.-^ Taylor prefers to use the term "liturgy" to describe the usual Sunday service containing the preaching of the word and the Lord's supper. He acknowledges the present value of many other different services (morning and evening prayer, daily office, evangelistic services and others) but concludes, "There are many services but one Liturgy,"^ Taylor believes that it is desirable to include the Lord's supper in each Sunday's service of worship; this concept and many of his ^Infra, pp. 388f. ^Infra, p. 389. 3 h,rinfra, p. 390. Infra, pp. 391 f. ^Michael Taylor, p. 1. ^Ibid., p. 3. 38 other contentions are based on his appeal to history.^ His key term to describe the purpose of worship is "tell the story," and he regards the 2minister to be the storyteller. Worship for him is an "interpretive tool" that helps to maintain the essential unity of the sacred and secular, "Let life invade the Liturgy," thus becomes an important theme for him,-''^ The minister should act as an enabler in worship with the primary task of involving the whole congregation in more significant 4levels of participation. James Floyd White, professor of worship at Perkins Theological Seminary in the United States, writes both from his own Methodist stand­ point and from his experience gained by his leadership and membership on several major ecumenical liturgical commissions. My sources in this thesis are five.of his books and two professional audio tapes of lectures given at the University of Toronto in 1978.^ In suggesting that White's main approach to worship is practical-theological, I do not use the word practical in any "how-to-do-it" sense. Rather, White constantly develops a theological-historlcal-pschological-sociological basis for worship that constitutes a very relevant background and that challenges worship scholars, ministers and worship committees to make their own sound practical liturgical decisions based on more solid foundations. In establishing these foundations he also suggests many practical methodologies, but maintains in the end: ^Infra, pp. 392f, ^Infra, pp. 393f. ^Infra, p. 396, \nfra, p. 397. •^ James F, White, Christian Worship In Transition; ________,Introduction to Christian Worship; _______ , Protestant Worship and ChurchArchitecture (New York, 1964); _____ , New Forms Of Worship; ________,The Worldliness Of Worship;_________,What do we Mean by Christian Worship?(Toronto, 1978, Audio Tape); , Worship in Time And Space (Toronto,1978, Audio Tape). 39 What I do want is for you to make up your mind what you understand Christian worship to he, I think this is your responsibility and you may very well come up with a definition far superior to any I have offered. . , Once you have a firm basis for making decisions, you are a lot more free than you ever were before.^ White speaks of worship primarily in terms of expectation, insight 2and response. Worship for him is action, and it is God who acts. The minister who presides at the service of worship has his authority both from his own personal identity and the scriptures; he should enable the members of the congregation to participate more fully in worship, White deplores aesthetic snobbery in worship and constantly reminds those who design worship to be more aware of the pluralistic nature of modern society.^ The positions among the four scholars represent a wide spectrum of thought as will soon become evident in the discussion that follows. The two extremes are manifest in von Allmen's radically biblical theology and Davies' persistent existentialist approach, Taylor and White display two different kinds of intermediate positions, each with its own type of balance between the poles that are evident in von Allmen and Davies. I have described their leading approaches as theological, sociological, historical and practical; these perspectives provide a useful background for considering the whole subject of worship in a community of faith. B, A Gomnarison of Some Background Theories The place of Christian worship in the ongoing life of the church in the world is an important place to begin, and is also a subject that raises contrasting positions among the scholars. Von Allmen appears to 1White, What do we Mean by Christian Worship?, audio tape. 2,Infra, p. 400. ^Infra, pp. 402f. ^Infra, p. 404. 40 hold the most divergent view with his insistence that we must maintain a distinction between the church and the world, and between the sacred and profane, primarily on eschatological grounds, not because of any 1docetic tendency, Noting that his critics cite the doctrine of the incarnation as the basis of their call for the unity of sacred and profane, he turns the same doctrine around with his eschatological view and uses it to support his contention that the two must be seen as distinctive, and he further accuses those who might disagree with him 2as setting up a theologia gloriae. He points out that the church has been placed between Pentecost and the parousia,-^ In such a setting, he maintains that the church must not lower its eschatological tension but must sustain its otherness in relationship to the world. Each of the other three scholars goes to great length to uphold the essential unity between the sacred and secular or holy and profane. While Davies refuses to acknowledge any proper use of the word "profane" itself, he does acknowledge a "distinction" between the sacred and the secular; the distinction, however, cannot lead to a separation because 4the one mediates the other. Similarly, Taylor, who also maintains the essential unity of sacred and secular, also notes that the two words may occasionally make "useful distinctions," even though the lines between the two are not only unclear but possibly nonexistent ultimately.^ White also upholds the unity of the sacred and secular and illustrates his position through biblical examples: the exodus and the crucifixion were secular events, interpreted as sacred through the eyes of faith of ^Infra, p. 382. ^Von Allmen, p, 38, ^Ibid., p, 59. ^Infra, pp. 386f. -^nfra, p, 395, 41 the writers,^ Apart from von Allmen's eschatological perspective, probably the key words that need to be identified as contributing somewhat to the confusion in this discussion are the words "separate" and "distinction." Since von Allmen also uses Davies' and Taylor's term "distinction" rather than "sepaiate," those three scholars (von Allmen, Davies and Taylor) all appear to have something in common. However, the degree to which von Allmen emphasizes the distinction between sacred and profane is clearly their major point of departure. Von Allmen also articulates a related concept about the distinction between the church's worship and the world; this too could lead to some confusion. On the one hand worship is the "splendid proof of love for the world," while on the other hand it represents a rupture between the church and the world, renouncing "the world and its pomp, the flesh and its desires." From his use of the words "world" and "flesh" in this context, he appears to be employing them with a hint of Greek philosophical 2dualism, Taylor, on the other hand, affirms that the whole natural world is fundamentally good, and that all our life can be regarded as an act of worship. Everything in the world is ultimately God's and in that way, everything can be regarded as sacred.^ Davies goes as far as to suggest that the "flesh" (refering specifically to sex in this example) can actually become "a sacramental means of meeting the holy,"^ His total position is the most diametrically opposed to von Allmen's distinction. White maintains consistently that there is an essential unity between the church's worship and life in the world.^ ^Infra, p. 399. ^Infra, p. 381. 3 4Infra, p. 395. Davies, Every Day God, p. l68. ■^ Infra, p. 400. 42 Upon reviewing this total discussion about the separation or distinction between sacred and secular (or profane), and between the church’s worship and life in the world, it appears to be unhelpful for clarity's sake to make the kinds of distinctions that von Allmen proposes. There are clearly too many avenues for misunderstanding opened by suggesting this distinction. White, Davies and Taylor maintain the essential unity of the secular and the sacred, the worship of the ichurch and life in the world. Connected with this discussion, Davies rejects the numinous as a meaningful category on the grounds that the numinous perpetrates a two world (supernatural and natural) view. He contends; "Worship is then understood as a bridge between these two worlds, as the means of 2access from the world of man to the realm of the divine," He illustrates the problem by referring to Isaiah's vision and noting how the numinous elements have become incorporated into some liturgies.^ While I agree with Davies' rejection of worship as a "bridge," I do not believe that the retention of some element of mystery, some "numinous" aspects (if that word is to be used) in worship and theology necessarily constitutes a two world separation view. John MacQuarrie, professor of divinity at Oxford, points out in the context of his discussion on God in the world: John MacQuarrie sums up some elements of this argument in these terms: "We cannot allow our world to be cut in two, calling one sphere secular and the other sacred. Somehow the Christian has to find a synthesis of the two. . . In other words, we must find God in the world." John MacQuarrie, God And Secularitv (London, 1968), p, 59. ^Op. cit., p. 251. Ibid., pp. 247f, Taylor, on the other hand, cites Isaiah's vision as a paiadigm about the essential meaning of worship. However, he makes no note whatever about the numinous elements of the story but gleans worship content suggestions from it; these are not two world concepts, Michael Taylor, pp. 20f, 43 "God is always more than our experience of him, and we cannot contain him in any of our categories,"^ It may he at this point that Davies' particular emphasis tends to go too far. One needs to be careful about reducing potential human experiences of God’s presence (the holy) to meet selected current rational understandings about the workings of the human mind and current empirical data about the natural world. The positive contribution of Davies’ argument is that the church needs to be clear that any theological discussion or any worship understanding of "numinous" elements must not stem from or lead to a two world concept. While von Allmen acknowledges that Christ is Lord of the cosmos, he rejects any "celebration" of the cosmos in worship. He carries this separation to the point of rejecting the inclusion of any "secular" 2holidays or events in the worship context, Davies, on the other hand, arguing from his understanding of the New Testament doctrine of the incarnation, steadfastly maintains that "the holy" is "always encountered in, with and under ordinary human experience," and begins virtually every description of worship in Every Day God with words like; "Worship is the celebration of life in the one world," He calls for Christians to adopt a "worldly holiness" in response to God's summons to serve in the world,White would appear to support Davies, calling for a more worldly worship and suggesting that idolatry (the worship of the wrong god) is the 4church's enemy, not secular!ty. Taylor, also writing in similar vein to Davies and White, suggests that we must "let life invade the Liturgy," to the end that Christ is encountered in worship by our dealing seriously with worldly affairs,^ Both White's and von Alimen's positions, however, ^Op. cit,, p. 65. ^Infra, pp. 385f. ^Infra, pp. 386f. ^Infra, p. 400, ■^nfra, p. 396 44 have an important warning in this connection. White calls on the church always to maintain the tension in worship that both affirms and criticizes our world. Von Allmen guards very jealously the orientation of worship towards the Creator and not the creation,^ Davies emphasizes very strongly the necessity of worship being seen as one piece with the rest of life; "It is not an interruption in 2secular living, but part and parcel of it." While both Taylor and White make the very same affirmation, they both speak about an element of "withdrawal" or "stepping aside" in worship. Taylor says that we need to stand back consciously from the usual routine in order to "uncover the sources of our inspiration and regain a sense of perspective," His suggestion that this "withdrawal" in worship could be compared with our withdrawal in sleep, a day off or a period of quiet reflection, seems to be a helpful analogy. He qualifies this line of thinking carefully by maintaining that it is a mistake to "go on to say that we need that kind of withdrawal and forgetfulness in order to be with God," ^ White contends that his element of discontinuity in worship is concerned only with helping persons perceive life on a deeper, more significant level. This is not a break in our living, he maintains, but an opportunity through worship to make us "more worldly by helping us encounter the world at a 4deeper level," I suggest that two examples from the scriptures would appear to lend support to White's and Taylor's contentions. The story of While I cannot accept the concept of separation suggested by von Allmen, his consistent orientation of worship towards God is vital. This does not for a moment suggest that Davies (or Taylor or White) would see worship in any sense as directed at the creation; they do not. However, Davies' constant highlighting of "worldly" worship sometimes tends to underemphasize worship's orientation towards God, ^Infra, p, 388. ^Infra, p. 394, 4Infra, p. 399. 45 Jesus' temptations is surely a story of engagement with life, its problems and temptations, at its deepest level; yet Jesus is reported as drawing apart into the desert to wrestle with that perspective. Later, Jesus' agony in the garden on the night of his betrayal was central to his life experiences, but the evangelist says he withdrew to pray. "Father," he said, "if you will, take this cup of suffering away from me. Not my will, however, but your will be done," In great anguish he prayed even more fervently; his sweat was like drops of blood falling to the ground (Luke 22: 42, 44), Jesus' stepping aside was not an interruption, but another level of engagement. He moved on from there to meet the worst circumstances of life and death already empowered by the experience of those intense devotions. Such engagement in worship is not a flight from the world but a means of being with oneself and the world at a more profound level. Surely these kinds of experiences are what Taylor and White have in mind when White ventures: "Far from being other-worldly, it leads to deeper and fuller engagement with the world, now glimpsed as the arena of God's action,"^ From this brief exploration, then, it does not appear that Taylor or White have any fundamental argument with Davies' contention that worship must not be an interruption in secular living. Within this context of ongoing human life, Taylor's and White's stepping aside notions, have the effect of highlighting the special importance of worship in life. The final matter that I present in this comparison of selected background theories to worship has to do with direction. The basic question seems to be: To what extent is worship directed to God and to what extent is it directed at the worshiper? Von Allmen poses the question slightly differently by asking: "For to whom is the cult addressed? to God or to the world?" Affirming that it is addressed to God, he deplores any confusion of the church's "mediatorial function," 1White, New Forms Of Worship, pp, 40f, 46 or its task of evangelism and service, with its celebration of woi^ ship. He does, however, acknowledge the "usefulness of the cult" for educational, sociological and psychological purposes.^ Still in the end, worship’s primary function is to orient the church towards God; the cult is valuable for its own sake. He says that it is not in worship but alongside worship 2that the church should pursue its responsibilities in the world. Because Davies' central arguments in Every Day God are concerned with persons' discovering the holy in the secular, it could at first appear as if Davies would speak of worship's direction primarily in terms of human discovery. He does indeed acknowledge that direction by maintaining, for example, that worship may be understood as fostering interpersonal relations and functioning in terms of personalization and community identity. He also speaks of worship's potential for providing a stabilizing influence in persons' lives. However, he regularly points out that worship is our "response to what God has done and is doing"; Christian worship is a recalling of the action of Christ; it is a communion with God,^ Davies places first the direction of worship towards God in New Perspectives for Worship Today. It does not appear likely, though, that he would agree with von Allmen's placing worship "alongside" the church's responsibilities in the world; for Davies, worship would be part and parcel of those responsibilities, Taylor accepts the value of some subjectivism in worship. He notes in particular how some hymns tend to concentrate on human needs and aspirations as opposed to focusing upon God, He contends that this subjective element needs to be counterbalanced by the central emphasis of worship being on the story. While the liturgy can indeed be regarded ^Infra, p. 381. ^Op cit., p. 79. %nfra, p. 388. 47 as a source of well-being, its central concern is with proclaiming that Jesus has a "supreme worth or significance for our lives, In a number of contexts, White discusses the question of persons' "getting something out of worship," While worship is primarily directed towards God, there are also legitimate benefits for the worshiper. His discussion of worship as "the glorification of God and the sanctification 2of man," points up the interdependence of the two directions in worship. It appears in the end, that all four scholars see worship first of all as addressed to God, but all acknowledge several very legitimate benefits for those who worship, G, Towards a Definition Of Worship Jesus Christ and the events concerning his life, death, resurrec­ tion and call to mission are at the heart of worship for all four scholars. Von Allmen suggests that Jesus' whole life can be seen as a liturgical process,^ Davies says that "Christian worship recalls the action of Christ and affirms the gospel as the basis of reality,"^ Taylor maintains that through doing the liturgy, Christians affirm that "Jesus of Nazareth and the events concerning him have supreme worth or significance for their l iv es.White calls worship our most appropriate and natural response to God who acts supremely in the Christ event to reconcile the world to himself.^ That affirmation for all four scholars constitutes ^Infra, pp. 394f. ^Infra, pp. 401f. %nfra, p. 38O, ^Infra, p. 388. •^ Infra, p. 394. ^hite. The Worldliness of Worship, pp, I5, 53. 48 the cornerstone upon which they would base any subsequent definition of worship. Building upon that foundation, von Allmen describes worship in terms of summing up the history of salvation. Worship for him is a recapitulation of saving history.^ White also speaks of worship's providing "the.olderly rehearsal of the events of the past and the 2structures of the present," He prefers the terms "rediscovery" or "reconsideration" to von Allmen's term, "recapitulation," White also contends, with von Allmen, that through worship people may relive for 3themselves "the history of salvation," White, however, does not speak of worship apart from human response; basically our response to God's love is praise, thanksgiving and offering ourselves for Christ's 4service. Taylor simply refers to the central purpose of worship as "telling the story," Closely connected with this is encounter with God (by no means automatic), renewal for mission and self-offering.^ Davies speaks of worship primarily as celebrating life joyfully in God's one world in his book Every Day God; in New Perspectives on Worship Today, he begins with the affirmation that worship is a response to God and a communion with him. He also acknowledges that worship involves recalling Christ's work. In the second book, he notes too the importance of sharpening our perspective, providing meaning and fostering interpersonal relations.^ This sociological perspective sets his background statement ^Infra, p. 380, ^Infra, p. 399. ^Infra, p. 400, 4While von Allmen also points out clearly that through worship the church becomes conscious of itself as a diaconal and missionary community (pp, 50f), his emphasis upon recapitulation tends to place the church's response to worship as a secondary consideration. ■^ Infra, p. 394, ^Infra, p. 388. 49 apart from the other three who all begin with the scriptures: von Allmen in recapitulation, White in rediscovery or reconsideration and Taylor in telling the story.^ All four scholars indicate that Christian worship is in response to God's actions, Geddes MacGregor, originally a Church of Scotland minister, now dean of the Episcopal cathedral in Los Angeles and professor of the philosophy of religion in Los Angeles University, also emphasizes strongly the element of response in worship and further maintains that 2Christian worship is not a quest for God, Evelyn Underhill, an Anglican and once a fellow of King's College, London, in her classic work on worship, begins with the simple affirmation: "Worship, in all its grades and kinds, is the response of the creature to the eternal."^ In similar language, James Christensen, an American Presbyterian minister who has written several books on worship, defines worship: "Worship is man's loving response to God's personal revelation in Jesus Christ."^ This theme of "revelation and response" appears to be common to a great number of definitions of worship. In brief summary at this point, there are three basic elements common to all four scholars (implicit or explicit) that underlie their definitions of worship: 1, the central importance of Jesus Christ; While Davies may not make any express reference to the place of the scriptures in his discussion of the purpose of worship in any partial definitions of worship, he assumes the "lections" as an integral part of each service of worship, Davies, Hew Perspectives on Worship Today, p, 92, ^Geddes MacGregor, The Rhythm Of God (New York, 1974), p, 107. Evelyn Underhill makes a similar point; "the easy talk of the pious naturalist about man's approach to God, is both irrational— indeed plainly impudent— and irreverent; unless the priority of God's approach to man be kept in mind." Underhill, p. 7, 3Op cit., p. 3. ^James Christensen, Don't Waste Your Time In Worship (Old Tappan, New Jersey,, 1978), p, 30, 50 2 o the value of the scriptures as a basic source of our understanding the work of God in the world; and, 3» the affirmation that worship is humanity's response to God's initiative. With this background, it is now possible to compare their four "definitions" of worship. Von Allmen comes closest to a full definition of worship in this statement; The cult sums up and confirms ever afresh the process of saving history which has reached its culminating point in the intervention of Christ in human history, and through this summing-up and ever- repeated confirmation Christ pursues his saving work by the operation of the Holy Spirit,^ Central to this definition is the concept that "salvation history" continues in worship. Worship is a summarizing of God's process of salvation, I agree with White who comments on von Allmen's definition; "For von Allmen, salvation history seems to be the equivalent of the biblical accounts of God's saving acts, , , Worship, then, is the orecapitulation of the biblical events," I suggest that the combination of the following two quotations from Davies represents his most essential elements in worship; Worship is a response to God and a communion with him; worship is a sensitizing medium that sharpens our perception of God and so assists us to recognize him in and through the world; worship is then celebration of life in the one world; it is a coming to awareness of the response to the holy in and through that which is human and secular,^ In addition, it should be noted that Davies lays stress on the importance of personal face-to-face encounters and the building of community through worship. There are several key elements in Davies’ description of worship; response, communion with God, in-depth understanding, celebration, unified ^Infra, p. 38O. ^hite, What do we Mean by Christian Worshiu?. audio tape. ^Infra, p. 388, 51 life view and fellowship with others,^ This is clearly a very different approach from von Allmen’s. When Davies uses the word "salvation," he tends to speak of it in terms of the "restoration of wholeness" for persons in society at large; he does not use the term, "salvation 2history," While von Allmen’s definition is much narrower in scope, he would acknowledge in other contexts at least some additional elements from Davies, such as communion with God, in-depth understanding and fellowship with others, Davies also refers to worship as a "sensitizing medium that sharpens our perception"; this is very much like White's "approach reality at its deepest level," Taylor does not offer any summary of concepts that could lead one to suggest an actual definition of worship. Rather, his key elements are; Worship is telling the story and affirming the significance of Jesus; it is an experience of encounter, renewal and commitment,^ His central "telling the story" theme is quite consistent with von Allmen's recapitulation, interpreted as noted above, "recapitulation, of the biblical events," Taylor, like White, qualifies that the 4biblical story is "our interpretation" of those events. Taylor also notes that the "encounter" element is by no means automatic; similarly, von Allmen points out that the church is not the dispenser of God's presence in worship,-^ Taylor's "renewal" and "commitment" elements ^Infra, pp. 388f. 2Davies, Every Day God, pp. 21Off, 324. This comment does not mean to infer that von Allmen speaks of an individualistic concept of salvation; he too speaks in terms of the salvation of the world. (Von Allmen, pp, 75f). ^nfra, p, 394. ^Infra, pp. 394 , 400f. A/’on Allmen, p. 28. 52 are implicit in all three other scholars' definitions or their discussion of the essence of worship. White offers a very definite definition of worship, although he always maintains the word "tentative" with his definition; In worship, we come together, deliberately seeking to approach reality at its deepest level by becoming aware of God in and through Jesus Christ and by responding to this awareness. Several components of this definition have been discussed above where they had common elements with the other scholars. White summarizes his own definition with the words, "expectation, insight and response," going as far as to contend that these three elements must be present in a worship experience if he were to label it, "Christian worship,"^ There are many appealing aspects of White's definition for me; it is both succinct and comprehensive. "Coming together,” includes the whole wor­ shiping community; "deliberately seeking," implies volition, our action; "seeking to approach reality at its deepest level by becoming aware of God in and through Jesus Christ," unites the concepts of secular and sacred, such a key element in White, Davies and Taylor; "responding to this awareness," completes the action of the initiative by God and the response by the worshiper. My personal reservation about White's definition is his phrase, "by becoming aware of God." This does not stand well alone in the definition, but needs to be read in conjunction with his detailed discussion about worship as an opportunity for in- depth understanding. Standing solitarily in the definition, it could well lead to the criticism that surely we come to worship because we are already aware of God revealed in Jesus Christ. This is clearly an unfortunate problem in contextual wording rather than a weakness in theology. 1 ?Infra, pp. 400f. Infra, 53 Reviewing the background and components of all four scholars’ definitions, the following features appear to be the most prominent aspects of worship: 1. recounting the events about Jesus Christ is central; 2, the scriptures are basic; 3. worship is a human response to God's initiative as we understand it; 4. the whole Christian community is involved; 5. & deeper understanding and/or experience of God and God's presence in the world may be possible in worship; 6, there is an opportunity for human response or commitment; and, 7. (from Davies alone), worship is the celebration of life in God’s one world. At this point in the thesis I will leave the definition of worship in this seven point summary form. Following a consideration of Christian education in chapter three and a study of faith development in chapter four, I propose my own tentative definition of worship, together with other criteria for the community of faith in chapter five,^ D. Components of The Liturgy While Taylor acknowledges that there are two major parts to the usual Sunday liturgy, the service of the word and the sacrament of the Lord's supper, it is von Allmen alone among the four scholars who makes a clear division between the two parts: the mass of the catechumens and 2the mass of the faithful. In Davies' books that I have used, he speaks of prayers, Bible readings, sermon, communion and even dialogue as potential components of the liturgy, but he does not deal with the question of what constitutes a complete service of Christian worship. White calls the service of the word alone, the "usual" Sunday liturgy in many Protestant or Reformed Churches,^ ^Infra, pp. 192, 198f, ^Infra, pp. 38O, 392j %nfra, p. 401. 54 Von Allmen insists that the inclusion of weekly communion is the only valid form of worship, maintaining that "the abandonment of it is the abandonment of the very substance of the cult," and that the communion Iand the service of the word must always be celebrated together. He cites especially the writings of Karl Barth to add weight to his 2contention. Although von Allmen makes a very strong case for the value of a regular celebration of the Lord's supper, his arguments that it 3must be conducted every Sunday seem to be lacking. 1. To accept that Christ instituted the supper does not force us to any conclusion that it must therefore be conducted every Sunday. 2. His claim that the communion corresponds to the Jerusalemite phase of Christ's ministry, and that worship without communion would be like the ministry of Jesus without Good Friday, raises other questions. Cannot the service of the word enable the church to "recapitulate" the experiences of Good Friday, Easter or Pentecost? Do we really have to reenact the whole "history of salvation" from start to finish every Sunday?^ 3, Von Allmen's third argument, that the supper enables the church to mark objectively the difference between the church and the world, only raises additional serious problems both about his distinction between the church's worship and the world and about his insisting that the congregation needs to separate the baptized from the unbaptized; it does not in any case provide an answer to the question of why the eucharist is essential to worship every single Sunday. Finally, his answer to the "embarrassing "Infra, pp. 383f. ^Von Allmen, pp, 155f, ^nfra, p, 383. ^James A, Whyte, Discerning the Snirlt In Worship (St. Andrews,1978), p, 9. 55 question" about what "more" is given in communion is also seriously lacking. He argues that, "those who accept the invitation can show that they accept it, , , the existential communion for which God waits can ibe manifested," This aspect of his argument seems to imply that the really significant response of a Christian to worship is receiving the elements of communion. It fails to take seriously many other kinds of Christian response to worship which may occur during the liturgy itself or may carry on after the person leaves the church building and lives in "doxological living," as White would call it,^ On historical grounds, Taylor strongly favours the inclusion of the Lord's supper in every Sunday's worship. He acknowledges value in other types of worship, but clarifies: "What is being suggested is that the Liturgy has a unique and central place, Davies and White speak about the rich significance of the Lord's I Isupper apart from any obvious need to "sell" it to the church, Davies suggests that co-diners are bound closer together and to the holy. It can become a pattern of self-sacrifice for the Christian. The supper can be a "celebration of freedom" due to Christ's resurrection and redemption, White adds that its special value is in recalling especially the climactic events of Christ's life; "Christ gives himself again to us enabling us to give oui^elves to others,"^ These terms are very much ^Infra, pp. 383f. ^Infra, p. ^00. 3Op cit., p. 3» Note that Taylor refers only to the ser\'ice with word and communion as "the liturgy." ^Unfortunately some of von Allmen's positive points about communion are almost lost in his incessant harrangue about the frequency of communion, culminating in his detailed plan for weekly implementation over the arguments and opposition of church members. See, von Allmen, p. 313. ■^nfra, pp. 388f. ^Infra, p. ^01. 56 like von Allmen's, Like Davies, White points out the bonding potential between members and between members and God. There is something very "direct and personal" in the way Christ gives himself to us in the sacrament, says White, Clearly all four scholars wish to describe the significance of the Lord's supper in the highest possible terms. This special importance has also been highlighted by the Church of Scotland and the United Church of Canada, neither of which denominations' congregations normally celebrate communion weekly. The most recent edition of the Book of Common Order of the Church of Scotland apologizes for giving the usual Sunday service a negative name, "Morning Service Where Holy Communion is Not Celebrated." Describing the name as, "perhaps unfortunate," the introduction continues; The positive thing that has to be said is that Church of Scotland worship as it developed since the Reformation has evinced a profound appreciation of the word of God, and in the reading and preaching and hearing of that word Scotland has had rich experience of the Holy Spirit. The committee believes that the experience is richest where worship is ordered according to the eucharistie pattern. The United Church of Canada's Service Book for the Use Of Ministers calls the usual Sunday service, "Public Worship," Like the Church of Scotland, the introduction to the service suggests that the service with communion ought to form the guideline for the structure, Throughout most of the history of the Christian church a basic principle has governed the structure of public worship. The principle is simply that sermon and supper belong together as a full diet of public worship. Where it is not possible to celebrate the Lord's supper every week, the principle, nonetheless governs the structure,-^ ^Infra, p. 402. 2Church of Scotland, The Book of Common Order (Edinburgh, 1979),p, Vlll. United Church of Canada, Service Book for the Use Of Ministers (Toronto, 1969), p. 76. 57 From the writings of the four scholars and the two denominations, a variety of historical, liturgical and theological principles are articulated in support of giving the Lord's supper a very high profile indeed in the life of the church. Von Allmen suggests from his perspective that the sermon, a key feature in the "Galilean" phase of worship, helps to bring the church into intimate contact with the world.^ Although Davies, Taylor and White would make that same statement about every aspect of worship, they would acknowledge the potential inherent in the sermon for a special and specific application of the lections to current concerns. Von Allmen ventures further, from his eschatological view, that the Lord's supper (attesting to the presence of heavenly joy) nourishes hope, whereas the sermon, rooted in the present, "calls for faith and nourishes faith," His basis for making this distinction stems from'his prior statement, "that preaching is necessary to worship because the kingdom of God has 2not yet come with power," Preaching will not be necessary in the Kingdom, he adds. At the present time, however, the people of God need nourishment in faith, and the sermon is uniquely qualified to do just that; it should help console, set to rights, reform and question,^ There is an appealing side to this argument by von Allmen, It helps balance the ever present danger of our overemphasizing the concept of the unity of sacred and secular to the point that persons are left with the impression that everything in the world is already "holy" because of the incarnation. Davies' promotion of conflict in worship, Taylor's call for critical detachment, and White’s warning about the comfort and quiet stability of the church are all examples of their attempts to maintain ^Infra, p. 383, ^Op, cit., p. 146, ^Infra, p, 383. 58 this important perspective also. However, von Allmen's very pointed argument may he the most effective. The preaching part of the service of the word indeed appears to have special potential to challenge people and to nourish faith,^ White puts a special emphasis on the components of the service of the word since this is the norm for most Protestant churches' worship Sunday by Sunday, He identifies several important elements but makes it clear that nothing can replace "the memories upon which the community's 2life together is based." While this is fundamental for von Allmen and central also to Taylor, Davies does not always make his position as clear. So many of Davies'examples have to do with life experience and the employment of various media, it is difficult to determine what weight he gives to the use of the scriptures themselves in worship. Assuming that his less frequent references to the use of the scriptures in the liturgy imply their inclusion by his Anglican tradition, both Taylor and White also suggest with him that these community "memories" may on occasion be communicated by drama, dance, singing or other media. Davies proposes quite a variety of media in New Perspectives on Worship Today; Taylor and White point out the potential of such methods while both 4indicate their personal conservative stance. Von Allmen, clearly. I would question, however, von Allmen’s contention that the supper supports hope and the sermon faith. It seems altogether too neat; surely both phases have the potential of nourishing faith, hope and love.See infra, p. 383, ^Infra, p. 401. ^Infra, pp. 39I, 397, 401, 4o4. 4John Killinger, professor of worship at Vanderbilt Divinity School in Tennessee, a Gongregationalist, has written several books on worship along the same style as Davies' New Perspective on Worship Today.For the theoretical background and some practical application, see;Killinger, Leave it to The Spirit; for actual worship and sermon suggestions, see; Killinger, The 11 O'clock News. The heart of his argument, very much like Davies' is "When God is identified so closely with certain patterns of liturgy that his worship is imperiled by altering the patterns, then 59 would have nothing to do with such media: both phases of the service are set, reading the scriptures in solemn tones is the norm, and preaching is proclamation. These four scholars leave a community of faith an interesting variety of approaches and methods from which to choose according to taste, Taylor, White and von Allmen make particular reference to the value of the church year as a component in congregational worship. Taylor sees it as essential to assure that the story is told through a carefully worked out scheme.^ For White, the church year is both proclamation and thanksgiving. It covers systematically the great themes of the faith 2and provides unlimited variety, Taylor carries his doctrine of the unity of sacred and secular beyond White by advocating that the secular calendar and the church year should interpenetrate one another,-'^ Davies would most certainly support this suggestion, I would also agree with Taylor’s concept and point out that there are indeed significant times in national and social life when the lives of church members can be enriched and they can be challenged to take a living faith into their homes, clubs, places of work and recreation: harvest thanksgiving, Remembrance Sunday, the new year, church anniversary and possibly other days may be celebrated with a special significance. Von Allmen would not support any celebration of "non church" events through worship.^ I will conclude this section on components of the liturgy with the patterns have clearly usurped the place of God in our thinking, . , we could experience God in new ways and in meaningful combinations with data of our own cultural situation," Ibid., p. 14, ^Infra, p. 398, ^Infra, p. 4o4. ^Infra, p. 396. 4Karl Barth also does not believe that any secular events should be celebrated or even mentioned in worship services. Barth, p. 101.See infra, pp. 385f. 60 two very helpful statements by Taylor and von Allmen about the church year. Taylor points out how the provided scriptures set alongside our present situation may stimulate us to "see visions and dream dreams" beyond our usual area of awareness. He says that the lectionary reminds us "of the giveness of the faith. It is not merely the product of our own reflections on our own experiences." Indeed this objective note by Taylor needs to be remembered. On the other hand, von Allmen acknowledges value in the church year, but notes further that it need not monopolize 2the fifty-two weeks of the year. There may be other matters more pressing at a particular time when different scriptures would be chosen for the service of worship.^ E. The Peonle of a Worshiping Community Among the four scholars, Davies provides the most detailed profile of the sociological constitution of the worshiping community. He doubts the viability of the parish system of an earlier age; few congregations bear much resemblance to the territorial units for which they may bear 4responsibility. Most people belong to a multiplicity of "communities" based on home location, work, education, place of worship and other considerations, Taylor also describes the modern congregation in terms very much like those outlined by Davies.-^ Davies, writing along similar lines to scholars like Reuel Howe, maintains that "I-Thou" relations ^Infra, p, 398. ^nfra, p, 3&5. 3Note, however, von AlHrnen's more narrow application of this concept; infra,, p. 385. ^Infra, p. 389; see MacGregor, p. 9. -^ Op, cit., pp. 115f. 61 among congregational members are essential to promote "encounter with the holy,"^ However, it is quite possible for scholars like Davies and Howe, who have adapted Martin Buber's "I-Thou" philosophy, to press this 2existentialist relationship theology too far. Harvey Cox, for example, contends that Buber never expected all relationships to be of this type; in reality there will be many "I-You" relationships. These contacts can be more casual, but it does not mean they are depersonalized.-'^ Having registered this caveat, it is now possible to consider further Davies' proposal that the ideal worshiping community should become a "community of communities" in order to promote the closest possible Llpersonal relations. Davies' concept of small face-to-face groups (where persons choose to belong on the basis of age, class or interest), worshiping and working together, indeed appears to offer one possible avenue of approach in some congregations.*^ It needs to be recognized, however, that in the current pluriform society, some persons will choose only to participate in the congregational worship or other major programs of the whole congregation. Probably the most significant contribution of Davies' study in this regard is his recognition of the need for closer personal relations in a community of worship and his very practical ^See Howe, Man's Need and God's Action, pp. 75» 94f, 112, ll4f. 2See discussion in, William Williamson, Language and Concepts in Christian Education (Philadelphia, 1970), p. 78. ^See Cox, The Secular City, pp. 44, 49. 4This same concept has been operative for some years in the Church of the Saviour in Washington, D.C.; see Elizabeth 0"Connor, Journey Inward; Journey Outward (New York, I968), pp. 28-38, -^ Infra, p. 389. 62 suggestions of one way a congregation could approach the matter. In several contexts, von Allmen insists that "peripheral" worshipers must be separated from "the faithful" before weekly communion is conducted in the congregation's worship service,^ His further suggestion that our failure to separate the community along these lines could approximate Jesus' illustration of casting pearls before swine, could be offensive to the general temperament of people in the Church of Scotland, the United 2Church of Canada and many other denominations. While that practice may be acceptable to some European Reformed Churches, it would likely be regarded as quite destructive to the whole understanding of a worshiping community in many other Chuirches. In the more liturgically integrated communion services of the Church of Scotland and the United Church of Canada, there is no break for non-members to leave the fellowship. In the Church of Scotland, a typical invitation to the whole congregation would be: The table of our Lord Jesus Christ is open to all who are in com­munion with the church universal. We therefore invite members of any branch thereof who love the Lord Jesus Christ sincerely, to join with us in this holy fellowship,^ Similarly, in the United Church of Canada, the following invitation may be extended to everyone present: In the name of Jesus Christ I invite all who profess him as Lord and Saviour, and are seeking to follow in his way and to live in unity one with the other, to come to this table with reverence, faith and thanksgivig.g, , . remembering that we, although many, are one body in him. While both of these invitations state or imply "members,"* there are regularly present persons with long-standing ties to the church who may ^Infra, p. 382. ^Infra, 3Church of Scotland, p. 20. ^United Church of Canada, p. 8, 63 not have been baptized or may not be members of any church, yet who may choose to participate in the communion because it has a special meaning for them. The "public" aspect of worship and the importance of the essential unity among people in the wider worshiping community are still cherished generally in our Churches above von Allmen's contention, on his particular theological grounds, that people should be separated before the Lord's supper (or indeed before the creed or the Lord's prayer), Although Taylor and White, in commenting on specific historical contexts, make passing reference to the separation of the catechumens at communion, the other three scholars generally neither advocate nor deny the type of separation proposed by von Allmen; it does not appear to be a major issue for them. It is interesting to note the variety of opinions among the four scholars on the place of children at the community's worship service. Von Allmen, as a logical extension of his high doctrine of baptism, insists that all baptized children should have full access to the whole Iliturgy, including the right to communicate, Taylor supports this position also, and contends that practical objections about children at communion probably loom larger than theological ones; children may get bored in worship and therefore if they are to participate, they 2require a meaningful, active role. On another side of the question, White speaks purely from a sociological perspective and asks why we expect children to mix with adults in worship, all sharing "one menu," when children and adults are in peer groups in almost every other setting,^ This position appears to correspond very closely to Davies' contention that it is natural for people to separate on age lines into smaller ^Infra, pp, 384f, ^Infra, pp, 397f. %nfra, pp, 4o4f. 64 face-to-face groups; Davies does not speak specifically of the separation tor inclusion of children. My further discussion here in chapter two on people in the worshiping community neither assumes nor precludes the presence of children at worship. Three of the four scholars make frequent reference to the unique role of the minister in the community's services of worship. Von Allmen's doctrine of the ministry emphasizes especially the responsi- 2hility of the minister for the ordering of worship in the community. Taylor, describing the minister primarily in terms of "enabler," accentuates the minister's role as a resource person who is ordained to enable the people to conduct the major part of the worship service 3themselves. White appears to favour a style of ministry that is "unauthoritarian in format, low definition in style, and dialogic in character"; the minister may coordinate worship efforts of the con- 4gregation and present them in the Sunday service. Taylor makes an appealing case for the minister's sharing with members of the congregation in group discussions on the sermon topic prior to writing and delivering the sermon itself. He is very realistic about the amount of time a minister could expect members of the congregation to spend in this work. White also proposes the involvement of people in planning worship. He contends further that worship services planned and conducted by ministers without reference to the general membership, providing "what we thought was good for people," may have been a contributing factor in numbers of ^This whole question of the inclusion or separation of children for communion is discussed further in other contexts; see infra, pp. I85ff,222f, 271, 276, 370. ^Infra, p. 384. ^Infra, p. 396. ^Infra, pp. 402f. -^nfra, p. 397. 65 Ipersons’ ceasing to attend worship. Although von Allmen maintains a fairly high doctrine of ministry, he also insists that the church should 2move more and more to declericalize worship. This sentiment is clearly shared by Taylor and White. While Davies does not speak specifically about the role of the minister, he discusses the value of dialogue or other congregational participation in the service itself and also proposes on occasion that membeis of the congregation should assist in seimon preparation (particularly in reference to politically sensitive issues), to avoid manipulation by the person who preaches.^ Gongre^tional participation in worship is p2X>minent in the writings of all four scholars. Von Allmen generally sees this participa­ tion along fairly traditional lines: listening to the word, sharing in communion, saying Amens to prayers, reciting the creed, singing hymns, making offerings and participating in congregational responses to 4liturgical formulae. While his suggestion that lay people should be invited to offer prayers publicly in worship if the minister uses free prayer at first appears to be rather revolutionary for his general stance, it must be read in context.^ Davies calls for a meaningful participation by the whole congregation in worship; he dislikes the "audience-actor" syndrome that has developed increasingly since the Middle Ages, He proposes, beyond the traditional type of participation suggested by von Allmen, that each person could bring some special ^Infra, p. 403. ^Infra, p. 384. ^nfra, p. 391, See further discussion on avoiding or dealing with manipulation in worship in Killinger, Leave it to The Spirit, pp. 75ff, ^Infra, p. 384. •^on Allmen does not encourage ministers to employ free prayer, and while his suggestion about lay people seems to be genuine, it also contains a veiled threat to ministers who persist in using free prayer.See infra, p. 384. 66 contribution to the service,^ While this may be practical in the small face-to-face groups that he proposes, it would generally not be workable in larger liturgical assemblies. His contention that: "Worship begins with human beings and not with books," is an important perspective to 2keep in mind. Taylor's appeal to history leads him to conclude that "all-join­ in'' would be a desirable liturgical stance again today. Beyond the more usual places for congregational participation, he suggests that lay people make announcements, and everyone be encouraged to read the scriptures together on occasion.He proposes a break during the service for people to visit with one another; this is a unique suggestion among the four scholars although it is a familiar practice in several North 4American churches. White offers a list of items for congregational participation that is almost identical to von Allmen's, He further suggests that opportunities be provided for people to move about more during worship.-^ It is fair to say that all four scholars call for much increased participation by lay people in worship, Davies and White appear to echo the sentiments of all four in their summary type comments: Participation may be risky and difficult to achieve, but Christ summons us to adventure in worship; let us recover the amateur status of worship which will be based on a proper doctrine of the church consisting of both laity and clergy together.^ ^Infra, p. 390, ^Infra. ^Infra, p. 397. ^Infra. -^ Infra, p. 403. ^nfra pp. 390» 403. 67 F, Other Worship Considerations Davies spends considerable time discussing the promotion of some conflict into services of worship. Noting that conflict need not be seen in terms of aggression or hatred., he suggests that it can become a change agent. If the church is to identify with the poor and to follow 2Jesus in the world, this will involve some conflict in the church's life. Related to this, Davies maintains that political considerations, as a normal and important aspect of living, need to be introduced into worship services. In prayer and thanksgiving we should be committing our lives to action in the areas about #iich we pray.^ Von Allmen would probably not approve of topical material on politics being introduced into worship apart from that which arises out of the lections, however, like Davies, he also recognizes the important role of worship in inspiring people for political and social life. He maintains that worship is vital to the 4preservation of peace, freedom and justice in the world. White suggests that worship should become a means of rejoicing with suffering humanity and not serve only as "a cozy way of affirming our comfort and security," He also contends that social action and worship and politics go hand in hand.^ Taylor speaks of sermon and prayers dealing with "the concrete realities of life,"^ without making specific reference to conflict, politics or social concerns. However, he spends considerable time ^Infra, p. 390. 2The Committee on Christian Faith of the United Church of Canada emphasizes this point also, and points out that "Jesus had to choose notto be for the Pharisees in order to be for the tax-collectors andoutcasts." Further the report contends that worship is the place where we are helped to view our total life in a larger perspective. There is "something profoundly conservative and yet profoundly revolutionary expressed in the act of worship." lockhead, pp. 7, 44. %nfra, pp. 390f. ^Infra, p. 385. ^Infra, p. 405. ^Op. cit., p. 110. 68 proposing an alternative style of worship where a congregation actually takes its liturgy out into the factories and other arenas of public life,^ All four scholars, in different ways and in varying degrees, recognize the potential for some element of conflict in worship and for worship's dealing with the political and social realities of our world. Three of the scholars speak of the missionary responsibility of 2the church as a worshiping community. Von Allmen calls the church a diaconal and a missionary community empowered by worship.^ Davies makes the very interesting contention that this community needs to see both its worship and its mission in the same centrifugal terms. Church services for Davies must not be conceived as "halting places m via nor as iron 4rations on the way; they are an essential part of being on the way." Taylor makes a similar point, suggesting that if we seriously follow Christ's leading, we will "find our own sense of direction and so forge an essential link between the church's liturgical action and its mission­ ary activity."^ Davies continues his discussion, contending that we cannot divorce mission and worship since worship is always a two-way relationship between persons and the world and persons and God.^ This latter statement is very much along the lines of von Allmen's diastole 7and systole argument. Davies, however, offers a very important word of 4bid,, pp. 115-119. 2While White does not speak specifically of the combination of mission and worship in terms similar to those of the other three scholars, he does acknowledge the close relationship of the two. In one setting he writes; "The offering of oneself in mission to others is an important response in worship." White, New Forms of Worship, p. 43. %nfra, p. 386. ^Infra, p. 392. % p cit., p. 108. ^Infra, p. 392. 7Von Allmen uses this medical heart terminology to illustrate the two-way orientation of the church toward God and the world; see infra, p. 381. 69 caution about all this discussion of worship's promoting conflict, dealing with politics and challenging people with mission responsibility. People require a balance in their lives, and worship should also be instrumental in providing "stability zones" to help people cope with life.^ In terms of the adage, Davies’ words are a reminder that the church's worship should not only "afflict the comfortable," it must also "comfort the afflicted." White, von Allmen and Taylor recognize and identify some Christian education components that arise out of worship; Davies proposes the use of some Christian education methods in worship that are not commonly 2found in the liturgy. White's contention that both worship and Christian education are essential for "Christian formation" appears to point in a helpful direction,^ His description of the difference between Christian education and worship will be considered in chapter five. Both White and Taylor note the educational and liturgical value of members of the 4congregation sharing with the minister in preparation for worship. Von Allmen, more than any of the other scholars, is quite willing to call worship, "pre-eminently the school of Christianity,"^ This emphasis appears to correspond roughly to White's point about "Christian formation." Von Allmen sees the cult as a training ground for catechesis and regards the service of the word portion of the liturgy practically in educational terms.^ White would contend, however, that worship is primarily represen­ tation of what we already know and repeatedly forget, whereas Christian 7education may deal with new learning and in quite a different format. ^Infra, p. 390, ^Infra, pp. 389f, 391. 3 4-^ Infra, p. 403. Infra, pp. 403, 397f, -^ Infra, p. 385. ^Infra. "^ Infra, p. 403. 70 Taylor recognizes that there is the potential for a significant educational experience through the liturgy, although he reminds that neither preaching nor worship generally are primarily educational in nature,^ From carefully reading the four scholars' books, one gains some impression of the degree of solemnity or joy that one could expect in a service of worship conducted according to their outlook. Von Allmen's narrow musical taste, coupled with his admonition about solemn tones for reading, proclamation in preaching and his general call for everything to be done decently and in order, leaves one with the feeling of a very formal 2and solemn liturgy. White, who deplores an "aesthetic snobbery" in church music, who insists that music needs to be judged in terms of people and not people in terms of the music they prefer, and who asks, "Where is the element of joy in worship?" leaves one with the impression of a quiet, yet dignified joy invading the worship service.^ Davies' description of worship as "celebration of life," and his accent upon dance, play and laughter as potential elements of worship, tends to leave a buoyant feeling of worship, quite the opposite of that described by von Allmen.^ Taylor's historical reminders about gaiety in worship, and his general description of potential media for worship, promote a reaction similar to that of Davies just slightly more subdued.-^ It seems important for a congregation to maintain a sensitive balance between seriousness and joy that are both very significant elements of the Christian gospel. Surely there must be room for humour and earnestness together! White suggests ways for the church to respond to the pluralistic ^Infra, p. 395. ^Infra, pp. 385f. ^Infra, p. 404. ^Infra, pp. 391 f. ■^ Infra, p. 393. 71 society. He offers proposals about eclectic, occasional or multiple services that should meet the needs of most congregations.^ Von Allmen provides a proposed timetable for the gradual introduction of new concepts into a congregation; this fits well into White's scheme. It indeed appears to be possible for the needs and tastes of many people to be met by an imaginative and caring worship community.-^ Both von Allmen and White regard Christian worship as the most basic and important component in the life of a community of faith. It is out of the worship life of the church that all other concerns grow.^ While Taylor and Davies do not speak specifically about worship as providing the criteria for all other parts of congregational life, their writings reflect that they also would regard worship as pivotal. Each of these four scholars, from very different perspectives, contributes significantly to our understanding of the life and work of the worshiping community. ^Infra, p. 404. 2Op, cit., p. 3I3, footnote. Although the specific topic addressed by von Allmen is the introduction of more regular communion, the same principle could be used to initiate any desired change gradually, S^ee. David Beckett et al,, New Ways To Worship (Edinburgh, Î98O),p. 5. ^Infra, pp. 386, 403. 72 CHAPTER THREE A LEARNING COMMUNITY The worshiping community is also a learning community. There is much valuable research available in the geneml field of religious education (such as that taught in the state schools in Britain), however, many of the theories dealing with objectives, scope, context and process are very different from the more specialized Christian education theory that has been developed for use strictly within the context of a teaching-learning community of faith. This chapter is concerned almost exclusively with the latter area; there are hundreds of scholarly works produced in the congregational Christian education field over the past eighty years. In the first section of this chapter I will identify five Christian education scholars: Campbell Wyckoff, Lawrence Little, Iris Cully, John Sutcliffe and John Westerhoff; each of these scholars writes from quite a different perspective. Mention will also be made of the work of the Cooperative Curriculum Project and the Cooperative Curriculum Develop­ ment, together with a document produced by the United Church of Canada.^ The first two scholars chosen represent Christian education foundations since the 1950s, the next two provide approaches from the mid 1970s, and Westerhoff, one of the more prolific writers among current scholars, has several recent books in Christian education with major reference to worship and faith development areas as well. Details within the positions of each of these scholars are identified in Appendix B. I will refer primarily to the appendix for citing sources for their positions because of the complexity of some arguments within one scholar, let alone among scholars. 73 The subsequent sections of this chapter consider relevant aspects of the various scholars' approaches and compare and contrast them to one another and on occasion to other scholars' works, in an effort to arrive at directions in Christian education that could be instrumental in promoting faith developient in a community of faith. Three of the scholars and one central world church official (Cully, Sutcliffe, Westerhoff, and Philip Potter), speak at some length about the seriousness of the general condition of Christian education in churches at this point in time. This judgment adds a special urgency to the task at hand, A, Some Anproaches to Christian Education DeWitte Campbell Wyckoff, of the United Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), is the professor of Christian education at Princeton Theological Seminary, His methods, research and publications, especially in the areas of theory and the design of Christian education curriculum, have continued to be regarded by many scholars as normative in the field of Christian education.^ He has contributed substantially to Christian education's being regarded as a theological discipline in its own right, 2a branch of practical theology. In the Christian education "establish­ ment" of Worth America, his name is regularly linked as a major leader today in the line of such great scholars of the past as George Albert For example, see comments in; Lawrence Losconcy, Religious Education and the Life Cycle (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1977)» p. 113. Losconcy, a Roman Catholic scholar who has been a visiting lecturer in Christian education at Princeton Theological Seminary, writes; "Campbell (Wyckoff) introduced me to the disciplined procedure he has developed and practiced for many years in the development of religious education theory. . He continues with further praise for Wyckoff s process. 2D. Campbell Wyckoff, "Religious Education as a Discipline," in Who Are We? ed. Westerhoff, p. 179. 74 Goe, Paul Herman Vieth and Randolph Crump Miller.^ The scholarly works cited in the thesis are from three of his books and three major articles 2in other edited works. Wyckoff insists that Christian education as a discipline needs to make the most penetrating inquiry into several aspects of the nature and meaning of the church.^ He sees Christian education as related to the whole church's task as "one of the ministries by which the church seeks to fulfil its nature and perform its mission"; at the heart of its 4work is the communication of the gospel. In order to establish Christian education theory, Wyckoff turns to theology, philosophy, history, psychology, sociology, communications, human development generally and faith development specifically.^ At the same time he emphasizes how all persons in the community of faith need to share some responsibility for developing and sharing in the curriculum that will be employed,^ Lawrence Calvin Little, a Methodist, was professor of Christian education at the University of Pittsburgh. He edited a number of Christian education books from 1956 onwards; my sources for this thesis See for example, comments by Westerhoff, op, cit., p. I65, or, Lawrence C. Little, Foundations for a Philosophy of Christian Education (New York, I962), p. 3I. 2D. Campbell Wyckoff, How to Evaluate Your Christian EducationProgram (Philadelphia, I962); ________, The Task of Christian Education(Philadelphia, 1955); , Theory and Design of Christian EducationCurriculum; ________, "Curriculum Theory and Practice"; ________,"Religious Education as A Discipline"; , "The Curriculum andthe Church School," in Religious Education, ed. Taylor. ^Infra, p. 4o6. ^Infra, p. 407. ■^nfra, pp. 408f, 41 Of. ^nfra, pp. 409f. 75 1are a major book and an article written by him. His major work has been in the areas of philosophical, psychological and theological foundations for Christian education and in educational objectives. In speaking about the "minimum essentials" for developing an adequate philosophy of Christian education, he lists in this order: a study of "the needs and capacities of human beings, the ways of growth and learning, the nature of the Christian faith and its relation to other aspects of life, the mission of the church and its responsibility for Christian nurture, the goals of Christian education, and methods for 2guiding experiences so that the goals may be achieved." Little begins his theory with a concern for whole persons in 3community. He contends that Christian education should both help to transmit those cultural values which appear to be foundational for living and to help in social reconstruction where cultural improvement 4seems to be required. He encourages congregations to develop their own statements of objectives and offers seven useful criteria which could be employed to evaluate such objectives.^ He believes that Christian education could be instrumental in enlisting and challenging persons for the ongoing task of renewal in the Christian church.^ The Cooperative Curriculum Project and the Cooperative Curriculum Development of the National Council of Churches in the United States included scholars from sixteen denominations (including the United 1Little,, Foundations for a Philosophy of Christian Education; and, Lawrence G. Little, "The Objectives of Protestant Religious Education," in Religious Education, ed. Taylor. 2Little,"Foundations for a Philosophy of Christian Education," p.16, ^Infra, p. 411, \nfra, p. 412. •^ Infra, p. 414, ^Infra. 76 Church of Canada) in joint Christian education studies for a number of years. Their writings and the subsequent writings from the United Church of Canada such as Education in Your Church in the 70s reflect positions on Christian education that were widely held during a recent period of evaluation and rethinking in North American Christian education theory.^ Iris Virginia Cully, of the Protestant Episcopal Church, is pro­ fessor of Christian education at Lexington Theological Seminary. She has written a number of significant books on Christian education theory 2over a period of more than twenty years. Westerhoff, the editor of the Religious Education journal, after noting how Christian education theory in North America has been dominated by white male academics, observes however; "Iris Cully along with Sarah Little and Rachel Hendrelite are important exceptions in the modern period. Each has made an important contribution to theoretical issues in Christian education."^ The direction of Cully's book. New Life for Your Sunday School, brings some balance to the writings of many scholars who currently are suggesting a much lower profile for the Sunday school, some who are predicting its early demise and others who indeed are recommending its relegation to history. Cully normally speaks of the church's educational task in terms of nurture and describes a wide variety of contexts in which this nurturing 4takes place. The most central element in the teaching-learning process ^See infra, pp. Il4f, 115f. 2Two of her books and one major article are used primarily in this chapter of the thesis; Iris V, Cully, New Life for Your SundaySchool; ________, The Dynamics of Christian Education; and,________,"Christian Education ; Instruction Or Nurture," in Who Are We? ed. Westerhoff, %p. cit., p. Î50 4Infra, p. 4l6. 77 1for Gully is the personal encounter that takes place between individuals. The use of the Bible among all persons coupled with a life- centered approach constitutes her balance of content for Christian education.^ Her 1976 book on the Sunday school is aimed primarily at encouraging congregations which have become discouraged with that particular paradigm in recent years. She advocates that the Sunday school should include some experiences to help persons participate in worship with more under- 4standing. John M. Sutcliffe, of the United Reformed Church in England and Wales, is General Secretary of the Christian Education Movement. His T^ok, Learning Community, is both a summary of an international con­ sultation of the World Council of Churches and the World Lutheran Federation on the contribution of the Sunday school to Christian education in Europe today, and also a further development of that consultation's theme. Philip A. Potter, General Secretary of the World Council of Churches, who wrote the preface to Sutcliffe’s book, contends that the entire question of Christian education itself, its context, objectives, content and process are at issue now. He regards Sutcliffe's book as an attempt to initiate a dialogue on the whole question. He says of Sutcliffe's book; The congregation is seen as a learning community in which all participate in a mutual learning process. The family, worship services, the community life, the school together with the Sunday School and other church programs, are seen as interrelated in the learning process.-5 1Infra, p. 417. Infra, pp. 4l7f. %nfra, p. 418. 4Infra, p. 419, Sutcliffe, pp, 8f, Potter also makes some major evaluative statements about the situation in Sunday schools today; see infra, pp. 231f, 78 Indeed, Sutcliffe's whole hook is aimed at promoting a unified learning community concept in a community of faith. He insists further that the community of faith must be inclusive of persons of all ages and conditions through its worship and educational programs,^ He maintains that Christian education and faith concerns generally need to be both biblically based and be about general living; this includes a special 2concern for social problems. He warns against indoctrination through the educational process and claims that the task of Christian education is to set persons free. A major theme suggests that all aspects of congregational life need to be better integrated so that the learning 4community can see itself whole, John H. Westerhoff III, a United Church of Christ minister for twenty years, became an Episcopal priest in 1979. Westerhoff is professor of religion and education at Duke University Divinity School and is editor of the Religious Education journal, which is a scholarly periodical in the Christian education field that has been very influential throughout North America for over seventy-five years. The main sources of his concepts in the thesis are eight of the major books which he has written or edited in as many years,Westerhoffs multi-disciplinary approach to Christian education appears to be especially prominent in two ways; social-anthropological, likely influenced by his close professional association with anthropologist Gwen Kennedy Neville who has co-authored ^Infra, p. 420. ^nfra, p. 422. ^Infra, p. 423, \nfra, ■^ John H, Westerhoff III, A Colloquy on Christian Education;Bringing Up Children in the Christian I^ a^ith (Minneapolis, I980); Generation To Generation (Philadelphia, 1974); , InnerGrowth/Outer Change; ~ , Learning Through Liturgy; ________Tomorrow's Chuirch; _______ , Who Are We?; , Will Our Children HaveFaith? ' 79 two of his books; and, theological, informed by his interpretation of liberation theology, reflecting a strong sense of social responsibility through Christian education and worship. In the past few years he has rapidly become one of the most quoted scholars in the Christian education field in North America. Because of his wide exposure to the field through his popular books, his former editorship of Colloquy, his present editorship of the Religious Education journal, and his regular leadership as a speaker and resource person at Christian education events throughout the U.S.A. and Canada, he has received considerable helpful "feed-back" from Christian educators that has caused modification in his terminology and concepts. This development is readily observable by reading his books in the order of their publication. He takes the general position that his books are not meant to be definitive works, but rather books to provide stimulation for ministers, lay persons and scholars, requiring their reactions and actions. While he is very critical of much that is happening in the field as a whole, he also encourages from time to time with statements like this: Be of good cheer! ^ Have hope! I am convinced that if our memories of God’s actions in history are renewed, if our visions of God's kingdom attract us, and if together we act responsibly with God each day, tomorrow can and will be different,^ His books are especially important to this thesis in three areas : Christian education theory and practice, learning through liturgy and his concept of faith development. The latter subject forms the major discussion of chapter four. Westerhoff advocates a more radical approach to Christian education than a reform of the schooling-instruction paradigm which has dominated 1Westerhoff, Tomorrow's Church, p. 10. 80 methodology for some generations; he suggests a "learning and witnessing community of faith" paradigm that encourages persons of all ages,^ "Being Christians together" and sharing faith are his major themes; relationships 2are therefore vital to his learning methods. He regularly speaks about "the story" that is at the heart of a community of faith and sees both worship and education as different ways of sharing and reflecting upon that story, Westerhoff frequently connects Christian education to the church’s role in evangelism, always maintaining a dialogical sharing 4process in an attempt to reduce levels of indoctrination, He sees liturgy and learning very closely linked although he does not advocate deliberately "teaching" through liturgy,-^ Generally, he regards Christian education as a discipline within a community of faith that has the potential for uniting and evaluating other aspects of church life,^ The various positions of these scholars offer an interesting and sometimes disparate basis upon which to begin the development of a theory of Christian education within a teaching-learning community of faith, Wyckoff proposes foundational theoiy and methods in the field; Little outlines some important philosophical, psychological and theological considerations; Cully offers both some basic theory and a practical application of that in reference to the Sunday church school; Sutcliffe suggests one configuration of an integrated learning community; and, Westerhoff proposes another structure for a unified worshiping, learning community of faith. More details of their various approaches will become apparent in the areas considered in the balance of this chapter. ^Infra, p, 424. ^Infra, p. 425. ^nfra, p. 426. ^Infra, p. 430. ■^nfra, p. 432, ^Infra, pp, 432f, 81 B. The People of a Learning Community When scholars like Little speak of Christian education as being "person centered," while writing from a perspective up to the mid 1960s, they are uttering much more than a truism, A plethora of curricula was being produced by practically every North American denomination, and many of the approaches were heavily weighted in favour of content and methods; even "personal relationships" tended to be listed as another category under "process,"^ For a few years after World War II, a typical question posed at conferences dealing with Christian education asked: "Shall we bring up the child to meet the standards or bring down the standards to meet the child?" This usually introduced a plea to "maintain the standards at all costs." Fortunately, however, writings of Martin Buber, translated into a Christian community approach by such scholars as Reuel Howe, were bringing some balance back into the vacillating battle between person 2centered and content centered Christian education, Howe, speaking critically of both an authoritarian transmission approach and a permissive induction method, contends that both ignore the significance of the relationships between teachers and learners. He calls for a balance in this way: There must be a dialogue between teacher and student, and between the meaning as formulated in theory out of men’s past experience and meaning as it emerges out of their contemporary experience.The miracle of dialogue in education is the calling forth of persons who have found their own unique relationship to truth and who serve the truth with creative expectancy.^ I See Alva I, Cox, Christian Education in the Church Today Nashville, I965), pp. 89f, ^See Howe, Man* s Need and Cod's Action, pp. 75, 94f, 112, ll4f. p. 17. ^Reuel L. Howe, The Miracle Qf Dialogue (New York, I963), 82 This type of balance that begins with the persons who teach and learn from one another, and then takes into account their reflections upon the past and the experiences that develop out of the present sharing relation­ ship, are explicit particularly in the writings of Little, Sutcliffe and Westerhoff and implicit throughout the works by Wyckoff and Gully, Sutcliffe and Westerhoff place special emphasis upon the potential "teaching" contribution that may be made by the person whom Howe identifies as the "student" in the above quotation. Persons of all ages who share experiences with others must indeed be central to the focus of a learning community,^ Sutcliffe and Westerhoff focus upon the integrated, all age worship and learning experiences of the community of faith. Gully and Wyckoff note the special importance of continuing adult education; Gully as the key to a strong program for everyone, and Wyckoff as the focus to enable 2parents to teach their own children, Sutcliffe and Gully also note the special role the church could play in enabling parents to be more effective in their Ghristian education task; Westerhoff places his main emphasis on parents and children learning together as families through shared experiences in the community of faith.^ All the scholars acknow­ ledge that there is some problem in this family principle where some family members may not participate in the life of the church, particularly in situations where parents send children to educational programs, but the parents themselves do not have any apparent church interest. It is at this point that I detect a potential weakness in Sutcliffe's and Westerhoff s very strong all age community emphasis. Elderly persons, single parents, children participating without parents, young people whose 1 PInfra, pp. 423 , 426, Infra, pp. 418, 410. ^Infra, pp. 418, 421. 83 interests are quite different from younger siblings and adults, and children under age five appear to benefit from more special peer group attention than the community models suggest.^ It appears that Sutcliffe's and Westerhoff s proposed models may be more particularly suited to the needs of whole nuclear families than to the expectations of some of those other persons whom I have identified. Both scholars do allow, of course, for such peer group learning activities as may be required, in an alternative paradigm; however, these exceptions may involve more persons than their models would suggest. Gully, Sutcliffe and Westerhoff do make a strong case, although, for closer relationships between adults and children in the church. Gully insists that all children must feel accepted in the congregation 2and notes how both "adult teachers" and children are fellow learners. Sutcliffe’s plea that adults should regard children as "people" rather than a "category" is echoed throughout much current Ghristian education literature. It is the church's nature to be inclusive, reminds Sutcliffe, and we cannot erect barriers between people on the basis of age or experience; children and adults have much to contribute to each other as they worship and learn side by side,^ Westerhoff cites not only Plato’s contention that the total community educates, but notes the writings of other Ghristian education scholars and leaders over a period of two centuries who have been predicting an all age "family" It should be noted that George Koehler maintains in his theory that some short-term intergeneraxional experiences could indeed be able to include such persons even better than they can sometimes be involved in certain peer groups; cf, infra, pp. 259f. ^Infra, p. 41?. 3See Snyder, Young People and Their Gulture. p. 29, and Ruth Gheney, Transition (New York, 196?), p. 12. 4Infra, p. 420. 84 type of paradigm.^ As a storytelling people, we have much to share with 2one another, says Westerhoff, The three scholars' arguments generally are very appealing and persuasive, that adults and children have much to contribute to one another in an all age community of faith. It appears that it would indeed be highly desirable for a community to facilitate learning, worship and action situations where persons of all ages may share their faith experiences, Although my qualification expressed in the previous paragraph must also be borne in mind, this does not, however, negate the valuable potential of a church organizing itself primarily as an all age learning community for all those people who may choose to participate. Each person in the community of faith has a personal responsibility for contributing to the development of congregational objectives and to participation in the learning experiences that arise out of those objectives, contend Wyckoff, Gully and Little. Wyckoff suggests a number of sources for a congregation's educational program, but comes back to the input from each member: "The individual himself has the ultimate responsibility for curriculum building," This work is seen as part of the preparation for ministry that each person develops in part through his life with others in the community.^ The United Church of Canada's document also contends that, "The most significant forms of learning are those that call for the fullest participation by the learner."^ Westerhoff maintains that every person in the congregation has something important to contribute to the community life. "We need to bring our He describes positions in particular from Benjamin Jacob (date not stated), John Vincent (1905), J. A. James (1816) and another by John Vincent (188?), Westerhoff, Will Our Children Have Faith?, pp. 82ff, 2Infra, p. 424. ^Infra, p. 410. ^Infra, p. 415, 85 experiences and offer them to others in our church under the judgment and inspiration of the gospel." The basic questions that Westerhoff suggests we must address if we are to get at the centre of the Ghristian education task are all "people" questions; none is a program or content question. "What does it mean to be Ghristian together? How can I be a Ghristian with my child? How can we live our individual and corporate lives, , , ? What can I bring to share with another. . , ? How can we be open to one another. . . , ?"^ It becomes clear from reading these scholars that their focus upon people ahead of definitions, objectives, scope, content, context and process is a most important perspective. Much other Ghristian education literature is different, particularly that produced by more conservative denominations. However, even among some of the "middle-of- the-road" churches there is still a fair amount of a classical realism . philosophy of education that tends to begin with the task before the people. Since John Dewey's pragmatism was modified and introduced into Ghristian education by such scholars as George Albert Goe, and Martin Buber's "I-Thou" philosophy developed into a relationships theology, the central place of persons in the teaching-learning enterprise has been recognized by most prominent Christian educators. The five scholars whose works I have highlighted begin with persons, and all appear to exhibit a reasonable balance between the persons of the learning community and the communications task of Ghristian education. C. Catechesis, Nurture. Education Or Indoctrination? What words best describe our educational task? Ghristian education scholars or critics of religious education use terms like Ghristian (or religious) education, instruction, nurture, catechesis or ^Infra, pp. 424ff, 86 indoctrination, Westerhoff speaks about some of those words and concludes with the statement and question; "Whatever words we use, they have 1connotations and meanings— can we give old words new meanings?" The context of his question is his recent attempt to give new meaning to a very old term, "catechesis." Westerhoff began to use that word almost exclusively in his two books published in 1978 to describe the educational task of the community of faith. His most simple definition of catechesis is "The process by which persons come to know (understand), internalize (live), and apply (do) God’s word in their individual and corporate 2lives." While I admire the succinct yet comprehensive wording of that definition, I have serious difficulty in associating that interpretation, or his subsequent detailed expansions, with the word catechesis. The Oxford, Webster and Random House dictionaries all describe catechesis in terms of "oral instruction," They go on to point out that it is "formal" instruction, sometimes committed to writing. The adjective "catechetical," refers to using a method of questions and answers, "especially using set questions and answers (as in a church catechism)."^ My personal images of the word catechesis, determined by popular usage, render the word unfitting for my use. Westerhoff recognizes that the word has a "somewhat unfortunate history for Roman Catholics which makes the word troublesome for many today." I will use words other than his chosen term "catechesis" except when quoting directly. Gully prefers the word "nurture" to describe the church's educational task. She and Sutcliffe emphasize the supportive, caring, loving relationships among persons who nurture in the community. Cully's note that, "A person could be self-educated but he could not be ^Infra, p. 429. I^nfra,. ^Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Vol. I (London,1966), p. 352. 87 self-nurtured," emphasizes factors beyond the person himself that contribute to the learning.^ Ross Snyder, senior professor at Chicago Theological Seminary, describes the word nurture this way: To nurture and to be nurtured is to again and again improvise, from materials at hand, huts of meaning through which stars can shine, where we and our neighbour-near can dwell celebratively in the midst of our sowing and cultivating and harvesting. Behind his characteristic poetry is an important principle, similar to Cully's usage, that nurture requires volition; he uses the action verbs, improvise, sow, cultivate and harvest to express this, However, Sutcliffe's statement that, "Nurture is closely linked with what is implicit in the community's life and conversation," indicates an important difference 3between his own use of the word and Gully's and Snyder's use.^ Sutcliffe employs the term more generally to describe all the unconscious exper­ iences of fellowship, participation and sharing that help persons develop. The more explicit and conscious efforts of the congregation to "nurture" he describes with the word "education." Snyder apparently prefers the word nurture currently because he hints that the term Ghristian education may lose some of its potency through misunderstandings. He warns: The ultimate degradation of Ghristian education is to insist that its genius is fact-imparting, disconnected "happenings," trainings to be an instrument that can manipulate one's-self and others in the cliches and habits of pop andj^establishment culture, frosted with the latest fad in "therapy." Cully comes very close to describing education from her perspective in terms similar to the first part of Snyder's warning statement when she ^Infra, p. 416. 2Ross Snyder, "Worship as Celebration And Nurture," in Foundations for Ghristian Education in an Era Of Change, ed, Taylor, p. 171. 3 Zi-^ Infra, p. 421, Op. cit., pp. 171f. suggests, "Let us keep in mind that education like instruction is intellectually oriented." In contrast, Snyder suggests in a positive vein that education is so much more than we usually mean by knowing.Education is a world becoming meaningfulized. Education ispersons emerging, persons participating at ever-fresh levels in the developmental enterprise of a span of life. In similar fashion to Snyder's last quoted statement, Wyckoff, Little and Westerhoff, using the term "Christian education," are very explicit that this is much more than "intellectual" orientation. Similarily, Sutcliffe uses the word education alone and emphasizes that it will "involve the whole person— his critical faculty, emotions, aesthetic sense, ability to weigh evidence and to make decisions." Certainly if education actually means to a significant number of people what Cully suggests or what Snyder calls its "ultimate degradation," then it is a very limited term. However, I contend with Sutcliffe, Wyckoff and Little that education, or, more specifically the term Christian education, can be given meanir^ful positive content. It is the term I generally prefer to use to describe the deliberate, systematic and sustained efforts of the community of faith in its educational task. I also find the word nurture useful, and use it with the wider meaning that Sutcliffe attributes to it; I employ it in the sense of the whole community nurturing through a great variety of formal or informal experiences. Sutcliffe makes an interesting attempt to sharpen the difference between his definitions of nurture and education by stating; "the church must both live its life in Christ and yet enable some who belong to it to reject Christ." He sees nurture arising out of the church's living its life and regards education as an "essentially liberating" activity ^Infra, p. 416. ^Op. cit., p. 1?3. 3■^ Infra, p. 96. 89 i’’which enables self-determination," His definition of education supports this concept with his emphasis on sharpening a person’s critical faculty so that the person is enabled to weigh evidence and make his own decisions. This type of definition for education is consistent with his strongly negative answer to the question; "Is Christian education indoctrination?" He insists that it is not; it is rather concerned to set people free. However, in a subject like Christian education, where scholars such as Westerhoff use terms like "deliberate, systematic and sustained efforts," it appears to be necessaiy to address squarely the 2question of indoctrination, B. G. Mitchell, professor of the philosophy of Christian religion at the University of Oxford, in an important article on indoc­ trination, suggests that the word "indoctrination" is usually introduced by critics of religious education,^ On the other hand, Barbara Smith, an American Christian education scholar and curriculum writer, ventures that nine-tenths of the members of any congregation sincerely believe that the church’s purpose in Christian education is to get over the achurch's point of view, "the faith." Whether charges of indoctrination come from outside critics or assumptions of indoctrination from inside the church, they must be examined, Mitchell notes how indoctrination can be considered under three headings; aims, content and method. He describes indoctrination with respect to objectives as follows; A indoctrinates B in respect of (a belief), if he brings it about or seeks to bring it about that B believes 2 such a way that he ^Op. cit,, pp. 50f. ^nfra, pp. 422, 428. %. G, Mitchell, "Indoctrination," in The Durham Remrt: The Fourth R (London, 19?0), p. 353* p. 106. ^Barbara Smith, How to Teach Junior Highs (Philadelphia, I965), 90 is unable subsequently to believe not He explains how this is an attempt to produce a closed mind. He also notes that an educational objective even less extreme, one that seeks to make it "more or less difficult for the individual to change his mind," or that gives the person a distinct bias in a particular direction could 2also be regarded as indoctrination. At this point, it is interesting to note that in Westerhoff's eight books used, he never even refers to the terms "aims, goals, purposes or objectives," for generations the 3most prominent terms in Noirbh American Christian education literature. He speaks strictly of a "definition" of Christian education (or catechesis) and emphasizes over and again that the church is not trying to determine another’s life or make another person Christian, but rather attempting to be Christian with other persons. One could speculate that Westerhoff may be avoiding the use of "objectives" in part to keep away from any hint of indoctrination in this area; he denies any indoctrination attempts 4at several points in his detailed description of the tern catechesis, Sutcliffe offers his objective for education in the context of a dis­ cussion on indoctrination. His aim stresses helping a person "respond to Jesus and to life in his/her own way," He goes on to say: % , cit., p, 356 ^Ibid., p. 337. % e does use the term, "catechesis aims ... " a few times in Who Are We? but this is employed only as a verb in his definition; it is not an "aim" in the sense in which that term is used in education, 4It should be noted, however, that Edwin Cox, lecturer in religious education at the University of London Institute of Education, considers a definition of education and objectives to be one and the same. He writes: "the question, ’what is the aim of RE?’ is, in effect, a question about the content and method of the subject, about what is taught and about how it is taught, and is properly answered by a description of the teaching. It is identical with the question, ’What is religious education?”’ Edwin Cox, "The Aims of Religious Education," in Religious Education in Integrated Studies, ed, Ian H, Birnie (London, 1972), p, 26. I intend, however, to maintain more of a distinction between objectives and a definition of Christian education. 91 But however the aim is formulated, it must he expressed in terms which both have educational integrity and through which there is implicit recognition of the danger of indoctrination in the negative sense. Education is concerned with human growth; indoctrination is concerned with human captivity. Wycfcoff, Little and Gully all have stated objectives for the purposes of curriculum development, but all stress the importance of each learning community developing its own objectives, and of each person in that church having an opportunity for input in developing aims. It appears then, that all five scholars recognize clearly the danger of indoctrination in objectives and that each one goes to considerable length to reduce as far as possible the levels of indoctrination in this area, Mitchell describes indoctrination through process and comments on it further in this way: In this sense A indoctrinates B in respect of 2 (a belief) if A brings it about that B believes 2 otherwise than by enabling B to understand the reasons for 2* Indoctrination in this sense is unavoidable. Every teacher, at every stage in the educational process, wi^ every subject, has to some extent to "indoctrinate" his pupils. Indeed, all five scholars speak of such a wide context of Christian education, covering the whole area of study, woirship, fellowship, action, and stewardship, that it further compounds the potential for indoctrination through process as Mitchell describes it. Probably Westerhoff s and Sutcliffe’s accent on process as the means for persons to be with one another in Christian ways tends to reduce the degree of indoctrination in this area quite substantially. In the third area, content, Mitchell describes the nature of indoctrination in these terms: In this sense A indoctrinates B in respect of 2 if ^ brings it about that B believes 2 otherwise than by enabling B to under­stand the reasons for 2> where p a debatable or controversial statement.-^ ^Op. cit., p. 23. ^Op. cit., p. 333. ^Ibid., p. 334. 92 This area is concerned about teaching doctrines as if they were known facts, Mitchell points out. All five scholars speak about the important use of the Bible as content in Christian education. Although all hasten to point out that Christian education is primarily concerned with sharing the good news and not with teaching doctrines, one can hardly avoid "debatable or controversial" content the moment the Bible is opened. The very notion of "God" is debatable and controversial to many persons in a learning community particularly during certain phases of their faith development,^ Among the scholars, Westerhoff, for example, speaks of catechesis being "concerned to help us know God, to love God, to, obey God," or catechesis being involved in passing "on a living tradition in the form of a story or a vision," Such contents of the Christian story, some of them debatable or controversial, are part of the good news that is constantly shared through both education and worship in the community of faith. The style of leadership that is used will have much to do with the level of indoctrination, suggests Mitchell. He contrasts two extreme forms of adult designated leadership and notes their relative positions in indoctrination. "The liberal aims at enabling the individual to realize his potentialities as a rational, autonomous adult," he says, 2and will use procedures of indoctrination as little as possible. Suggesting that few true authoritarian leaders still exist in education (British religious education), he contends that more indoctrination would be used by those authoritarian types that remain. His recommen­ dation is that an intermediate type of leadership is most desirable where the novice is helped "to build the best house he can," This type of See for example, infra, pp. Ijlf, ^Op. cit., p. 357. 93 leader "strikes a balance between the need to produce a good house and the desirability of letting the novice make his own choices; but he is careful that the house is designed in such a way that it can subsequently be altered and improved as the owner, no longer a novice, sees fit,"^ I suggest that one could term that type of leadership "democratic." In a learning community paradigm, such a democratic "leader" would probably be called an "enabler" or a "facilitator," helping persons do their own learning, Wyckoff’s comments on one of Westerhoff’s definitions of Christian education seem especially significant at this point. He highlights the shift of focus "from a curriculum that is a plan for the transmission of a life-style (or something even more specific and limited) to a curriculum that is a planned process from which various appropriate 2life-styles may emerge." Here is a movement that pushes away from indoctrination as far as possible while still maintaining some planned human activity. Little maintains that all persons in a learning com­ munity will leam best when they have to make their own decisions and 3be responsible for them, Westerhoff wants to take the focus away from what we want another person to know or feel or to behave, to how we can 4share equally with one another. Sutcliffe insists that education is concerned with setting people free.^ Mitchell suggests in his conclusion: "The liberal wants to make sure that we produce rebels; the authoritarian that we do not produce rebels. The sensible educator is concerned to produce good rebels."^ This statement is very close to Westerhoff's insistence that the church's task is not to condition people to accept ^Ibid., p. 338, ^nfra, p. 408. ^Infra, pp. 4llf. ^Infra, p. 431, -^ Infra, p. 423. ^Op. cit. 94 the status quo but to equip them to be radical, responsible, informed members of a counter-cultural community,^ If one accepts the very inclusive three area explanation of indoctrination offered by Mitchell, it must be conceded that Christian education (like any other form of education) cannot avoid some elements of indoctrination. However, Mitchell and the five Christian education scholars all recognize the potentials for indoctrination, and all, with varying intensity, take steps to reduce it to the lowest possible level. I maintain that indoctrination, above the unavoidable levels, is not acceptable in any area of Christian education. The community ought to organize to minimize indoctrination, through enabling persons to respond to Christ or to reject him, and helping them to be free to make their own faith decisions. D, Towards a Definition And Objectives Having considered the use of such terms as catechesis, nurture and education, and having explored charges of indoctrination in Christian education, it is now possible to turn towards a definition of Christian education, Wyckoff constantly reiterates that the church's imperative is to communicate the gospel; Little says that some understanding of 2the Bible is regarded as essential to Christian education; the Cooperative Curriculum Project wants to make all persons aware of God's self-disclosure in Jesus Christ; for Cully the Bible is pivotal because God is at the centre of the biblical record; Sutcliffe focuses upon both the Bible and the "living Christian tradition"; Westerhoff says that ^Infra, p, 425, 2Little, Foundations for a Philosouhy of Christian Education.p, 194. 95 "the story" of God at work in the world is at the heart of Christian faith.^ It seems then, that any definition of Christian education will highlight both the people and the biblical message, both of which are central to a learning community, I will set out here some of the key definitions of Christian education in order to examine them together, Wyckoff summarizes the statement by the National Council of Churches as follows: Christian education is a life long process by which persons are led to commitment to Jesus Christ through helping them to under­stand and accept the Christian faith and its implications for time and eternity and to an increasing understanding and more effective expression of Christian faith in relation to God and in all human relationships, Little's definition is somewhat complicated and yet it is comprehensive with several appealing elements: Christian education is the process through which the church seeks to enable persons to understand, accept and exemplify the Christian faith and way of life. It is the effort to enable them to comprehend the full meaning and latent possibilities of human nature as revealed in Jesus Christ and in the light of modem knowledge, to help them establish and maintain the relationships with God and with other persons that will lead toward the actualization of their highest potentialities, and to engage and sustain them in the con­tinuing endeavour to bring closer the realization and will and purpose of God for themselves and for all mankind,^ The Division of Mission of the United Church of Canada offers a definition employing several popular catchwords: Education in the church is a continuing process which:1, helps us live the life of love as we know it in Jesus Christ;2, helps us celebrate God's presence and commit ourselves to his purpose, and,3, helps us serve one another in the world joyfully because of God's acceptance of us, Sutcliffe speaks in terms of education itself rather than specifically Christian education ; ^Infra, pp. 40?, 409, 41?, 422, 426. 2 QInfra, pp. 40?f. •-^ Infra, pp. 412f. ^Infra, p. 415. 96 By education we mean a conscious involvement in a sharing and discovery process which at different times will appeal to and involve the whole person— his critical faculty, emotions, ^aesthetic sense, ability to weigh evidence and make decisions. Two of John Westerhoff's definitions are combined; the first he calls generally "education," and the second is under the heading, "catechesis": Education is best understood as deliberate, systematic and sustained efforts to transmit, evoke or acquire knowledge, attitudes, values, skills or sensibilities as well as any outcome of that effort, (Catechesis) is the process by which persons come to know (under­stand), internalize (live), and apply (do) God's word in their individual and corporate lives. Westerhoff adds great detail to that basic definition with careful explanations of what else he means by the term catechesis, A reoccurring theme among his expanded definitions is helping the community of faith move closer "to the end that God’s will is done and that God's community comes," Although Gully provides an objective rather than a definition, I include it here to enable some comparison among all the scholars.^ The purpose of Christian nurture is to help people through their growing relationship to God in Christ so to live that they may glorify him and effectively serve others, in Jhe assurance that they partake of eternal life now and forever. There is possibly more variety than one might at first expect among all those "definitions" of Christian education. William Bedford Williamson, of the Protestant Episcopal Church, who is the head of the department of philosophy and religion at Ursinus College, wrote a book on Christian education language and concepts, based on his unpublished Ed,D, dissertation. He quotes nine scholars' definitions of Christian education, including an earlier different one by Wyckoff, and maintains: Obviously, therefore, all that can be said in answer to the question, What is Christian education? is that Christian groups do organize ^Infra, pp. 421f. ^Infra, p. 429. 3This particular type of objective is different from a definition in form rather than substance. ^Infra, p. 4l6, 97 their resources and personnel for an activity or program often described as instruction in content material selected as important and relevant to the particular Christian group, with appropriate methods and for purposes and ends designated by the group, . ,And certainly there are some "experts" who voice little more than their own opinions, religious points of view, and educational slogans in their answers,^ While Williamson’s book generally tends to be a somewhat unrestrained iconoclastic attack on the whole Christian education establishment of North Ameidca, he does make some points that need to be considered. Certainly I would also contend with him that there are too many "slogans" in definitions such as those by Little or the United Church of Canada. But much more can be said for the six definitions that I have quoted, or indeed for the nine different ones that Williamson selected and summarily dismissed in one page of his own slogans, I also agree that there is no "single clear and true answer to the question. What is Christian education?" in the definitions that I 2have quoted. However, there are important common elements, in spite of the fact that each scholar approaches the subject from a very different perspective. First, Christian education is a process aimed at growth,^ say all of the definitions. The centrality of Jesus Christ is highlighted in all the definitions except Sutcliffe’s and Westerhoff’s which are general "education" definitions. Living a Christian life is mentioned in all but Sutcliffe, Important human elements such as the promotion of human relationships, involvement of whole persons or service to others are implicit in all definitions. The importance of "understanding" is central to all definitions except Cully’s and the United Church of ^Williamson, p. 37. ^bid,, p. 36, 3This whole area of "gTOwth" or "development" is a highly complex concept that in itself may provide an overview affecting every area of Christian education. Chapter four deals in some detail with a few of its ramifications. 98 Canada's. Other significant elements that emerge out of some of the definitions include: Christian education is conscious involvement or deliberate action; peisons may be enabled to do or apply new insights; persons may be helped to make their own decisions; education is a lifelong process. From my perspective, the two most pointed definitions, providing a concrete description of educational procedures are those by Westerhoff and Sutcliffe, They have several important points in common; "deliberate, systematic and sustained efforts" or "a conscious involvement"; "transmit, evoke or acquire" or "a sharing and discovery process"; "knowledge, attitudes, values, skills or sensibilities as well as any outcomes of that effort" or "will appeal to and involve the whole person— his critical faculty, emotions, aesthetic sense," Sutcliffe's addition: "ability to weigh evidence and make decisions" is an extremely valuable further point that is not explicit in Westerhoffs definition, although it is found frequently in his expansions on the nature of Christian education. The more specifically "Christian" aspects of Christian education such as those found in Westerhoff s second definition or those by Wyckoff, Little, Cully and the United Church of Canada would complete a definition of Christian education. My own tentative definition of Christian education is in chapter five, following the discussion of faith development in chapter four. I cannot endorse the extremely open-ended position articulated by the Division of Mission of the United Church of Canada, that claims the church no longer operates by well-formed objectives (or definitions) but seems "to be responding to a challenge," The slogan-filled, process-empty definition that they offered reflects the direction of their response to that challenge. I suggest that this was an intermediate ^Infra, p. 415. 99 reaction to the theological and methodological turmoil generated during the I96O8 when "travelling light" became a shrine in its own right. Even if we do choose to travel light, we are not delivered from the responsi­ bility of facing squarely what we are doing in Christian education. I find Williamson's non-conclusion about a definition of Christian education much more unacceptable. He states that he agrees with another scholar, Howard Grimes, who concluded that "to attempt a definition is to risk being presumptuous."^ Williamson himself concludes that his 2"examination of several definitions revealed the folly of the task." I contend that this is an irresponsible capitulation that leaves one in an untenable position, no better than that of one of Walt Kelly's Pogo characters who declared; "If you don't know where you are going, 3you're liable to end up somewhere else." While definitions of Christian education should always be tentative, scholars must wrestle with the 4task in every generation. Moving from a Christian education definition to objectives in Christian education may in some instances involve little more than minor changes in writing form rather than a difference in actual substance."^ However, in traditional Christian education theory, a definition should deal more strictly with what Christian education "is" and objectives 1 2Op. cit., p. 33. Infra, pp. 429f. The quotation from the cartoon itself (used in another context) is taken from the book, Richard Allan Olson, ed., The Pastor's Role in Educational Ministry (Philadelphia, 1974), p. 247. 4See Ellis Nelson, op. cit., pp. 198f. Nelson himself offers what he insists must be a "tentative" definition of. Christian education and then issues with it an important qualification: "Definitions are always hazaidous because they attempt to confine human experience in neat categories and we know that human life is never simple or easily contained." %ce my discussion, supra, p. 90, footnote 4. For my detailed discussion of the nature of Christian education objectives, see, Donald Laing, "Scouting in the United Church" (S.T.M. thesis, Vancouver School of Theology, 1971), pp. 24-62. 100 with what Christian education "does" or plans to do; indeed it is very- difficult to separate those two aspects. Rather than dwelling on this fine distinction, I propose to speak about objectives primarily in their setting within the life of a learning community. It would seem most logical to me that Christian education scholars in general should articulate or accept a definition, and that those who are developers of curriculum materials along with the people in congregations who must choose and use curriculum materials and determine a total curriculum plan, would require carefully chosen objectives, Wyckoff suggests some extremely useful questions about the ^^ture of the objectives that are to be determined, In summary, he asks if objectives should be functional, psychological, operational, theological, otherwise content centered or a combination of these,^ The lists of objectives, both the comprehensive type and the more specific program objectives that were developed by the scholars or by the National Council of Churches may suggest a partial answer to Wyckoff* s question and also provide some potential guidelines for learning communities in their own task of determining objectives. Also Westerhoff*s detailed explanation of the nature of catechesis could prove to be useful as background material for persons who wish to develop their own objectives.^ The aggregate of these sources reveal a combination of the functional, psychological, operational, theological and content centered elements identified and explained by Wyckoff. His further vital point that what­ ever objectives are articulated must be understood and accepted by everyone concerned, is echoed hy Little and Gully.3 Little's enoouiage- ment for congregations to develop their own objectives is accompanied by 1 ?Infra, pp. 408f. '"infra, pp. 429f. ^discuss this concept in some detail in Donald W. Laing, Let's Celebrate (Ottawa, 1974), pp. 26ff. ----- 101 his helpful suggestions about using seven criteria for choosing and evaluating any objectives; in outline these are; 1. Are the objectives Christian?2. Are they psychologically valid?3. Are they relevant to all levels of development?4. Are they dynamic enough to inspire and motivate definite actionin real life situations?5. Are they such that progress toward their achievement is measurable and subject to evaluation?6. Are the objectives comprehensive in scope?7. Are the statements clear and understandable to those who willuse them? All seven of those criteria are useful to a congregation for developing a comprehensive objective; numbers three and six require modification if used in determining specific program objectives for peer groups. Cully offers three criteria as well for setting objectives; these are useful additions to Little's list (her third is roughly parallel to Little's fifth). 1, A specific goal, which all, including the minister agree.2, The goal must be one which is not being accomplished elsewhere.3, A third characteristic of a useful goal is that it is stated^in such a way that the results can be described and recognized. Her first characteristic, that all should agree, could perhaps be modified with a qualifying phrase reflecting the reality of dissent in a democratic community. Her second characteristic, "The goal must be one which is not being accomplished elsewhere," is interesting. In the absence of her providing further explanation, I accept it on the assump­ tion that she is suggesting that "Christian" education is something specific, and that the church should not spend its time in duplicating experiences that are available to its members in the wider community where Christians also belong and serve. These nine criteria then, seven from Little and two from Cully, could prove very useful. Then Cully also proposes a four step process for a congregation to determine ^Infra, p. 4l4, ^Infra, p, 417, 102 its own objectives and this also appears to be helpful: ask all who are concerned, prepare tentative objectives, consult widely on their validity and then make the results widely known.^ Little's parting warning, that the task of formulating objectives should never be regarded as complete, 2must be heeded by a congregation. Developing people, new people and new educational understandings will require a periodic review of the object- tives set by the members of a learning community. I will close this discussion on objectives with a brief mention of the objectives mentioned by the scholars themselves. The actual detailed content of the objectives chosen or developed by Little, Wyckoff, Gully and Sutcliffe reflect some of the developing educational thinking identified by Little.-^ The three North American scholars' objectives all have much in common although they vary greatly in length; helping persons become aware of Jesus Christ and his significance for their lives, responding by faith in worship, work, study, stewardship and action. Generally they differ from the wider content of the definitions of Christian education. Sutcliffe's objective, however, has two interes­ ting and different central emphases. The first is in helping a person respond to Jesus and to life "in his/her own way" and working out that response "for himself/herself"; here Sutcliffe is very consistent in his attempt to minimize the degree of indoctrination in an objective,^ I have pointed out above how this element of helping persons make their own personal choices is also salient in his definition of Christian education. The second is his objective that Christian education is ^Infra, p. 41?. ^nfra, p. 414, ^nfra, pp. 413, 408f, 416, 421f. 4Infra, pp. 421f. 103 "to help prepare for and help to enable participation in worship,"^ This indeed gives a very high profile to worship preparation, a content centered objective, by having it occupy such a prominent place in a two point statement of objectives. This is consistent with his regarding the church as an integrated worshiping-learning community where worship holds primary place in community life. Within the context of this thesis, I plan to operate by Christian education definitions rather 2than by objectives for reasons suggested above. ,3E, Scope And Content In one setting, Wyckoff defines scope in terms of people's whole life interpreted by the gospel. "The scope of Christian education is the whole field of relationships in the light of the gospel."^ The Cooperative Curriculum Project notes that scope is wider than context and provides a standard of comprehensiveness for curricula. They define scope: "Scope may be said to describe the field over which the church has legitimate purview for its educational ministry and from which the church may appropriately draw the context for its curriculum."-^ A discussion of their phrase, "the field over which the church has legiti­ mate purview," would likely raise instant controversy in many congregations today. Some members would insist that it should be as wide as Wyckoff s open-ended statement and others would want to exclude such elements as the political and social action dimensions that are so crucial to ^Infra, p. 422, ^Supra, pp. 99f. 3In many other educational settings it might appear to be more natural to speak about scope and context in concert and then about content and process. However, because of the unique nature of a Christian learning community, the arrangement I have chosen for this chapter seems to be more suitable. 4.Infra, p. 40?. -^ Infra, p. 414. 104 Westerhoff ' s model. I must agree, however, with the five scholars whom I have reviewed, that the scope of Christian education in a learning community must include all the relationships of whole people in their daily living. The actual breadth of that scope will become more apparent in the following discussion of Christian education content. Curriculum materials in a congregation, whether produced by a national church or developed locally from a variety of sources, must be congruent with the congregation's objectives for Christian education. However, before a learning community attempts to translate specific program objectives into resource materials, there needs also to be some careful discussion about the theological perspective that will undergird the content. After considerable discussion on several theological views. Little maintains that whatever theology is accepted, it must combine both biblical insights and the life of Christians in the world today.^ This same emphasis is implicit in the positions outlined by all five scholars. Westerhoff, maintaining his strong personal preference for a North American style of liberation theology, acknowledges also the potential balancing value of conservatives, liberals, evangelicals and radicals 2in a community of faith. If a congregation tends to lean towards Westerhoffs own position, for example, one would expect that church to choose considerable Christian education content that could help members face squarely the social and political realities which confront them. Likely there would be a fairly high degree of community and individual action accompanying the study of issues. If, on the other hand, a congregation tended to be more conservative theologically, it is possible that more content would focus on the biblical and historical traditions of the church. Ideally, some theological balance including the insights from various perspectives, remembering the needs of a Î 2Infra, p. 412, Infra, pp. 42?f. 105 variety of persons, will inform those who choose curriculum materials. The central Christian education material identified by all five scholars is the Bible. Cully acknowledges the human limitations of those who wrote the Bible and of those who study it, and then offers the suggestion that Bible study in a worshiping community may lead to less distortion, "for the context as well as the theocentric viewpoint and the norm of Christ, helps to bring it into the focus from which it 1was originally written." It is difficult to discern exactly what Cully means by that statement. She appears to be suggesting that persons within the context of a worshiping community may develop a viewpoint that is more informed and responsible than viewpoints characteristic of other persons who study the Bible apart from a worshiping community. If that is her intention, and even if it could be substantiated, the statement still seems to imply a high degree of theological acumen among worshipers that may not be very realistic. Her comment about bringing it "into the focus from which it was originally written" is a very complex concept that cannot be glossed over. Similarly, when Michael Taylor constantly refers to communicating biblical concepts as "telling the story," in his discussions on worship, or Westerhoff speaks of "storytelling" as the sharing of biblical concepts in Christian education, they could leave the impression that there is one standard, 2homogenized "story" upon which everyone agrees. While any major dis­ cussion of hermeneutical problems is beyond the scope of this thesis, such statements by Cully, Michael Taylor, Westerhoff and others require ^Cully, The Dynamics of Christian Education, p. 26, 2Both Westerhoff and Taylor actually provide an "outline" of this "story," Westerhoff, both Testaments and Taylor, some points from the New Testament. Westerhoff, Learning Through Liturgy, pp. 9?f. Michael Taylor, p. 1?. 106 that some hermeneutical questions be identified in this discussion of the use of the Bible as content in Christian education, Lochhead, writing for the Committee on Faith of the United Church of Canada, outlines a three point procedure for Bible study and preaching that attempts to promote a responsible hermeneutic. In very brief out­ line, he says that for the Bible to be heard, it requires three steps to be taken, and always in this order: The Bible is heard when;1. the text is heard in its own context;2. the similarities and differences between the context of the text and our own context are acknowledged and recognized;3. the text is allowed to illumine the present. The three steps themselves, and particularly his expanded explanation of them, are very similar to a discussion by Wolfhart Pannenberg on hermeneutic and universal history. 1. Like Pannenberg, Lochhead also used a parallel situation of communications between persons as one analogy of how persons need to 2understand ideas in context. Lochhead concludes his discussion of context: "Scripture is heard, therefore, only insofar as it is heard primarily in its own historical and cultural context."^ Pannenberg describes this same principle "that the biblical texts are to be interpreted in accordance with the intention of their authors, and thus with reference to the situation in which they were written,"^ 2. However, it is at the second step where the question becomes much more complex, Lochhead begins his discussion of this step with the affirmation: "If we were to hear the Bible speak in its own context, ^Lochhead, pp. 22ff. 2Ibid., p. 22, Wolfhart Pannenberg.Basic Questions In Theology. Vol. 1 (London, 19?0), p. 117. 3 4Op. cit. Op, cit., p. 97. 107 we must be aware of the vast difference between the world in which the Scriptures were written and our own world t o d a y , H e gives concrete examples of commandments such as "You shall not kill," or of attitudes to women in New Testament times and notes how we have to be aware today of some very different values. Pannenberg, commenting on Gadamer, also draws special attention to deliberately developing the tension that may 2exist between the text and our present situation. At the same time, Pannenberg notes certain themes or subjects that are "generally human" and that make a "direct appeal" from one context to another, Lochhead writes in this connection: "As we become aware of differences between our time and biblical times, we can also be sensitive to the similarities between our situation and the author of any text of Scripture," He cites the twenty-third Psalm as an example, acknowledges the very different worlds of sheep on Judean hills as opposed to twentieth century Canada, but continues: Yet even though the world of the twenty-third Psalm is vastly different than our own, we are still able to relate to the longing for security and for courage in the face of danger which the psalm expresses. This is a yearning with which we can be quite familiar in our society. Lochhead also draws attention to some historical problems that are inherent particularly in this second step of the approach: It was not too long ago that we could relate to Scripture with a certain historical naivety. The world was perceived as essentially constant. The world of the text was essentially the same as the world of the interpreter, except perhaps in minor details. Since the Renaissance, however, humanity has increasingly developed its historical consciousness. We are now aware of our historical relativity. This relationship to Scripture is part and parcel of our struggle to articulate a practice of Christian discipleship which is appropriate to our contemporary world experience,^ ^Op. cit., p. 23. ^Op. cit., p. 118. ^Ibid., p. 118. ^Op. cit,, pp. 23f. ■^ Ibid,, p. 24. See Pannenberg, pp. 9éf, 118. 108 Pannenberg suggests the direction in which we must look for answers to the historical problem. He contends that "the text can only be under­ stood in connection with the totality of history which links the past to the present," and goes on to speak about expanding our historical 1horizons to take into account the future. Most of Pannenberg’s detailed discussion revolves around this area .of historical distance, expanding one's horizons and recognizing the claims of universal history upon the hermeneutic, Lochhead does not attempt to deal with the complexity of this historical problem as it is identified by Pannenberg. 3. Pannenberg then speaks about the third step, the "application" of the text, and once again notes the problem of universal history.^ Lochhead also calls this step "application" in his summary of the three steps that he identifies: There are three aspects to the hearing of the Bible. The first step we may call "understanding," that is, understanding the text in its own context. The second step we may call "reflection." Reflection here means our attempts to come to terms with the similarities and differences between our world and the world of the text. The third aspect of hearing the Bible we might call "application"; How do we respond to what we have heard? . . . The application of Scripture is not something mechanical.^ He provides several illustrations of parables or laws that require far more difficult decisions than merely "imitating the practice of the early Israelite,"-^ This brief statement about some hermeneutical dimensions of the use of the Bible is provided here to balance what appears to be a tendency of some of the Christian education and worship scholars to underemphasize the complexity of this problem. While Westerhoff and Michael Taylor discuss some of the theological problems inherent in understanding the ^Op, cit., p. 129; see p. 132. ^Ibid,, pp. 113, 136. ^Ibid., p. 133. ^Op. cit., p. 24. -^bid. 109 Bible, ^their constant reference to "the story" requires this balancing statement. Perhaps Lochhead points to a helpful direction in which the scholar should move, and Pannenberg indicates some of the further 2complexities that are inherent also in Lochhead’s approach, I believe it is essential to make hermeneutical principles, such as those identified by Lochhead and Pannenberg, the norm for examining the statements by the Christian education scholars, in order to highlight the complexity of biblical interpretation for Christian education and worship, A community of faith also needs to have awareness of these principles in order to achieve a higher degree of responsibility with biblical materials, Sutcliffe acknowledges the Bible's central place in Christian education content and adds other elements that he regards as important such as church history, contemporary Christian community, world and ecumenical matters. He also advocates the use of contemporary media such as pop and folk songs, films and various community projects.^ He believes that the Bible's message will be best communicated through the church's "being alive in the world of human encounter and decision 4making," This is a ve3?y useful wide view of content that appears to be as limitless as the imaginations and objectives of the members of the learning community. Westerhoffs central content is described as "the story," that needs to be "known, understood, owned and lived" if the people of a ^Westerhoff, Learning Through Liturgy, pp. 123-129; Michael Taylor, pp. 18, 23, 39, 2This hermeneutical problem becomes more acute in some actual curriculum materials that are produced by scholars whose educational methods generally appear to be quite responsible; see infra, pp. 300f, 302f, 303, 3 0 5 f f , ^Infra, p. 422. ^Infra, 110 congregation are to have faith.^ The biblical story would be shared best by storytelling rather than presented as doctrine or sacred literature to be learned about, he contends. Whatever process is used to tell the story, he maintains that the biblical message must be made personal and relevant to each person today. If this is interpreted in the light of the discussion on hermeneutics, it could be congruent with the third point quoted above from the United Church’s Committee on Faith. Westerhoff further suggests that myth is understandable to persons of our day and he adds, "The Bible is poetry plus, not science min u s . W h i l e his latter phrase sounds very appealing and indeed may be true, one wonders how many people of this generation are capable of hearing the voice of poetry? Perhaps his blanket assessment that modem persons understand myth and poetry tends to be too sweeping a generalization; it rather appears that "storytelling" requires real sensitivity among the persons with whom a story is shared. Like Cully, Westerhoff strongly advocates the use of the church year to provide an especially relevant balance of biblical content for a learning community. Political and social education and action are important matters of content for Wyckoff and Little.^ Little makes the important point that Christian education should help both to transmit useful cultural values and call into question those that are of doubtful value. This is also central to Westerhoff’s position, although Westerhoff uses the unexpected word "enculturation" to explain his paradigm that he calls regularly "radical" and "counter-cultural"; the constant tension between the two foci is perhaps a useful one, Sutcliffe hopes persons will use the insights from Christians such as those in Latin America whose 1 ?Infra, p. 426, Infra, p. 42?. %nfra, pp. 40?, 412, Ill conscientization process has enabled many persons to take more responsible decision making steps in building their own future.^ Gully speaks about the importance of action arising out of a congregation's education program, actions that are based on an "ever-growing ethical love," She relates this to the curriculum content: It can be seen that this is the basis for the child's motivation in Christian social action and the world-wide outreach of the church. These will be an integral, inescapable element in all Christian witness, and for that reason will become an essential part of the curriculum, Westerhoff is clearly the most politically minded of the scholars, offer­ ing considerable content and method to support his claim that a Christian congregation ought to be a counter-cultural community. He sees Christian education having a role in securing facts, investigating various alternative actions and designing political strategies so that any resulting social 3or political action will be responsible. The discussion in this section, based primarily upon the material from the various scholars, is given by way of example of the kinds of content and the breadth of scope that a learning community may choose to include. The biblical materials are at the heart of Christian education programs. In addition, the wealth of Christian literature and the whole situation of life in God's world could well come within the scope of a congregation’s educational plans, A careful development of objectives should help a learning community to define the perimeter of the scope and choose the most important content. F. Context And Process Wyckoff maintains that the context of Christian education is the worship, witness and work of the learning community. Because there 1 2Infra, p. 422, Op, cit,, pp. 154f, ^Infra, p. 428. 112 is "no hard and fast line" separating the church from the world, the church is at work in the world in a servant role, he says. In similar fashion, Gully speaks of Christians being involved in both the cultural and the church community; there is, however, a special purpose of nurture 2within the church context. The Cooperative Curriculum Project speaks of Christian education's context as the whole life of the Christian community and speaks specifically about education through such settings as social action, evangelism and other outreach, service, healing and 3worship. For Little, Christian education is carried on primarily within the context of congregational life, but never in a vacuum; persons Lconcerned must always be regarded in their total life context. The United Church of Canada document speaks of the need for continuous learning which is met both by the general educational institutions of society and the church's program as well; worship is identified as an important context of the latter's life.-^ Westerhoff suggests that the three major contexts are ritual, experience and action, which roughly correspond to the three mentioned by Wyckoff,^ Sutcliffe's learning community context includes every facet of life in the church. He also insists that the learning community "must always be engaged with the issues that arise in living in the world" to avoid any hint of a "with- ndrawn community" that is separated from the wider community life. All of these scholars and the other sources appear to be in essential agreement about the context for Christian education. Their dual emphases ^Infra, p. 407, ^nfra, p, 418, 3 uInfra, p. 415. Infra, p. 412. ■^ Infra, p. 415. ^Infra, p. 425. 7Op. cit., p, 20. 113 about the context being both total life within the church and the church at work in its wider cultural setting is important to a widespread theological stance reflected by such chu2X)hes as the Church of Scotland or the United Church of Canada,^ Within that very wide context, three of the scholars in particular stress the essential requirement that any process for Christian education will include whole persons. Little speaks about whole people engaged in complete living who need to enter into a process that takes account of their emotions, motor skills, perceptive functions, conceptualization and comprehension, the ability to solve problems and an acquisition of 2attitudes and ideas, Westerhoffs word, "life style," attempts to convey the idea of a thinking, feeling, acting person.^ His call for inclusiveness and balance in all modes of learning carries with it a very helpful reminder that any new awareness of intuitive modes of consciousness must not "dull or limit our concern" for any intellectual aspects, Sutcliffe lays special emphasis on the intuitive process noting how children may make a significant teaching contribution to adults with 4their natural skills in this area. Details of process in Wyckoff and Cully also contain important activities that include whole people. Certainly this basic principle is extremely important for a learning community's process; the church's concern for intellectual development must never diminish, but there must be a corresponding interest in all the ways that whole people develop. 2See for example. Church of Scotland, Action 3 (Hamilton, 1979)» p. 1, and, United Church of Canada, Education in Your Church in The 70s, part 4, ^Infra, p. 411. ^Infra, p. 431. ^Infra, p. 423. 114 Little's entire detailed definition of Christian education is expressed in terms of a process that is ultimately directed to restoring "health" to whole persons.^ Wyckoff relates the Christian education curriculum to the specific progi^m objectives that a congregation has determined and warns that the congregation needs to be very clear about 2the process that will be employed to facilitate the objectives. His summary statement seems to be especially helpful and is congruent with the direction implicit in all the scholars: The method of Christian education is participation (or involvement, or engagement) in the life the church lives and the work it does, through; study (of the Bible, histozy, Christian thought, and con­temporary affaiî^), creative expression (through music, the spoken word, and other acts), action (witness, service and social action), fellowship (group living and outreach), stewardship and worship,^ Westerhoff and Sutcliffe would endorse that process statement by Wyckoff, but they both would immediately lay special stress on the concept that all persons, children and adults alike, contribute signifi­ cantly to these methods through interaction,^ While Little, Cully and Wyckoff would not minimize this sharing element among the generations, they generally speak in terms of teachers or leaders and pupils in the learning process. It seems that there are situations where the "all ages teach each other" perspectives may be the best method and other settings where a "pupil-teacher" model could be most appropriate. Westerhoff’s plea in one instance to move away from pupils, teachers, classrooms and curricula to his "community enculturation" paradigm seems rather far removed in another instance when he gives so much content to the term catechesis. Clearly he will have to take his own advice and provide more that one type of paradigm for Christian education. 1 2 Infra, p. 413. Infra, p. 409. ^Infra, p. 410. ^Infra, pp. 425f. 115 One of the major contexts for Christian education in most Protes­ tant churches for almost two hundred years has been the Sunday church school. Cully's 197& book is one of a number of current attempts to bring new life back into that paradigm. She acknowledges that the church survived and grew for centuries without any Sunday school but contends that it still has great potential as a Christian education model in this generation,^ She offers "power" type questions that are designed to assist persons in a congregation who are concerned with the revival of the Sunday school; these are indeed very useful questions that should be addressed by every congregation to help responsible persons clarify their total educational responsibility, including 2the allocation of its people and financial resources. Although Sutcliffe does not personally encourage the Sunday school model, he reports that the world Consultation still recognizes an important place for it. Sutcliffe does allow room for special peer group activities, especially among persons under five and between twelve and fifteen years of age; their needs could possibly be met in part by a paradigm such as the Sunday church school.^ Little differentiates between the educational "needs" of adults and children and generally suggests age 4graded education settings. It should also be noted that he was writing during the period when Sunday schools were at their greatest numerical strength in church history and few people were asking questions in the midst of a "success story." While Wyckoff speaks very strongly of curriculum, teachers, methods, materials and other features that are vital to a Sunday school, he also uses the teim "church school" Infra, p. 418. ^Infra, pp. 4l8f. I^nfra, p. p. 421, Infra, pp. 4llf. 116 1to include every learning context in the community of faith. However, most of his methods and curriculum suggestions are given in the context of divided age groups. Wyckoff generally speaks of contexts where the Sunday school is a significant option among many; every area where church people gather is a potential learning context for him, however, Wester­ hoff, in his more recent hooks, does concede that the Sunday school, in need of reform and revitalization, may still he a viable alternative to 2his community paradigm. However, this is clearly a concession to those who still cherish the model, and Westerhoff would want to place far more accent on the community paradigm and its radical nature as a community of faith.^ All the scholars except Little speak about worship as a prime context for Christian education to take place. None suggests deliberately teaching through liturgy, however. Wyckoff refers to the special values of sermons as a means of communication and the sacraments and festivals 4as opportunities for community reflection. The Cooperative Curriculum Project, acknowledging that worship is an end in itself, still regards worship as a vital context for Christian education. Adding the reading of scriptures to Wyckoffs two points, the Project notes that worship also involves the special element of human response to God’s self giving.^ Both Sutcliffe and Westerhoff contend that children and adults need each other at worship, both for the unique celebration and reflection elements of worship but also for worship's potential of educating persons. Gully appeals to biblical history to demonstrate that as early as the ^Infra, p. 410. ^Infra, pp. 431f. ^Infra, p. 425. ^Infra, p. 407. -^nfra, p. 415, 117 record in Acts, worship- was linked with teaching and fellowship. She speaks about the communication aspect of worship, something much larger 1than learning by doing. Her language that this worship experience is the place where "the self is engaged at its deepest levels," is reminis- 2cent of the wording of James White's descriptions of worship, Westerhoff also notes that Christian education and worship have been linked since the beginning of the Christian era. His very simple statement to dis­ tinguish between the two, "Liturgy is the actions and catechesis the reflections of the community of faith," must be taken in context.^ The statement alone is too simple and suffers without the considerable Ldetail that he offers, Sutcliffe, Cully and Westerhoff not only speak about worship as an important context for Christian education, they also recognize that other contexts in the church’s educational program could become very important settings for teaching persons to worship with greater under­ standing and involvement, I have made special note of the high profile of Sutcliffe's second objective for Christian education, "to prepare for and help to enable participation in worship," He sees this as especially important because he regards worship as the primary activity in the life of the learning community; it is the part of congregational life that enables persons to respond, to take actions into daily living,^ ^Infra, p. 4l9. 2Infra, p, 419; supra, p, 45. ^Infra, p. 432. 4Further discussion of Westerhoff’s description of the difference between education and worship is found in chapter five, infra, pp. 204f. ■^ Sutcliffe, pp. 23f. 118 Gully and Westerhoff also regard worship at the heart of the congregation’s life. Gully is concened that too many Protestant churches tend to gear the level of the worship service to the point where children may feel excluded. Still, the most important part for her, "absorbing the meaning of what it means to pray, praise, listen and feel part of a worshiping community," remains,^ However, in order to maximize the potential values of worship for everyone, she suggests that the Sunday school can help children learn hymns, practice responsive readings, and reflect on the scripture readings in advance. Adult study groups could also gain more from worship, she maintains, by studying the scriptures in advance of worship. She encourages as well having an all age service periodically so that adults and children could really be together and share together 2in worship, Westerhoff*s proposal is very similar to Gully's process. For him, ideally, the hour before worship would become a special educational hour for the entire congregation. If the lectionary were used for both the educational and worship parts, the Christian education value could be enhanced for everyone, children and adults alike.^ Education for fuller participation in worship is indeed an appealing concept suggested by two scholars. Gully and Westerhoff offer very specific suggestions about using the period prior to worship for practice and fuller study. I suggest, however, that this worship preparation should not become the "usual" content for the educational period, but may be especially useful as part or all of the educational program before some major Christian festivals, on Sundays when an all age worship service is planned or when the minister believes the scriptures or sermon content of the worship service require prior reflection and ^Infra, p. 420, ^Infra, p. 419. ^Infra, p. 432. 119 two way communication. The very nature of such a process requires that the minister is not only cognizant of the congregation's educational program, but that he or she is regularly planning with persons who will provide major input for that educational program, G. Seeing the Learning Community Whole The frequently separated learning contexts of the church during the past generations have left too many persons with the impression that Christian education is for children and worship is for adults. If a Sunday school is still retained, its very name tends to reinforce that separation; adults have graduated from school. Still all the scholars emphasize how Christian education is a lifelong process. Westerhoff notes how at certain periods in our development, new learning becomes possible that was beyond an earlier capacity,^ Gully suggests that each 2broadening context in life is part of our continuing nurture. Little speaks about some of the adult needs for education that continue through the life cycle up through accepting the loss of partners and peers on to preparation for one's own death.^ Although most adults would agree with the truth of these positions, many are not inclined to participate in the types of educational programs that congregations tend to provide. How can we see the learning community whole? Wyckoff describes the church as "that company of persons which has been called by God and drawn into a fellowship, in order to worship, witness and work in Christ's name by the power of the Holy Spirit."^ He describes the worship, witness and work all in educational terms and suggests eight requirements for Christian education in a congregation: ^Infra, p. 431. ^nfra, p. 416. ^Infra, p. 411. \nfra, p. 406. 120 a clear understanding of the task, a community of faith, a Christian home, a real church school, sound materials, concern for the world, adequate physical resources and sound administration. He calls the educational task, "one of the ministries by which the church seeks to fulfil its nature and perform its mission." It must be integral, he contends, to every aspect of church life, "Each aspect ultimately involves all others, each utilizes educational procedures, and each helps to achieve the aims of the church," Westerhoff speaks in terms very similar to Wyckoff’s, contending that Christian education unites concerns about persons, the world, tradition and society. The Bible, worship and social action are all at the centre of congregational life for Westerhoff, but Christian education should help the congregation 2evaluate every aspect of its life, he says. It is interesting to note the order of the three priorities that Wyckoff suggests should inform a congregation’s Christian education program. First is for whole congregational education activities; the paradigms of Sutcliffe and Westerhoff would be of this type. Wyckoff's second priority is for the educational needs of families; Gully and Sutcliffe concentrate more on this area than Westerhoff or Little,^ The third priority from Wyckoffs standpoint is for peer groups, but he also ends the same sentence with this proviso : "but in this case, every effort must be maintained to see that there is congregational ^Infra, p. 40?. ^nfra, p, 4]2. 3"^ This aspect of Christian education was very prominent during the 1950s and 1960s as can be seen in the writings of such scholars as Smart, The Teaching Ministry of The Church, pp. 170-186; Wesner Fallaw, "The Role of the Home in Religious Nurture," in Religious Education, ed. Taylor, pp. 143-151; and, Roger Lincoln Shinn, The Educational Mission of Our Church (Philadelphia, 1962), pp. 90-"^ Fallaw was professor at Andover Newton Theological School; Shinn was professor of applied Christianity at Union Theological Seminary, New York. 121 co-ordination of the work of these groups,"^ His first and third priorities are clearly in line with the thinking of Sutcliffe and Westerhoff. Sutcliffe suggests that congregations which wish to maintain an emphasis on peer groups would also do well to look for additional ways of engaging everyone in activities that have meaning for all ages. He describes some manifestations of how this could work out in terms of worship, education, fellowship and action activities. He and the members of the Consultation, however, want to ensure that the church's educational concerns are not separated from other parts of congregational life nor 2separated by age groups. Westerhoff describes the nature of Christian education, social service and action, evangelism, stewardship, pastoral care, fellowship, administration and worship and suggests that ultimately, Christian education can serve as the criterion to evaluate all the other aspects. A variety of educational programs are needed, he contends, but all must be integral to the whole life of the community of faith,^ Sutcliffe suggests that a "decisive question" facing the church is: "how can the church become a worshiping, learning and teaching community in which all are teachers and all are learners; how can we see the church whole?" He proposes this answer to the question; "Seeing the church whole means holding in one integrated view the worship, service, political, mission, social and fellowship life together with other diverse activities in an all-age range of personnel." Sutcliffe goes on to recommend that new methods and new resource materials should take this total church approach. I regard this "seeing the church whole" emphasis, articulated by Wyckoff, but especially as enunciated by Sutcliffe and Westerhoff, to 1 2 Infra, pp, 41 Of. Infra, p. 423. %nfra, p. 433. \nfra, p. 423. 122 be the ideal norm for a community of faith in the 1980s. I believe it is desirable for most congregations to place this whole community concept near the top of congregational objectives. At the same time, it must be recognized that the church will likely continue to serve at least three other identifiable groups. First, there will be those individuals who may choose only to participate in educational programs that involve persons in their peer group or their area of special interest; some of these persons may never participate in the congregation’s worship ser­ vices, action activities or all age learning experiences. Secondly, there will also be some adults and young people who may choose to worship regularly with a congregation but who may never wish to become involved with fellowship or action groups or with any type of educational program. Thirdly, some persons who belong to fellowship or action groups in the community of faith may never attend corporate worship and may also avoid all educational activities. A congregation which sees its task whole will recognize wide potential areas of overlap in all three of these areas. While the overall congregational piegram should probably encourage everyone, and should be designed to suggest that all persons would benefit from a well rounded involvement in all areas, the needs of persons who wish to participate only in one area of church life must be respected. A real sense of community fellowship is quite possible in any or all of the settings. At the same time, the community life of congregations in denominations like the United Church of Canada and the Church of Scotland should always be open to new peinons of all ages who may enter at first casually for worship, education, fellowship or action programs. None of the scholars speaks about that important factor. It also appears that some type of committee that has primary responsibility in the area of Christian education could be the group with the best potential for involving persons from all areas of congregational life. This concept is discussed further in the final chapter. 123 CHAPTER FOUR CONCEPTS OF FAITH DEVELOPMENT The thesis title itself and frequent comments throughout the previous chapters imply a dynamic, growing concept of faith. In order to explore this concept, I will examine primarily the writings of Westerhoff who contends that faith expands or develops through at least four identifiable styles. Westerhoff calls these styles; "experienced faith" (in early childhood), "affillative faith" (in childhood), "searching faith" (during adolescence) and "mature faith" (in adult­ hood) Westerhoff acknowledges that his conceptualization of faith development is not original but was influenced in the first instance by research being undertaken by James W. Fowler III, formerly teaching at Haivard, presently Director of the Centre for Faith Development at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, However, Westerhoff qualifies the extent to which he is dependent on Fowler with this reservation; Since we began communicating, however, I have proceeded in directions for which only I can be held responsible. Never­theless, I do need and want to acknowledge my early debt, and to suggest that Fowler's research may necessitate significant changes in my own ideas. In conversations with Westerhoff in June, I98I, I asked him if he had made any such changes in his faith development theory in the light of Fowler's first full book reporting on his research, Stages Of Faith. ^Supra, p. 3; infra. Appendix F, p. 442. 2Westerhoff, Will Our Children Have Faith?, p. 89. 124 published earlier in I98Î. Westerhoff replied, "No," and pointed out how he insists on a theory much less highly structured than Fowler's,^ Nevertheless, Westerhoff said he believes that his less complex theory is generally compatible with the results of Fowler's research. Although Fowler's research is relatively recent (beginning in 1974), it is foundational to a responsible examination of Westerhoffs theory. Therefore, before considering Westerhoffs faith development concepts in the light of other parallel, well established developmental studies that are backed by longitudinal or life span research data (such as those of Erik Erikson and Lawrence Kohlberg), I will outline briefly some of the theory and cross-sectional research being undertaken by Fowler; this will provide three bases for comparison. The latter sections of this chapter will consider some of the ramifications of a faith development theory when a community of faith seeks to promote faith development through worship and Christian education. A, Fowler's Faith Development Theory And Research The two primary sources of information on Fowler's theory are his book Stages Of Faith, subtitled, "The Psychology of Human Development and the Quest For meaning," published in I98I, and an earlier description ^Interview with John H. Westerhoff III, June 6, I98I. 2In 1974, Fowler describes the tentative nature of his work:"This is a report of work in progress. The author requests that readers treat the stage descriptions as provisional and subject to revision based on the results of an extensive cross-sectional and intergenerational study that he is undertaking in 1974-75. To date the author and his students have conducted approximately seventy-five interviews with children, adolescents and adults. The stages described here are based on an analysis of those interviews." James W. Fowler III, "Toward a Developmental Perspective On Faith," in Religious Education. Vol. 69, (Birmingham, Alabama, 1974), p. 207, 125 of his research, "Life/Faith fattems: Structures of Trust And Loyalty," comprising eighty-eight pages of Life Maps, edited by Jerome Berryman in 1978. In addition to these two books, an earlier article by Fowler, "Toward a Developmental Perspective On Faith," which appeared in the March-April, 1974, issue of the journal. Religious Education, contains valuable information about his general approach and his presuppositions, Fowler earlier hypothesized a seven stage theory including a "Stage 0" which he titled, "Undifferentiated."^ His later description has six stages of faith entitled; 1. Intuitive-Projective; 2, Mythic-Literal; 3. Synthetic-Conventional; 4, Individuative-Reflexive; 5» Conjunctive; 6, Universalizing. Within each of the six stages, Fowler outlines seven categories of human development: a. form of logic (modified Piaget); b. form of world coherence; c. role-taking (modified Selman); d. locus of authority; e. bounds of social awareness; f. form of moral judgment (modified Kohlberg); g. role of symbols,^ Fowler summarizes all forty- two elements of his theory in point form in a "Faith: 8truetural-Develop- 4mental Chart." Fundamental to understanding Fowler's theory is a recognition of his use of the term "faith." He is very explicit about his usage in his research: Fowler, "Toward a Developmental Perspective On Faith," p. 214, This stage is referred to as "a pre-conceptual, pre-linguistic disposition toward the conditions of life," 2James W. Fowler, "Life/Faith Patterns: Structures of Trust And Loyalty," in Life Maps, ed. Jerome Berryman (Waco, Texas, 1978), pp. 42- 90, 96-99; James W, Fowler, Stages Of Faith (San Francisco, I98I), pp. 119“210, ^Fowler, "Life/Faith Patterns," pp. 96-99; Appendix E, Chart 1, infra, pp. 43&f. 4This complete chart is reproduced in Appendix E, 126 Here I shall ask you to begin to think of faith as a way of knowing. It may also help to think of faith as a way of construing or interpreting one's experience. At any rate faith, as we shall use it, is an active, constructive, interpretive mode of being. He offers a further statement in "theological language," stating that "faith is the knowing or construing by which persons apprehend themselves 2as related to the Transcendent." In terms of a definition, he points readers beyond the English usage of faith as a noun and says: This means that we find it natural to say of a person that he or she "has faith" or does not "have faith," In this way, faith almost inadvertently comes to be thought of as a static collection of beliefs or propositions, or, at best, an externally definable set of perspectives that a person can pick up or set down much as one might a suitcase full of valuables. , .Thus, as we examine the term faith more closely, two things become clear. First, faith is not a noun but a verb. Second, faith is an active "mode-of-being-in-relation" to another or others in which we invest commitment, belief, love, risk and hope.^ In a further clarification of his usage of the term faith, he reiterates: "Faith is an active or dynamic phenomenon. A verb, not a noun, faith is a way of-being-in-relation— a stance, a way of moving into and giving 4form and coherence to life," His major summary point is that faith "plays a central role in shaping the responses a person will make in and against the force-field of his or her life. Faith then, is a core element in one's character or personality."^ Fowler's research is based primarily on one aspect of his description of faith, and that is on faith as a form of "knowing." However, he points out very explicitly at this point that his "faith knowing" is ^Fowler, "Toward a Developmental Perspective On Faith," p. 207, ^Ibid. Fowler, "Life/Faith Patterns," p. 18; see Fowler, "Toward a Developmental Perspective On Faith," p. 207; Fowler, Stages Of Faith.pp. 16-23. ^Fowler, "Life/Faith Patterns," p. 24. ■^bid., p. 25. 127 1different from Piaget's narrower definition of knowing. "The affirmation is that faith is a kind of knowing in which cognition and affection are 2interwoven." This important principle must he home in mind whenever speaking of Fowler's use of the term "knowing" in connection with faith. Throughout his work the affective aspect of "faith knowing" is included. He further emphasizes that this integrated cognitive-affective "faith knowing" is the sole basis of his research: Finally, we only claim to deal with faith insofar as it is a kind of knowing. How that is related to faith as doing and being is„ a topic that awaits a great deal more research and observation.^ In Stages Of Faith, he acknowledges, however, that there is much more to faith than "knowing" when faith is regarded as "whole." He notes the difficulty this presents for research: Unlike some other topics on which we might do research and reflect, we cannot easily externalize faith and make it the detached object of our inquiry. . , Faith as a mystery is perplexing because we are internal to it. We are involved in ways that matter greatly, in the phenomenon we try to understand.^ Piaget'8 and Kohlberg's structuralist approaches are central to Fowler,^ He acknowledges his debt to them and continues: "They have Fowler writes: "I am concerned here to make clear that the structure of form we are investigating is not strictly cognitive or logical (as in Piaget's work), but rather is a structural or formal aspect in which cognition and affectivity are fused or intertwined." Fowler, "Toward a Developmental Perspective On Faith," p. 213; see Fowler, Life/Faith Patterns," p. 37; Fowler, Stages Of Faith, p. I03. ^Ibid,, p. 211; see Fowler, "Life/Faith Patterns," p. 37; Fowler, Stages Of Faith, pp. IO3-IO5. % i d . , p. 214. ^Op. cit., p. 32. ^loder defines structuralism; "Structuralism taken generally, says that the human mind has innate formal properties which determine the limits within which all types of behaviour occur— psychic, social and cultural. . .Developmentally, structuralism argues that transfor­mation of cognitive structures takes place in stages," Loder, pp. 59f. 128 challenged us to see that it is not just the contents of our ideas and values that differ; at various stages in our development the fundamental Ipatterns of operation within our minds may be quite different," He follows this statement with some specific examples. Then Fowler makes a connection between these structuralists and other theological mentors whose teachings in faith have clearly influenced him considerably: When I became aware of the research and theories of Piaget and Kohlberg, I began to sense that the broadly phenomenological understanding of faith I had learned from Paul Tillich, H, Richard Niebuhr and Wilfred Cantwell Smith would be susceptible to structural-developmental investigation. In that same context he expresses a deep gratitude to Erik Erikson and other developmental psychologists who are not necessarily structuralists, Fowler constructed a tentative structuralist theoretical model . based on the faith concepts identified above and on a combination of various developmental theories. He used this model to test his first study group of some seventy-five persons; these preliminary results formed the basis of his 1974 provisional description,^ Since that time, he and his associates have interviewed more than four hundred persons ranging in age from four to eighty-four,^ Before turning to the actual titles, age levels and other comments on his stages of faith, I must note two further significant points that he makes about his theory. "First, it is necessary to keep in mind that the description of stages to be given here are ’still shots,’ and as ^Fowler, "Life/Faith Patterns," p. 34; see Fowler, Stages of Faith, p. 101, ^Fowler, "Life/Faith Patterns," p. 35. 3Fowler, "Toward a Developmental Perspective On Faith," pp. 213f, 4 ,Fowler, "Life/Faith Patterns," p. 35; Fowler, Stages Of Faith, p. 307. ---------- 129 such, constitute interruptions of a complex and dynamic process,"^ The transition from one stage to another may involve the dissolution of a 2total way of making sense of things, "Second, it is a serious mistake to think of these stages as constituting an achievement scale according to which we can build an accelerator-educational program."''^ They should however be very useful in clarifying aims in education and in under­ standing interrelated patterns of our thinking, he says. He also offers an important warning about stages in a faith development theory in this same context: Nor should we view them as an evaluative scale by which to establish the comparative worth of persons. , .We must emphasize that the process of "staging" a person should not be approached with a cubbyhole mentality. The stages are not boxes into which people may be stuffed. Rather, they are models by which certain inter­related patterns of our thinking, valuing and acting may be better understood. At this point, I will merely outline the relative ages of persons and indicate a few salient characteristics of persons in each of Fowler's six stages of faith. An outline of more of the contents of each stage is left to section G of this chapter when I compare Westerhoff s theory to those of Fowler, Erikson and Kohlberg. 1. Fowler's stage one is entitled, "Intuitive-Projective Faith"; children interviewed at this stage ranged in age from four to seven or eight, "There is a rudimen­ tary awareness of the self as the centre of experience and as the object of others' interests and concerns," says Fowler. The child is constantly ^Fowler, "Life/Faith Patterns," p. 37. ^■bid., p. 38. I^bid. 4 .Ibid.; see Mary M. Wilcox, Developmental Journey (Nashville, 1979), p. 251, Wilcox offers a very strong warning about this danger in Fowler and other developmentailsts. 130 confronting new objects, situations, events and persons and has not yet developed the inner structures for sorting and understanding.^ 2. Stage two is "Mythic-Literal Faith"; here the typical age range of children sampled was between six and twelve years of age. "In the world of perpetual expeizienoe, the boy or girl typically becomes a young empiricist, separating the real from the unreal on the basis of practical experience," Fowler contends. He notes further that "this is a world of 2hope and terror; of reassuring images and myths." 3» Stage three, "Synthetic-Conventional Faith," has both its adolescent and adult versions. Fowler maintains that adolescents may move beyond stage three by ages seventeen to eighteen, but many adults are best described by this stage through their older adulthood, "A hallmark of Stage 3 is its way of structuring the world and the ultimate environment in interpersonal terms. , . The individual constructs an image of self as seen by others, and simultaneously takes account of the fact that other persons are performing the same operations in their relationships." Persons at this stage are therefore quite dependent on "significant others," and for this reason, Fowler calls this a "conformist" stage.^ 4. Stage four is "Individuative-Reflexive Faith ." Here the self begins to construct and maintain its own identity without the same degree of dependence on the significant others-, "People at this stage hold themselves and others accountable for authenticity, congruence, and consistency in the relation between self and outlook," writes Fowler. He warns, however, that it would be a mistake to think of this stage as an "individualistic" stage; rather, at this point the former dependent ^Fowler, "Life/Faith Patterns," p. 42. ^Ibid., p. 49. ^Ibid., pp. 60f. i3l relationships "become the expressions of a more autonomous identity and outlook which have begun to shape their own determinate foims." The transition between stages three and four may be protracted, and may begin as early as age seventeen.^ 5» Fowler recently changed the title of stage five fix>m "Paradoxical-Gonsolidative Faith" to "Conjunctive Faith." Transition to stage five is rare before thirty, contends Fowler. He maintains that: "The structural characteristics of Stage 5 are not a content that can be taught, but rather are the products of one* s reflective interaction with other people and with the conditions of 2one's life." In Stages Of Faith, he acknowledges that he has not found a simple way to describe conjunctive faith. He indicates his frustration over communicating the features of this stage, asks questions about the existence of the stage, and concludes; "The truth, I believe, is that Stage 5f as a style of faith-knowing, does exist and it ^ complex. . . its structural features have not been adequately described, either in my own previous writings or in the writings of others,"^ He suggests that the phrase "dialectical knowing" comes close to describing the style of stage five, yet he prefers to speak of "dialogical knowing." He describes the term: In dialogical knowing the known is invited to speak its own word in its own language. In dialogical knowing the multiplex structure of the world is invited to disclose itself. In a mutual "speaking" and "hearing," knower and known converse in an I-Thou relationship. The knower seeks to accomodate her or his knowledge to the structure of that which is. being known before imposing her or his own categories upon it,^ ^Ibid., pp. 69f. ^Ibid., p. 80, ^Op. cit., p, 184. ^Ibid., p. I85, 132 Fowler further notes that, "Stage 5 accepts as axiomatic that truth is more multidimensional and organically interdependent than most theories or accounts of truth can grasp," A person at stage five is ready for significant encounters with other traditions than its own. Stage five's "radical openness to the truth of the other stems from its confidence in the reality mediated by its own tradition and in the awareness that that reality overspills its mediation."^ 6, Fowler contends that stage six, "Universalizing Faith," is exceedingly rare. In attempting to describe the nature of stage six, he suggests names of persons who for him would be representatives of stage six faith; Mahatma Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr. in his last years of life. Mother Teresa of Calcutta and 2others. • It is clear that Fowler has had no interviews with these persons in order to make any serious analysis of the structures of their faith; this departure from his practice in researching the other stages raises some questions of credibility for this sixth stage. He has selected popular heroes on the world scene whose lives he obviously admires and suggests that these persons typify universalizing faith. He hastens to assure; "To be Stage 6 does not mean to be perfect, whether perfection be understood in a moral, psychological or leader- ship s e n s e , H e suggests that persons of universalizing faith demonstrate leadership qualities that he describes as "redemptive subversiveness," that "derive from visions they see and to which they have committed their total being.Persons of such faith exhibit enlarged visions of universal community that disclose the narrowness of most persons' "tribal identities," says Fowler,^ This "universal" ^Ibid., pp, I86f. ^Ibid., p. 201, ^Ibid,, p, 202, ^Ibid., p, 203. bowler, "Life/Faith Patterns," pp. 88f. 133 concept could leave the impression that Fowler regards some form of syncretism as the most significant point of faith development. However, he goes to some length to uphold "absoluteness" within particular faith traditions in which persons live as committed participants; his univer- salism is expressed in terms of those participants offering others in inter-faith encounters their "honest, unexaggerated and nonpossessive sharing" of such absoluteness,^ In looking at his total discussion on stage six, it is clear that Fowler's own personal faith perspective plays a larger role than in the content of his first five stages, Fowler has derived these six stages of faith development from a combination of several developmental theories, his own theological and developmental hypotheses and the results of research interviews with more than four hundred persons. During his research interviews he orients persons by stating that he does not call his meeting a "’faith development interview,' because I expect that you would immediately associate faith with religion and belief, and that is not ray intention. Rather I ask you to share some of your attitudes and values in life, 2and something of the life experiences that have helped to shape them," The interview itself is in four parts,^ Part one is a "life review," asking a number of questions about family, geography, illness, significant others and times of special growth. Part two is called "life-shaping experiences and relationships," This goes beyond part one to a more in-depth review of persons, opportunities, special experiences and crises of life. Part three, "present values and commitments," asks ^Fowler, Stages Of Faith, p, 209, ^Ibid, p. 307. 3See "Faith Development Interview Guide," Appendix E, chart 2, infra, pp, 440f. 134 questions about issues with which faith must deal, including questions about death and life after death. Part four is entitled simply "religion," where Fowler asks the person to regard himself as a religious person and poses questions that attempt to clarify "what kind of religious or nonreligious person" the person is. The whole interview with adults takes between two and two and one-half hours; his interviews with children are considerably briefer. Fowler tapes the interview with the permission of the persons concerned,^ B. Westerhoff* s General Concepts in Faith Development Fowler's faith development theory is a massive combination of parallel structuiralist theories requiring a researcher to work with its forty-two components (six stages times seven categories within each stage). In contrast, Westerhoff has developed a much less complex theory, considerably modified from the structuralist stance; his theory speaks of four "styles" of faith. I will make comparisons between Fowler's "stages" and Westerhoff*s "styles" in section G of this chapter. However, since Westerhoff*s styles of faith are described in tezms of development over the span of a person’s life, it is most desirable that some other theories used in comparison should be backed by "life span" or "longitudinal" research in addition to the cross- sectional data available from Fowler to this date. Longitudinal clinical research requires the passage of many years before one can confirm with any degree of accuracy the relationships of theoretical stages of development to the total life span of persons studied, I propose to use in this chapter, for comparison purposes, therefore, two classical works on human development, both of which are backed by years of clinical research and both of which enjoy wide international 1Fowler, Stages Of Faith, pp, 308ff. 135 recognition; these are works by Lawrence Kohlberg and Erik Erikson. Fowler's structuralist appiroach to faith development is roughly analogous to Kohlberg's research on development of moral stages.^ Lawrence Kohlberg in turn has followed Jean Piaget’s structural hypotheses in identifying his (Kohlberg's) six stages of moral development.^ For Kohlberg, as for Westerhoff, developmental progression is one stage at a time with each stage having its own kind of integrity, Erikson is probably the most influential and widely read ego psychologist. His multidisciplinary approach to ego development, based originally on research by Sigmund Freud, has been applied to many areas 4of human development, Erikson employs an epigenetic principle to describe his concept of growth. He explains; Whenever we try to understand growth, it is well to remember the epigenetic principle which is derived from the growth of organisms in utero. Somewhat generalized, this principle states that any­thing that grows has a ground plan, and that out of this ground plan the parts arise, each part having its time of special ascend­ency, until all parts have arisen to form a functioning whole, Erikson contends that this growth progresses through a series of eight identifiable crises;^ he explains the use of the term "crises," saying that "we claim only that psychological development proceeds by critical steps— 'critical' being a characteristic of turning points, of moments ^See James Loder and Campbell Wyckoff, in Foundations for Christian Education in an Era Of Change, ed, Taylor, pp, 65 and 135. ^Ibid,, p, 63; Appendix D, pp, 436f. ^See Loder, p, 64; Westerhoff, Will Our Children Have Faith?.pp. 89f. 4See Loder, pp. 5of, ■^ Eri S^ee Appendix G, Chart 1, p. 434. ' ik Erikson, Identity; Youth And Crisis (London, I968), p, 92, 6, 136 of decision between progress and regression, integration and retardation,"^ In a later, further clarification, Erikson adds that crisis is used "in a developmental sense to connote not a threat of catastrophe, but a turning point, a crucial period of increased vulnerability and heightened 2potential," Erikson's basic epigenetic chart (Appendix G, Chart l) appears to offer a very helpful picture for us to vizuaiize Westerhoff s theory on styles of faith development in comparison with Erikson's psychosocial development. In the chart, "the diagonal represents the normative sequence of psychosocial gains made as at each stage one or more nuclear conflict adds a new ego quality, a new criterion of accruing human strength,""^ The non-designated spaces below the diagonal on Erikson's chart represent the precursors of each critical step, all of which are present in some potential state from the outset. Those blank spaces above the diagonal provide room for the derivatives of each gain as maturity 4increases, Erikson emphasizes that although it is possible to explore each individual stage separately and identify it more or less fittingly, we must always keep the total configuiation of the diagram in mind,^ In similar fashioa, Westerhoff contends: "As we expand in faith we do not leave one style of faith behind to acquire a new style but, on the con­ trary, each new style is added to the previous ones,"^ Rather than ^Erik Erikson, Childhood And Society. Second Edition (New York,1963), pp. zyof. 2Erikson, Identity; Youth And Crisis, p. 96, ^Erikson, Childhood And Society, p. 270. ^Ibid. 4bid,, p. 272. Westerhoff, Will Our Children Have Faith?, pp, 90f, 137 developing a chart like Erikson's to describe this relationship of all styles of faith, Westerhoff uses an analogy of a tree, at the same time acknowledging the inadequacy of such an analogy, "first, a tree with one ring is as much a tree as a tree with four r i n g s . H e notes how a tree with more rings "is not a better tree but only an expanded tree. In a similar way, one style of faith is not a better or greater faith 2than another." Westerhoff continues the analogy to speak about environ­ ment for growth, the need for slow growth (one ring at a time), and the fact that a growing tree adds rings rather than eliminating previous 3rings. While I find his analogy very clear and helpful, it lacks the potential for analysis and comparison that is implicit in Erikson's chart. Keeping always in mind that need for relating the components to the whole, it becomes possible to study Westerhoff s styles of faith in 4the light of Erikson's diagram. Erikson himself proposes that such an enterprise is appinpriate and desirable. He writes; The diagram invites, then, a thinking through of all its empty boxes; if we have entered Basic Trust in I-l and Integrity in VIII-8, we leave the question open, as to what trust might have become in a stage dominated by the need for integrity even as we have left open what it may look like, and indeed be called in the stage dominated by a striving for Autonomy (ll-l). All we mean to emphasize is that trust must have developed in its own right, before it becomes something more in the critical encounter in which autonomy develops— and so on, up the vertical. If, in the last stage (VIII-î), we would expect trust to have developed into the most mature faith that an aging person can muster in his cultural setting and historical period, the chart permits the consideration not only of what old age can be, but also what its preparatory stages have been.5 ^Ibid., pp. 89f. ^Ibid,, p. 90, ^Ibid. 4Appendix G, Ghart 1, -%p, cit. 138 This explanation by Erikson of the potential inherent in his chart, allows us to think through Westerhoff s styles of faith visually in the light of Erikson's chart. In effect, Westerhoffs concept should provide suggested theoretical data to propose for some of the empty boxes up the vertical left hand column of Erikson's chart. However, before considering the individual styles of Westerhoff s faith development theory in the light of Erikson*s psychosocial growth stages, Kohlberg's moral development levels and Fowler's faith development stages, there are two other prior questions that need to be addressed; 1, How does Westerhoff use the term "faith?" and, 2, What generalizations does Westerhoff offer about his total faith development concept? 1. Westerhoff summarizes his use of the word faith with the following statement (references to faith as a verb are similar to Fowler’s); Faith, as I am using the word, represents the centered behaviours of persons, embodying their minds (beliefs), hearts (affections) and wills (actions) expressed through their lives in accordance with their growth or development. Faith, as such, is a verb. The activity of "faithing" has no age bounds but appeals to express itself in characteristic, identifiable ways (styles) at differing points in a person's faith pilgrimage. . . it is deeply personal and dynamic,^ While I am not aware of Westerhoff s acknowledging anywhere a debt to Paul Tillich for the above explanation of his understanding of faith, the content and terminology (apart from the references to faith as a verb)^ reflect very closely Tillich's position. Tillich writes; ^Westerhoff, Learning Through Liturgy, p. 162, 2Westerhoff frequently refers to faith as a verb, (e.g., Westerhoff, Will Our Children Have Faith?, p, 89; Westerhoff, Learning Through Liturgy, pp. 119, 162,) He explains his reasons in one setting; "To complicate matters, in the English language faith is a noun, a word that refers or points to something else— a person, place or thing. If we think of faith as a thing, we can easily say that we have 'found it' or 'lost it.'But it is more hopeful to think of faith as a centered integrated action, as a verb. We should speak of 'being faithful' rather than of 'having faith,(ibid,, p, 119.) While I appreciate what Westerhoff is emphas­izing, I do not intend to employ his term "faithing" myself. His point is clearly that we need a living, dynamic understanding of faith. 139 In the act of faith every nerve of man's hody, every striving of man's soul, every function of man's spirit participates. But body, soul, spirit are not three parts of man. They are dimensions of man's being, always within each other; for man is a unity and not composed of parts. Faith, therefore, is not a matter of mind in isolation, or of soul in contrast to mind and body, or of the body (in the sense of animal faith), but is the centered movement of the whole personality toward something of ultimate meaning and significance.1 The term "centered," the detailed outline of faith embodying all aspects of persons' being and the regular use of the adjective "dynamic" with faith, are just three of several clear parallels between Westerhoff's and Tillich's use of the word faith. In various other statements, Westerhoff also uses the word "ultimate" in connection with faith. The term "ultimate concern" is central to Tillich's primary definition of faith, Tillich writes" "Faith is the state of being ultimately concerned; the dynamics of faith are the 2dynamics of man's ultimate concern," Westerhoff writes; "Faith is deeply personal, dynamic, ultimate, , , Religion is important, but not ultimately important. Educationally, religion is a means not an end; faith is the only end,"-^ While it is beyond the scope of this thesis to explore in any detail the use of difficult theological terms "ultimate" used by Westerhoff and "ultimate concern" employed by Tillich in connection with faith, the terms need to be identified in order to under­ stand Westerhoff’s perspective. For Tillich and for Westerhoff, the concept is bound up with the other word "centered" and with the involve­ ment of the total personality in faith, Tillich points to the source of his term in the great commandment: Paul Tillich, Dynamics Of Faith (London, 1937), p, 106. ^Ibid,, p, 1. Westerhoff, Will Our Children Have Faith?, pp. 21 f. See also ■ Westerhoff, Who Are We?, u, 270. 140 (God) is the ultimate concern of every Jew, and therefore in his name the great commandment is given: "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might" (Deut. 6:5). This is what ultimate concern means and from these words the term "ultimate concern" is derived. Allan Galloway expresses his indebtedness to Tillich’s definition of faith as "the state of being grasped by ultimate concern," since it 2unifies for him several important components of faith in life. He comments further, however, qualifying his support for Tillich: But the question of the ultimate meaning of life as a whole arises. This is the area of ultimate concern. The first question of theWestminster Gatechism; "What is the chief end of man?" is the _question of ultimate concern. It raises the question of faith, I believe it is fair to suggest, in summary, that Westerhoff’s use of the word "ultimate" is closer to this explanation by Galloway than to Tillich's term, "ultimate concern." 2, Westerhoff contends that although "each person's faith has its own unique characteristics," it is possible to make several "generaliz­ ations concerning the pilgrimage of faith"; he describes these in terms of "style" as opposed to the term "stages" used by Fowler, Frikson and Kohlberg.^ Westerhoff suggests six generalizations: a. We do not give a child faith, A child has faith at birth. While the content of our faith is acquired through our interactions with other faithing selves, a person's faith can expand, that is become more complex. Expanded faith is not greater faith and, therefore, one's style of faith is not to be judged. ^Op. cit., pp. 2f, 2Allan Galloway, Faith in a Changing Culture (London, I967), p.13. Ibid., p. 14. It should be noted that Galloway does not regard the tern, "ultimate concern" as final or normative. He contends: "It is rather a methodological tool which provides a point of entry into the problem," p. 17 4See especially, Westerhoff, op, cit. Westerhoff, Learning Through Liturgy, p, 162, Wbid,, pp. l62f. î4l The phrase, "a child has faith at birth," raises a number of theological and psychological questions that are beyond the scope of this study. In the absence of Westerhoff s providing further supporting data for this contention, I make this comparative observation from the psychological viewpoint; Erifcson is much more cautious in this regard and would suggest that basic trust (the source of faith) is the baby's "first basic whole­ ness."^ I personally prefer Erikson's open and tentative concept of the origins of faith in the developing personality, Fowler employs many of Erikson's concepts to speak of the child's earliest awareness, prior to language and prior to concepts. He uses the term "pre-images of God" to describe a pre-stage of "Undifferentiated faith"; his description comes very close to Westerhoff's generalization about a child having faith at birth.^ Westerhoff s second important point about faith expanding is quite consistent with Fowler's, Erikson's and Kohlberg's developmental principles.^ b. The style of our faith is not directly related to our age. That is, faith expands only if a proper environment exists. If this environment does not exist,, faith ceases to expand until the proper environment is established. Kohlberg constantly reiterates this same principle for his parallel See Erikson, Childhood And Society, p. 247. Erikson links faith, hope and basic trust in this way: "The ontological source of faith and hope which. , , emerges I have called a sense of basic trust: it is the first basic wholeness, for it seems to imply that the inside and the outside can be experienced as an interrelated goodness." Erikson, Identity; Youth And Crisis, p. 82. ^Fowler, Stages Of Faith, p. 121, 3See Erikson, Chilhood And Society, p. 270; Lawrence Kohlberg,"From Is To Ought," in Cognitive Development And Epistemology. ed, Theodore Mischell (London, 1971), p, 167; Fowler, "Toward A Developmental Perspec­tive On Faith," p. 213, 4Westerhoff, Learning Through Liturgy, p. 165. 142 studies in moral development, that age may not be the significant determinant in growth. "The concept of stages, , . implies something more than age trends. . . It is, of course, possible for a child to move at varying speeds and to stop (become fixated) at any level of develop- ment." Erikson also relates the positive resolution of his stages of ego development as much to related elements of the social order and the radius of significant relations (both parts of "proper environment" for Westerhoff) as to age factors in the maturing personality.^ This impor­ tant point by Westerhoff about environment in faith development has many ramifications for worship, education and life generally in the community of faith; consideration of some of those implications is left for later sections of this chapter. Fowler provides strong support for Westerhoff s generalization on environment in his discussion in some detail of the relationship between psychosocial development, other developmental theories and faith development. He suggests some "optimal relations" common to Erikson's psychosocial development and his (Fowler's) structural- developmental stages of faith. He then notes: "Seeing their optimal correlations with psychosocial eras gives a sense of how time, experience, challenge and nurture are required for growth in faith,"^ c. Faith's expansion is slow and gradual, moving systematically over time to acquire additional characteristics. It cannot be speeded up beyond its normal rate of growth, nor can cha^cter- istics of its various styles be avoided or passed over, Erikson makes the same point in his study; "each critical item of ^Op. cit, 2See Appendix G, Chart 2. See also, op, cit., pp. 270ff,Erikson's epigenetic principle, however, has one important difference fiTom Kohlberg's and Westerhoff's theories. For Erikson, persons always meet their identified crises at the appropriate physical age level; however, his theory allows for negative as well as positive resolutions of each crisis. In order to employ Erikson's work for comparison purposes here, I am always refering to the positive aspects of each crisis. Wp, cit., p. 114. Op. cit. 143 psychosocial strength described here is systematically related to all others, and, , , they all depend on the proper development in the proper sequence of each item."^ Similarly, Kohlberg says of his develop­ ment concept; "stages imply invariant sequence. Each child must go step 2by step through each of the kinds of moral judgment outlined," Likewise, Fowler makes it clear for his theory; "These stagelike positions are related to a sequence we believe to be invariant."''^ d. The expansion of faith into new styles does not eliminate thefaith needs of previous styles of faith. Rather, as it expands it only becomes more complex. If, therefore, the needs of earlystyles of faith are denied or neglected, a person will strive tomeet those needs until all are satisfied,^ I have noted above how Erikson's epigenetic diagram (Appendix G, Ghart l) underlines this principle of expanding and more complex faith develop­ ment throughout life.^ Kohlberg details how this generalization applies to his theory: It should be noted that any individual is usually not entirely at one stage. Typically, as children develop they are partly in their major stage (about 50^ of their ideas), partly in the stage into which they are moving and partly in the stage they have just left behind. There is, however, a subtle but impoirtant difference between Westerhoff's and Kohlberg'5 developmental theories at this point, Kohlberg's moral development theory is clearly in "stages" that imply progression to new totally integrated levels, leaving behind most thought patterns and attitudes of previous levels. Westerhoff is careful to maintain always ^Op. cit., p. 271. ^Op. cit. 3Op. cit., p, 99. Fowler is even more explicit in his earlier research: "I claim that the stages in faith development are hierarchical, sequential and invariant." Fowler, "Toward a Developmental Perspective On Faith," p. 213. 4 pose here a set of criteria to assist a community of faith in evaluating, improving or developing components of its worship and education life so that the congregation can better support the faith development of all its members.^ Since the background of these criteria is discussed in some detail above, I present them here without elaboration for purposes of later identification and use. As a format, I have chosen to propose 2seven main criteria, each with related statements (being further details Page references are given to locate the discussion only in the body of the thesis; it is deaned unnecessary to repeat references cited in the summary in section A of this chapter. ^ y seven chosen areas are: persons, faith development,, corporate worship, Christian education, process, content and integration. 214 or derivatives of the main criteria); these latter statements are also articulated in the form of criteria. Here then, are criteria for faith development in a community of faith: 1, The primary concern of a community of faith should be with whole persons of all ages, l.a. The closest possible personal relations ought to be fostered among all persons, l.b. The emphasis in all relationships should be upon mutual sharing with other persons, freeing them to make their own decisions. I.e. The church should promote a sense of belonging for all persons, at the same time remaining open always to new persons, l.d. The church ought to emphasize that each person is invited to contribute significantly to the life of the community of faith. 1.e. Constant attention is required to the potential need for providing both peer group and intergenerational experiences for Ipersons of all ages, 2. Faith appears to expand or develop through at least four identifiable styles: experienced faith, affiliative faith, searching faith and mature faith. 2.a. It is possible for persons in the community of faith to encourage and support the development of other persons' faith. 2,b. It is desirable to support faith development within styles and encourage development towards more complex styles. 2.C. The Community of faith needs to be constantly aware of the unique needs of the searching faith style in comparison to needs Supra, pp. (1) 82f, 88, 114, I38, I89, 212f; (l.a) 6lf, 82, 85; (l.b) 89f, 92f, 98, 200; (l.c) 62f, 122, 210; (l.d) 84, 200;(l.e) 63f, 82ff, 114, 120f, 142, I65, 188. 215 of the affiliative and mature faith styles.^ 3, Corporate worship (described as follows) may be instrumental in promoting faith development; Worship is our coming together in faith, responding to God's revelation in Jesus Christ and celebrating life in God's world, 3.a. Worship services should both challenge persons and provide stability zones, 3,b, Generally most worship ought to be conducted with a special sensitivity to the characteristics of the affiliative faith style. 3.C. Some special woi^hip provisions may be required for persons 2in a searching faith style. 4, Christian education (described as follows) may be instrumental in promoting faith develojMent: Christian education is a deliberate process employed by the community of faith to assist persons at each stage of their lives to develop in faith and to make personal decisions by hearing, reflecting upon, understanding, sharing and applying the word of God in their individual and corporate lives. 4.a. Adult leaders must be aware of the level of understanding that can be expected of children when dealing with biblical materials in particular. 4,b. The theological questioning and critical and inquiring needs that are prominent in searching faith are present to some degree in all faii±i styles and require some special attention by the community of faith.^ 5, The process in worship and Christian education should be based on ^Supra, pp. (2) I37, 146-137,- (2.a) 19, 146, 203-211; (2.b) 164, 183f; (2.c) 211f. ^Supra, pp. (3) 192, 198f, 203-211; (3.a) 68f; (3.b) 208;(3.0) 211f. 3Supra, pp. (4) 194, 200f, 203-211; (4.a) 169-180, 183;(4.b) 203f, 209. 216 democratic principles where all who share are encouraged to participate in decision making and in leadership. 5.a. The community of faith ought to encourage the maximum possible level of involvement by lay persons together with ministers in the preparation, conduct and participation in services of worship. 5.b. Intergenerational Christian education requires a special process that is sensitive to the promotion of learning across the generations. 3,0. The community of faith should be diligent in avoiding the manipulation of persons in worship and the indoctrination of persons in Christian education,^ 6, Primary areas of content common to both worship and Christian education in their promotion of faith development include: God revealed in Jesus Christ, the Bible, and Christian life and action. 6.a. The community of faith should be constantly examining the theological perspectives that inform its worship seirvices and Christian education programs. 6.b. A church must employ a responsible hermeneutic for the preaching, teaching and studying of the Bible. 6.C. A balanced combination of persons' concerns, the church year, the secular calendar and world events may suggest the most significant content for a congregation's worship and Christian education. 6.d. A study of both the societal effects and potential liturgical and educational use of electronic media could be profitable for a community of faith. 6.e. A congregation should consider the potential values and ^Supra, pp. (3) 83f, 92f, lOOf, IlOf; (3.a) 30, 63f, 69, 118;(3.b) 183f, 188; (3.0) 63, 89-94. 217 limitations of conflict being introduced into worship and Christian education.^ 7, The community of faith should see itself whole and should promote some integration of its worship, education and action life, 7,a. Worship elements in Christian education paradigms and educational dimensions of worship services should be recognized and enriched. 7,b. The community of faith ought to consider employing some educational experiences to help persons participate more meaning­ fully in worship services, 7.0. A variety of approaches and a variety of paradigms are needed 2 ■in a community of faith to serve a variety of needs and tastes. The words I use to describe all the above criteria are working hypotheses, I regard the phrase "working hypothesis" to be a very positive term, yet at the same time it preserves the necessarily tentative stance that needs to be maintained in the continually developing under­ standings of worship, Christian education and faith development,^ These criteria constitute the major instruments that I employ in the following three chapters to examine the role in faith development of existing or potential worship and Christian education paradigms in a community of faith. Supra, pp. (6) l6f, 47f, 97, 7, 23f, 30, 94f, 104, 14, 3I, 67, 98, 103, liOf, 114, 117, 121; (6.a) 40f, 104; (6.b) 103-109, 173f;(6.c) 64, 66, 8lf, 39. 118; (6.d) 29f, 70; (6.e) I3, 31f, 6?f, IlOf, 212, ^Supra, pp. (7) 69, lllf, 116-122, 203ff, 212, 213; (7.a) 69,116f, 119, 203f; 17.b) 117f; (7.c) 38, 70f, 113f, l63f, I89, 211f. ^Supra, p. 99, footnote 4, 218 CHAPTER SIX FOUR EXISTING PARADIGMS STUDIED In this chapter, I use the faith development criteria as working instruments to examine four quite diverse paradigms that are now being employed by four different congregations; one in Scotland, one in Canada and two in the United States. The first and third of these paradigms are concerned primarily with Christian education and the second and fourth with corporate worship. From the data available, it is not possible to determine whether or not faith development is indeed taking place as a partial result of the paradigms. That type of analysis would require carefully controlled clinical research over a generation on the lives of several persons within the congregations, and perhaps also a parallel study of other persons outside the congregations concerned. It should be possible, however, on the basis of the information available, to discover if the four congregations have a sound theological and theoretical perspective and if they try to organize and operate their paradigms in ways that would appear to support and p2x>mote faith development. Each of these communities of faith was selected for special and different reasons. Hope Park Church was chosen primarily because I have at least some personal knowledge of the congregation and have direct access to the necessary persons and information through my membership in the congregation during my academic residence period in St. Andrews. Further, I deliberately wished to avoid any attempt to discover some congregation that claimed either "success' or "failure" in the area of the Sunday church school; the criticisms of the current church school paradigm by officials and scholars like Potter, Sutcliffe and Mesterhoff 219 are aimed at Sunday schools in general, and perhaps the random choice of Hope Park Church can serve to represent that vast "general" group. Bethel United Church's coffee house worship service was earmarked as a unique paradigm, developed and employed by me and others over a period of several years in response to the assumed needs of searching persons. The special worship requirements for the searching faith style that have been highlighted in this thesis have given adequate reason for examining with some care the potential of such a paradigm. Calvary United Methodist Church is one of many congregations which has had considerable experience in intergenerational learning, so vital to Sutcliffe's and Westerhoff's paradigms in particular, and also a potentially important model for promoting faith development towarxis increasingly mature styles. The wide experience of the author of the book about Calvary Church, and the copious theoretical data that he provides, influenced the choice of that community of faith. Finally, South Congregational Church has produced a detailed, well documented and carefully researched book about an inte­ grated worship and education paradigm, a service in three acts, that has been featured in that congregation for some years. This thesis has demonstrated how several of the concerns about faith development indicate the desirability of a closer integration of worship and education in a community of faith; hence, the selection of South Church seemed to be especially desirable. There are a total of thirty-one criteria for faith development within the seven groupings. Not all of them, of course, apply directly to some of the more specialized paradigms that will be considered. In order to avoid the constant repetition and massive space that would be required to state each criterion each time it is discussed, I use the following designation to identify each criterion; the letter "C" (for 1For example, "(C2,b)" represents criterion 2.b, supra, p. 214. 220 criterion) plus the assigned numbers and letters as listed at the conclusion of the proceeding chapter. A. Hope Park Church Sunday School Hope Park Church is one of four congregations of the Church of Scotland in St. Andrews, a community of approximately 13,000 persons. In St, Andrews, there are also a Baptist Church, Gospel Hall, Roman Catholic Church, two congregations of the Scottish Episcopal Church, a Society of Friends fellowship and the University Chapel. There were 873 members in Hope Park congregation as of January, I98O, The congrega­ tion' s Sunday school has 135 students on the roll with an average Sunday attendance of approximately 115 children. These children, aged three to twelve, are supported by sixteen adult teachers together with a number of student helpers. Although there is no precise data available, the minister, clerk of session and chairman of the Christian education committee are of the opinion that the Sunday school serves a significant percentage of children from families associated with Hope Park Church,^ In order to obtain the necessary data to examine the Hope Park Sunday school, I developed a study instrument and employed a two-step process. The contents and structure of the instrument are based on two sources; 1. the criteria for faith development, and, 2. an instrument I developed and used in I969 to study Christian education paradigms in 418 2congregations of the United Church of Canada as part of my S.T.M. thesis. In the text of this section A of chapter six, I use the designation "(Qc )" The figures and statements in this paragraph were obtained by me through my use of the instrument described in the following paragraph, See: Qb, Qc, Qe, Qg. Qd, Qa (375 "households"— faimilies or individuals on the mailing list), and Qf. 21. Supra, pp. 214-217; 2. Laing, "Scouting in the UnitedChurch," pp. 190ff. 221 or "(Q18)" to refer to the "questions" and the letters or numbers that are found in that instrument. The first step of my process was conducted during a meeting with the superintendent and eight other teachers of the Sunday school. After explaining the purpose and nature of my study, I asked informally eleven of the "general information" questions and all the "teachers and curriculum" questions, inviting any discussion or 2clarification as the questions were being considered. Then, following a careful verbal explanation of the procedure that was required for questions Q17 to Q32, I distributed a copy of "part two" of the instrument to each person present. Each teacher completed part two according to instructions and returned the sheets to me.^ Following this exercise, I engaged in a brief conversation with the teachers about issues raised in the sixteen latter questions, making notes on the discussion. The second step of my process took place a week later during a meeting with the minister, clerk of session, chairman of the Christian education committee and another member of that committee. After explaining again the purpose and nature of my study, I asked informally all the "general information" questions, sharing the answers that had been provided by the teachers to the questions they had considered previously. We then dealt with QÎ to QIO as a group, replying to and commenting on each question, I shared the teachers' answers to all questions from Q1Î to ^Infra, Appendix G. I provide an evaluation of the instrument as a major note at the conclusion of this chapter, infra, pp. 283f. ^Appendix G, Qc, Qd, Qe, Qg, Qh, Qk, Qn, Qq, Qr, Qs, Qt and Qll through to Ql6. ^ith the results in hand, I later totalled the figures provided in the nine replies for each number, and averaged them to provide a per­centage answer for each question. For. questions QÎ9, Q21, Q22 and Q28» I separated the returns into two groups: Î. the five teachers of children up to age eight, and, 2. the four teachers of children above age eight. 222 Q32 and made a note of the discussion among the participants in this second step. Hope Park Church was founded in the middle of the eighteenth century (Om). Its Sunday school has been operating as long as present members are able to recall (Qn). The congregation's first Christian education committee, however, is very recently formed; it was only seven months old at the time of our meeting in May, I98O (Qo ). To date, the Christian education committee has been meeting quarterly or as required (Qp ), reporting regularly to the kirk session (Q5). While the new Christian education committee is still engaged in exploratory work around the congregation and has not yet arrived at the stage of defining the exact nature and scope of its work, it regards the encouragement, support and coordination of all the congregation's Christian education activities, as being of great importance. Some present or potential work of that support committee, together with the paradigm of the Sunday school itself, will be considered now, in the light of the faith develop­ ment criteria; when appropriate, some observations or comparisons will be added from Iris Cully's, New Life for Your Sunday School. (Cl) The Christian education committee has initiated an assess­ ment of the needs of persons of all ages who are served by the congregation (q6). At the present time, the congregation offers a variety of Christian education programs for persons who are beyond the Sunday school age (Ob). The "learning for living" program, designed for early secon­ dary school children, has been offered in 1970-80 during the latter part of the Sunday morning worship service, at the same time that the Sunday school meets. Evening meetings for various peer groups of young people include youthpoint, youth fellowship and a young adults group. Other groups that meet at various times during the week include confirmation classes, Lenten study groups and the women's guild. A special forum for 223 the whole congregation on the question of children being admitted to communion was held early in 1980. The Christian education committee has instituted plans to offer a series of five educational lectures for all adults in a monthly series, beginning in the fall of 1980. There are other more social type programs available for "whole" persons with a variety of tastes including the church choir, an encounter group for women, two badminton clubs, a social club for senior adults and the Stratheden hospital visiting group (Qi). The Sunday school itself has variety in its programs. The children enter the sanctuary with their parents and remain for the hymn of praise, prayers followed by the Lord's Prayer, usually a children's story by the minister, occasionally a baptism, a children's hymn and a prayer for the children. Except for special Sundays, at this point in the service, the Sunday school pupils and teachers move to their classes. Gully acknowledges some potential opportunities and some drawbacks in such an arrangement. She notes special value for children to "absorb" something of what it means to be part of the worshiping community of faith and suggests further that both Sunday school and parents could enhance this experience by helping children to learn components of the tservice so they can participate with more understanding. The more salient disadvantages of this procedure that Gully identifies are that teachers are deprived of the opportunity to share in the full worship service and that the Sunday school class time may be unduly reduced. During the class sessions themselves, the teachers place an important value (87^) on their use of a variety of methods such as drama, painting, sculpture, singing in addition to reading and discussion (Q20). ^Gully, New Life For Your Sunday School, p. 73. 2Ibid.j see also my concerns and discussion, supra, pp. 206ff, 212f. 224 (Cl.b) The teachers also believe quite strongly (again an 8?^ average assessment) that the children have regular opportunities to share in the learning process with othei^ by talking or playing with one another (Q18). It appears that many of the teachers have recognized the more limited abilities of the youngest children to make their own decisions; the teachers of the children aged nine to twelve rated decision making opportunities at 30^ while the teachers of the younger children suggested only a 30^ encouragement in that direction (Q28). Such lower ratings appear to be generally congruent with the identified characteristics of the experienced and affiliative faith styles; it is at the searching faith style where the critical judgment tendency heightens the personal decision element,^ (Cl.c) All persons at both meetings gave an emphatic "yes" to the question about whether Hope Park Church welcomed all persons from a variety of backgrounds (Qk), The teachers further gave a very high rating (96^) to express the degree with which they claim they welcome children to the Sunday school each week and make them feel at home (Ql?). Gully suggests some important specifics to help a community of faith to assure that these situations will indeed pertain. In promoting, the sense of belonging, she speaks about such things as a teacher who loves and cares, the development of a climate of mutual friendships, the promotion of acceptance by other children and the assurance that a child is encouraged "when afraid, forgiven when bad, praised for good work." 1See Appendix F, infra, p. 442, There is, however, no data upon which to "assess" with any degree of accuracy the percentage relationship that teachers give to any of the questions Q17 to Q32, These figures are only capable of indicating in the broadest sense the intensity of feeling, or to demonstrate the teachers' collective understandings of relations among various values or concepts. 2Op. cit., p. 4l. 225 In welcoming new children, she offers important insights and outlines a simple yet appealing procedure: I hope you meet them in a comfortable, attractive setting and ask in a concerned but not probing way the basic information you need,, , . Talk about their former church and community; the past is important when one has just moved into a new setting. The new child is not yet ready to relinquish it. Tell something about your Sunday School, stressing probable similarities to the former experience. Be sure that someone takes the child to the classroom and that the teacher gives a warm reception. Some teachers need to be reminded how to greet newcomers,^ Cully continues by outlining the value of the teacher looking out also for the parents and then later going personally to welcome them into the new community.^ (C2,a, C4,a and 05.o) There are three criteria in particular about encouraging and supporting faith development, understanding children's levels of cognition and recognizing and avoiding indoctrination that have at least one important element in common: all require some special knowledge and skill on the part of the designated leaders of children. The teachers expressed disappointment that there have not been previous provisions through the congregation for preservice or inservice training for Sunday school leadership (Qll and Ql2). The Christian education committee and minister recognize a need and are in the process of making pzrovision for some foim of local leadership development education for the fall of I98O, Related to this concern, the minister is planning the relocation and provision of additional leader­ ship resource materials (QI3). (C4) Hope Park's kirk session has been addressing some fundamental question about objectives in all the congregation's programs (Q?). The new Christian education committee has not yet had an opportunity to discuss specific aims for the Sunday school or other groups. Perhaps some of Gully's recommendations in this area could be useful for the 1Ibid., p. 37. îbid. 226 consideration of a community of faith. She points out the importance of a congregation determining its own objectives rather than relying Ionly on those provided by a denomination or suggested by various scholars. She details a very interesting process that has the potential for invol­ ving many persons, and then summarizes it as follows; Improving the Sunday School begins with having a few specific goals for which there is wide agreement. To determine these:1, Gather small groups having specific responsibilities: the governing board, religious education committee, teachers, parents, young people, the congregation,2, With these varied answers in hand, work again with each group, then with an overall or representative group to achieve a concrete set of goals,3, Gather people who know each age group in the Sunday School so that they can write a description of the goals in terms of each developmental stage,4, Choose some way of making the results widely known: letter, church bulletin, a special event, (C4,a) The teachers in their practice appear to have some awareness of the ability of children at various age levels to handle biblical material; the teachers of the younger children rated the direct use of the Bible at 20^ whereas those of the older children gave a 95^ priority (Q21), (C4.b) Similarly, the teachers of the younger classes averaged a 3%% positive response to a question about encouraging children to argue and disagree about moral decisions, whereas the older children's teachers suggested 68% (Q22),^ There was a fairly uniform opinion among teachers of children of all ages, averaging 78^, that the Sunday school listens to and tries to deal with children's doubts (Q27), (G5) The composition of Hope Park's first Christian education committee includes persons from the kirk session, the women's guild. ^Ibid., pp, Ilf. 2Ibid.: total process, pp. 3-12; summary, p. 13. 3Even the "older" children in this study are just approaching the lower end of the searching faith style, so the 68^ opinion would appear to be quite generous. 227 a Sunday school teacher and members of the congregation at large (Q1). There has not yet been an opportunity for the session or the committee to discuss the relative merits of having the committee structured to operate on behalf of the congregation's Christian education concerns or to have its future membership include also representative members of each of the Christian education groups so that they can participate in the decision making process. The latter alternative is clearly the one favoured by scholars like Cully, Little and WyckoffCully describes a suggested membership for a Christian education committee and includes 2the Sunday school superintendent in particular. She gives further accent to the criterion (C5) in relation to decision-making for the Sunday school with this proposal: Another quite different way of encouraging teachers is to give them a voice in policy making for the Sunday School. They know the situation better than anyone else does. They need to feel that their work is important enough so that their experience counts outside that one hour on Sunday, This gives them status. They need to be asked more important questions than when the Sunday School picnic should be held. They are closely involved in the impact of the Sunday School and should not feel that others are setting the guidelines that they must follow,^ At the present time, the Hope Park Sunday school staff enjoys considerable autonomy and is accountable directly to the session rather than to the Christian education committee (q4). Perhaps if this situation were to continue for some time it could lead to some separation of the congre­ gation' 5 Christian education concerns or to some confusion about accoun­ tability, Should the Christian education committee's future terms of reference evolve to include some administrative responsibility for the Sunday school, perhaps Cully's proposal and the second course of action ^Supra, pp. 84, lOOff. ^Op. cit,, p. 53. ^Ibid,, pp. 32f, 228 suggested above deserve serious consideration by the community of faith. These same democratic principles appear to apply to a degree to the children in the Sunday school classes themselves. The teachers of the younger children give a 20^ priority to the children’s having an opportunity to participate in suggesting content and methods in the Sunday school, and the older children's teachers suggest a priority (QI9), The relative difference in these assessments is congruent with educational leadership principles in general, recognizing that as children increase in maturity they develop from a more dependent relation­ ship, through an independent stage, hopefully towards an interdependent (democratic) relationship with adult designated leaders,^ (C6, C6,a and C6,c) For the children under age five, Hope Park Sunday school teachers develop their own programs of stories, songs, prayers and other interest activities. In the classes for children aged six to twelve, the appropriate level of material from the Church of Scotland curriculum has been used to date (Qs). The teachers are aware that the congregational board is prepared to provide adequate funds for materials that they require in the Sunday school (Q9). The teachers and Christian education committee express a real concern about the curriculum that will be used in the I98O-8I year before the new Church of Scotland materials will be available. The theological perspectives of alternative curricula ought to be examined carefully; clearly this matter will be an early agenda on the Christian education committee’s current evaluation (q8). Cully points out some advantages of having resources available from several curricula, and notes especially their potential to provide tLaing, Let’s Celebrate, pp, l^f, 28, 32f, 37f, 44f, 50f; Koehler, pp, 39, 41, The work of this scholar is described in detail in section C of this chapter; my references given here are to two of eight developmental charts that Koehler uses. 220 a rich variety of experiences for children and teachers,^ Already some classes are using additional sources of programs including speakers and nature related themes (Q15). While it is beyond the scope of this section to examine details of the Church of Scotland curriculum material for its substance and balance, there are some basic content questions that were addressed to all the teachers. The teachers suggest that their classes generally rate 74$ in assisting children to develop a loyalty to Jesus and to his church (Q30) • They further give an 87$ value to their belief that the Sunday school helps children become more aware of God at work in the world (Q29). There appears to have been some confusion about the instrument's terminology in asking questions of Christian life and action. The teachers gave only a 40$ reply to the question about studies of mission and outreach (Q23) and a 62$ evaluation to the question about participating in community or world service projects (Q24), The minister and others present at the second meeting believe that these evaluations should perhaps be reversed, and point out that all the children of all ages in the Sunday school were deeply involved in a special mission or outreach program called locally a "project" (a sharing program with a church in Tuna Puna, Trinidad) and also have been involved as "partners in mission" with missionaries in Malawi, Whatever misunder­ standings may have developed over the term "project," it is clear that the children of Hope Park Sunday school have been involved significantly in programs beyond the local church, (C7) The Sunday school teachers appear to care about all aspects of church life and participate in its worship services when they are not involved in their teaching responsibilities (q14). Gully, Sutcliffe, Westerhoff and Wycfcoff all emphasize how important it is for a Sunday ^Op, cit., pp, 68f. 230 school to see itself as one significant component of the whole con- gregation. (C7.a) The teachers believe that the brief period of worship with the congregation prior to the Sunday school classes is of benefit to the children, and rate this value at 83$ (Q25). During the summer periods when the Sunday school is not meeting, the community of faith offers an additional 9:30 a.m. "family" service (Qr), This half-hour service, followed by refreshments for everyone, appears to be quite appealing to pezrsons of all ages. The minister conducts a less formal service, standing himself on the floor level rather than using the high pulpit, A story for the children is provided and the sermon content is reduced to a few minutes; the language and method of presentation of the 2sermon seem to be addressed to persons of the affiliative faith style. Frequently the minister invites those present to repeat the lines of a prayer with him, and the children participate enthusiastically. This special service gives the appearance that it serves a useful worship and educational function during the summer months, (C7,b) The teachers believe that their class or departmental devotional experiences have a significant (81$) effect on helping the children worship in church with more understanding (Q26). At harvest thanksgiving, a flower service, Christmas time and at the dedication of their special mission project, the children prepared in advance for the worship experience and were able to participate more fully than usual in the eleven o'clock service. The teachers and minister believe that more frequent preparation of children for worship on occasional "regular" Sundays could also be beneficial (Q16).^ (C7,c) I have noted above how ^Ibid,, p. 49; supra, pp. H6, 119, 121. ^ make comments on this service on the basis of personal atten­dance on several occasions, 3See Gully, pp. 73 and I05 for details about preparing children for worship and learning through worship experiences in the Sunday school. 231 Hope Park Church provides a variety of programs to meet a variety of needs among persons beyond the Sunday school age. The Sunday school teachers seem to believe that something more than the Sunday school is desirable for the children of that age also (Q31). Although they suggested a 68$ concern for a program other than or in addition to the Sunday school, only one teacher offered a specific written suggestion about providing "informal gatherings of play and music with children and adults of all ages." Hope Park teachers responded positively (83$) to the question about exploring and discussing further the types of issues that were raised through my study instrument (Q32). In the later brief discussion about Qll, Q12 and Q32, they appear generally to be quite receptive to sharing in a leadership development program if one were to be provided in the future. Gully offers several suggestions about the nature of such teacher training, suggesting that most new teachers in particular should ideally have the opportunity to begin as helpers and then move on to some team-teaching before taking on full responsibility for a class,^ She gives a high profile to the needed "encouragement" that could be supplied in part by the superintendent, minister and Ghristian education committee, but notes also the need for specific training in the 2use of methods, curriculum materials and all sorts of other resources. Regular teachers' meetings could have some time set aside for inservice training concerns. For more in-depth study of larger teaching concerns, she advocates "an all-day meeting with a resource person" which could perhaps serve as pre-service training in the autumn,^ Philip Potter, General Secretary of the World Gouncil of Ghurches, ^Ibid., p. 29, ^Ibid,, p. 30, ^Ibid,, p. 32. 232 sets out starkly what he believes to be the situation in Sunday schools generally at this point in time: Today the Sunday School is being questioned as to its relevancy and viability. In many areas the Sunday School is still flourishing and remains the main agency of the Church for nurturing in the Christian faith. In other areas, the Sunday School has become an institution of the past, obsolete, facing diminishing attendance and increasing difficulty in the recruitment of teachers. On the basis of my brief study of Hope Park Church Sunday school, I would suggest that the paradigm is much closer to Potter's fozmer estimation than to the latter; peihaps the word "flourishing" would be too stiong to describe Hope Park's paradigm at this point in time. It is apparent, however, that Hope Park Sunday school serves a significant number of children who attend regularly; the teachers are backed by a concerned minister, Christian education committee and kirk session. This is clearly not an "institution of the past" at the beginning of the 1980s, On the other side of the larger world picture, Sutcliffe appears to emphasize the latter condition of Sunday schools as identified by Potter, and asks if "it is now appropriate to speak about the death of 2the Sunday School?" Westerhoff, particularly in Will Our Children Have Faith?, makes some very negative statements about Sunday schools: The church school, despite numerous bold innovations and even a few modern success stories, is plagued with disease, . ,A church school with teachers, subject matter, curriculum resources, supplies, equipment, age-graded classes, classrooms, . , has been the norm. All this must change,^ However, both Sutcliffe's question and Westerhoff's statement must be taken in context. Both scholars are deliberately minimizing the impor­ tance of the Sunday school (especially where it is seen as "the" ^Sutcliffe, p. 7; Potter wrote the preface to Sutcliffe's book. ^Md., p. 35, 3Op, cit., pp, 2, 9; see infra, p. 424. 233 instrument of Ghristian education) in order to advocate strongly that a congregation must have a much broader understanding of Christian education that encompasses every person in the community of faith; they are also promoting an intergenerational learning paradigm in those particular books.^ They emphasize that if a Sunday school is to be part of an integrated congregational concern for education, it must 2be reformed. Wyckoff, likewise, suggests that the Sunday school needs a "careful thinking and redesigning" if it is to perform the church's educational ministry in a unified way in the future.^ Gully, in a more optimistic vein, through her entire book. New Life for Your Sunday School, outlines a detailed plan for reviving and strengthening the Sunday school at this point in time. The world church is not lacking in experienced leaders and scholars who make various predictions about the future direction of the Sunday school, Alistair Dingwall of the Scottish Sunday School Union struck a reflective note in his message to the world Consultation upon which Sutcliffe reports: What the future of the Sunday school will be is not possible to predict. While the nurture and instruction of one generation by another must obviously continue, the form they take may well be due for radical change. This may mean the end of a weekly gathering and its replacement by a longer but less frequent period, Sunday may no longer be the almost invariable time. What is clear is that with the readiness to experiment with new methods, and the insistence that the whole congregation must be the place in which the child grows, there is also a realization that we must not lose sight of the essential task, the communication of the Gospel, ^Westerhoff, A Colloquy on Christian Education, pp, 248; Sutcliffe,pp. 39f. ^Supra, p. 115. \ycfcoff. The Curriculum and the Church School, p, 109, 4Sutcliffe, pp. 371'. 234 Two points from Dingwall's statement stand out in particular: the life of the whole congregation in which the child grows, and the communication of the gospel. The first has to do with a holistic approach to Ghristian education and worship (C?) and the second with a clear understanding of objectives (C4). In view of the study of Hope Park Sunday school, it would appear that these two emphases should perhaps be important foci for the new Ghristian education committee as part of its support for the Sunday school. Perhaps Gully's book would be useful for Sunday School teachers, and Sutcliffe's Learning Community and Westerhoff's Will Our Children Have Faith? could also prove of value to the Christian education committee. Those books, together with a study of the criteria for faith development, and a consideration of the observations in this current study, could possibly stimulate further thinking towards developing a strong congre­ gational Christian education policy. It appears that Hope Park Sunday school already has several assets that could be potentially instrumental in promoting faith development. With the current interest expressed by teachers, minister and Christian education committee, perhaps the Hope Park Sunday school of the future may become a more effective paradigm yet in recognizing and supporting the developing faith needs of its members, B, Bethel United Church Coffee House Services The coffee house service concept began for me as "experimental worship" in I968 during my ministry in Rosemont United Church in Regina, Saskatchewan, Following the publication of Elizabeth O'Connor's, Journey Inward; Journey Outward, in that same year, the Rosemont Church worship committee was impressed by the concepts in her chapter describing a unique type of worship service conducted in "The Potter's House," a coffee house operated in Washington, D.C. by the Church of the 235 Saviour.^ We employed and adapted some of the philosophy and concepts (atmosphere, style, liturgy and process) and introduced it as a 9:30 a.m. service, an alternative to a more traditional eleven o'clock service. The unique service was obviously meeting a need, and by 1970 it had lost its "experimental" label. Prior to my call to Bethel United Church in Saskatoon in 1971 » the congregation had heard about the nature and appeal of the coffee house service in Regina, The Bethel worship committee requested me to introduce a similar service into the congregation. After the necessary preparations, this was done later in 1971 on a twice a month basis. By 1974, with the attendance at the coffee house service being twice that of more traditional services held on alternative Sundays at 9:30 a,m,, the coffee house service became the only service held at that hour. Bethel United Church is in a suburban area of Saskatoon where few homes were built prior to 1950, although the congregation was founded in 1927, using a building two blocks to the west of the present location. The congregation had 801 members in January, I98O from approximately 450 households. The profile of the surrounding community has changed drastically in the past few years; twelve years ago there were seven hundred children at the nearest primary school and now there are less than two hundred there. The congregation still serves persons from a great variety of ages and occupations, although the numbers of younger children in the immediate vicinity has been substantially reduced. One major group is university students who live in the area during the school tenu. The city of Saskatoon itself is a city of around 150,000 inhabitants from a variety of cultural and denominational backgrounds. Bethel Church is one of seventeen United Ghurches in the city. ^O’Connor, pp. 77-89. 236 As a very brief introductory explanation at this point, the impetus behind the introduction of coffee house services for us was in response to the claim by a number of persons that they disliked the formal nature of traditional worship,^ Some were particularly critical of the apparent one-way communication of a sermon from a high pulpit and claimed they would like to discuss the contents of a worship service with others and in particular with the person who brings the message. Since the arch­ itecture of most churches’ "sanctuaries" includes fixed seating and 2tends to exude a formal, if not a triumphant atmosphere, some alternative, less formal setting appeared to be required. The warm, informal "coffee house" setting that was described in "The Potter’s House" seemed to be particularly well suited for promoting free dis­ cussion among persons. The social room at Bethel church was ideally suited for regular weekly conversion into a "coffee house," with low wattage coloured lighting, totally darkened windows, soft mood music and small tables around which the worshipers may be seated, no more than seven to a table. Before the service, the volunteer "duty" family sets on each table the printed bulletins (with the order of service for both the coffee house service and the eleven o’clock service, together with the weekly announcements), a printed card describing the coffee house service concept for visitors, song books, candles, coffee cups and serviettes. There is no pulpit and no "front" to the room; the minister sits on an ordinary stacking chair on a small movable raised podium (approximately 150 cm, wide, 120 cm, deep and 35 cm, high) that may be in any one of XSee Beckett, p. 3. 2See White, Ghristian Worship In Transition, p, 149; White, Protestant Worship and Ghurch Architecture, pp, 198ff, I use the word "sanctuary" in this thesis in the popular, North American usage to indicate the total worship centre; it is not used in the more correct architectural sense. 2371several locations, depending on the nature of that particular service. Any style of dress is natural and acceptable in the setting; some persons, including the ministers, dress quite informally and others more traditionally. Refreshments are served midway through the service. The coffee house service at Bethel United Church has become, in its own right, "traditional," Its foim has developed into something significantly different from the original model upon which it was based. Although it enjoys a wide acceptance within the congregation generally and among other churches of the United Church and several other denomin­ ations (several of whom have used its pattern), this recognition has not clouded our vision that such a form of worship requires regular evaluation. For a number of years, at least once a year, I have undertaken a critical evaluation of the paradigm; these brief studies have been based on the liturgical, educational and sociological presuppositions upon which the concept was based and introduced. Some brief explorations have been done in the congregation's worship committee, but normally this evaluation takes place during the coffee house service itself; it is usually presented as a theme of a service, being introduced by a talk from me and followed by discussion and input from all present. The discussion in this thesis, using the criteria for faith development, is the first attempt I have made to do a detailed, scholarly examination of the paradigm. This seems particularly important to this study because of the apparent potential of the paradigm to address some of the needs of the searching faith style. Before commencing a detailed examination of the paradigm itself, it is desirable to describe in one paragraph, the "alternative" service ^See diagrams, Appendix H, 238 that Bethel Ghurch offers,^ At eleven o'clock, between 200 and 3^5 persons gather for worship in the sanctuary, accompanied by gowned ministers and choir. One or both ministers conducts most of the service from the pulpit, and a lay person comes forward to the lectern to read the lessons and a unison or responsive Psalm between the lessons. After the first hymn, a minister or the Ghristian education worker will tell a children's story which is followed by a hymn for children; most children up to age twelve then depart for church school classes. Other than the special provision for the children, the order of worship tends to follow the first order for public worship as described in the Service Book for 2the Use of Ministers. I suggest that the congregation generally, along with the ministers and worship committee express a very deep affection for this contemporary service based on a traditional format. Most of the ministers' service preparation time is devoted to this service. By comparison, the coffee house service at 9:30 a.m. is a much smaller gathezing, with between thirty-five and fifty-five persons as an average attendance figure, A rather typical order of service appears on the printed bulletin; Bethel Ghurch's worship committee has always agreed that the traditional worship service of the congregation would continue to be conducted every Sunday during the year. The coffee house service is an alternative choice for those who find it meeting their needs. The Ghurch of Scotland Gommittee on Public Worship and Aids to Devotion states the key principle: "Where there is more than one Sunday service, or where this can be arranged, it is possible to offer a choice to worshippers— with one service following a new form and the other being more traditional." Beckett, p. 14. 2Op, cit,, pp, 78ff; this service is almost identical in form and substance to the "order of service for public worship" suggested by the Ghurch of Scotland, op, cit., pp, 42f, 239 9:30 A.m . coFFee house service Recorded. Music; "The New Wine Sound" Jim StrathdeeWelcome and PrayerAll Sing; 7, Bless the Lord, all you works of the Lord"God is No Pool" #25 and Quiet Time Lois CheneyReadings: Joshua 24: l-2a, 8-15; Matthew 19; 16-22All Sing: 18, They'll know we are Christians hy our loveGhat by Don Laing About Making ChoicesOffering ReceivedRefreshments ServedTable Visiting and Talk-BackAnnouncementsThe Coffee House HymnPrayer and the Lord's Prayer At this point, I will merely indicate the nature of the various components of the service. The church owns a variety of "mood" type musical recor­ dings which are played each week on an installed stereo. An informal welcome is extended to all worshipers; on many Sundays visitors are present and a few words of encouragement for them to participate fully may be addressed to them. The type of prayer at this point tends to contain elements of adoration, confession, thanksgiving and intercession. Some very modern forms of prayer are used one week and prayers in more traditional style another week. "All sing" is the informal term that is normally used for songs or hymns during the service. The congregation usually remains seated at their tables for the singing, accompanied by the organist playing the piano or by someone playing a guitar. The major sources for this music are a locally produced book of songs (such as those indicated) or the Hymnary of the United Church of Canada. God is No Fool is the title of a reflection book by Lois Cheney; this book is very popular with the congregation. Chad Walsh's God At Large is also used frequently at this service; many poems with Christian themes are regular alternatives for this part of the service. The suggestion for this component and the quiet reflection time following came from lay persons out of a coffee house service evaluation about 1975. One or more scripture lessons are always read as part of the coffee house liturgy. Once or tin.ce a year, especially suitable passages such as 240 Psalm 104 will be read in their entirely while a slide projector shows complementary scenes on a permanently fixed screen in the room. The designation "chat by Don Laing," is typical of the informal coffee house 2service terminology and the actual method of its presentation. The minister tends to "share" the sermon in a more dialogical style, while seated casually. At least once a month this part of the service is quite different from the service at eleven o’clock. It could be a challenging film, a dialogue between two persons, a panel on a controver­ sial topic or a chat by the minister on a topic so politically sensitive that it seems unfair to introduce it in that form to the eleven o’clock service where there is no opportunity for later discussion. The offering is received while the refreshments are being served. Every Sunday, four or five servers bring a choice of coffee or fruit juice to each table; this is served usually with doughnuts, with such seasonal variations as hot cross buns at Easter or Christmas cake at Christmas, While persons are eating and drinking, they begin their table "visiting" (discussion). Sometimes specific topics or questions, related to the chat, are suggested and either printed in the bulletin or shown on the overhead projector; at other times, each table simply discusses what­ ever most concerns the persons at that table. Almost always there is an opportunity for talk-back to the minister. Special announcements in the bulletin may be highlighted; everyone is free to add anouncements. The coffee house "hymn" is "Thank You Lord," to the tune of Edelweiss; this is printed on the reverse side of the coffee house information card along with a contemporary version of the Lord's Prayer which follows, ^See Appendix H, figure 2, 2In contrast, on this Sunday listed, the content is virtually identical with the sermon at 11:00 a.m., where the bulletin line reads: Sermon; "Choose Now!" Rev, Donald Laing, 241 The final prayer is usually brief and tries to catch something of the mood and present need of the service, attempting to promote love, healing, hope, light, forgiveness or whatever seems to be indicated. The second part of this brief prayer is a prayer of commitment or dedication. Many persons stop to visit, some leave and others help to rearrange the furnishings for a primary church school which will require the room at eleven o'clock. On communion Sundays (October, December, January and April), the usual refreshments are served immediately as persons arrive; these refreshments are unrelated to the later traditional communion elements by the deliberate theological choice of the worship committee and ministers. The tables and the podium are arranged in a circle around a circular communion table (see Appendix H, figure 3); the communion table carries only a white table cloth. The chat is called a "meditation"; the visiting or discussion period normally contains a task. Frequently each table is provided with a large paper and a pencil and asked as a table to discuss and write a portion of the communion prayer; one or two word instructions are given about the type of prayer that is asked of that table (confession, supplication, thanksgiving, intercession about some specific topic, etc). At the appropriate time, an individual from each table or the entire table, each in predetermined turn, will lead in the part of the prayer that has been prepared.^ When the offering is received, those presenting it will join with two persons carrying the communion elements; then the offering plates, bread, wine and chalice are placed on the communion table, A free form of offering dedication prayer and the prayer of consecration are combined. The most Another assignment has been for each table to write a verse for a communion hymn; a tune and first line is provided for each table to give some continuity to the hymn. One of those hymns, from a Christmas time communion in 197^ is still being used on occasion. 242 common form of the elements is a whole French loaf, scored in advance to allow for easy fraction into eight portions, and individual communion cups; a chalice is provided for the action and actual use hy the ministers, The wording and action from the fraction onwards is normally traditional.^ Each table receives a portion of the loaf and each person tears a piece from it and passes the balance to the neighbour; the wine glasses are passed around the tables in the usual manner. Although services of baptism and confirmation are rare in the coffee house setting, when these have been conducted, the action has taken place around the communion table with the whole room arranged in the communion format. It has been necessary to describe the atmosphere, format and substance of the coffee house service in some detail because of its unique nature. Its purpose has always been to provide an alternative form of worship that contains educational elements, to help meet the assumed needs of searching persons. Using now the criteria for faith development as a basis for examination, here is my assessment of the Bethel United Church coffee house service over a ten year period, (Cl) Persons of all ages attend the coffee house service, although this paradigm is aimed primarily at persons in the searching faith style and mature faith style. Infant children are brought occasionally, but usually their interest in playing with the candles or their verbal protestations or general restlessness is distracting to others. It is not usually a suitable setting for persons in the experienced faith style; other arrangements are made for them during the eleven o'clock service time. The service itself contains considerably more action and participation than one usually encounters in worship services, and ^United Church of Canada, Service Book for the Use Of Ministers. pp. 20 or 32. 243 therefore tends to involve more of "whole" persons. (Cl.a) The setting lends itself to promoting the closest possible personal relations, and many "veteran" members go out of their way to welcome and include all new persons. Everyone is introduced to others at each table; this general rule can break down when a visiting person joins a table where there are only early adolescents seated. Many families who regularly attend the coffee house service have become close personal friends and meet at other times on a social basis or for mutual support or growth. (Cl.b) Mutual sharing is the basis of the service. The open, dialogical nature of the service, including the occasional strong disagreements during discussion and talk-back times, tends to emphasize that each person is responsible for his or her own decision making. Naturally, normal human dynamics enter in at this point and some less articulate members tend to be unduly swayed by the oratory of a few. Fortunately this is usually identified by some lay person when the minister is guilty, or by the minister or other lay persons when a lay person is involved. There is seldom any hesitation on the part of anyone about pointing this out publicly when it occurs. (01.o) All visitors and new persons of every "race and creed" are warmly welcomed to the coffee house service. New persons are told about both types of worship provided by Bethel church. There is a sense in which some few persons believe they "belong" only to the coffee house "congregation" rather than to the whole community of faith.^ Par the majority of participants, however, have other close contacts among the wider congregation, and several serve on congregational boards and committees, (Cl.d) Open discussion frequently turns to questions about the extent and nature of the individual's commitment and involvement that the church expects. Many persons attracted to the ^See Reed, pp. 150f; Perry, p. 27; supra, p. 187. 244 coffee house service tend to be persons with a strong social conscious­ ness. (01.e) This paradigm is partially intergenerational, although its process and content are most congruent with the needs and character­ istics of the searching and mature faith styles. (C2, 02.a, 02.b and 02.c) The philosophy behind the development of the original paradigm (prior to the publication of Westerhoff's faith development theory) was based on psychological assumptions that are perhaps fairly accurately described by Robert Hansel. He describes both "settled persons" and "searching persons" and says of the latter; The purpose of life is unclear. Success is impossible to measure except on a purely personal basis. Education is an ongoing experience of discovery, logic is of limited value since we do not live in an orderly world. Religion is any set of values that motivates and gives one a sense of commitment. Change is inevitable and desirable; it is everybody's responsibility.^ That picture appears to describe some characteristics of young people in the searching faith style and also describe some continuing searching needs of many adults who have a more complex and mature faith. The coffee house service tries to provide the kind of worship "forum" where such needs are taken seriously and where all persons may be supported to develop in their own faith style and towards more complex styles. (C3) On occasion, the ministers have asked worshipers to reflect on and share their motivation for attendance at the coffee house service. A variety of responses includes a genuine aspiration to come together in an intimate fellowship with other persons of faith. The presence of the first two phases of response (responding to Christ's prior action, and personal commitment during the service) have frequently been identified (using other terms) during the discussion periods; the third phase of response (acting later as a result of the experience) 1Robert Hansel, Like Father. Like Son— like Helll (New York, Î969), p. 43. In contrast. Hansel describes the "settled person" in terms that appear to be an apt description for adults who still operate primarily in an affillative faith style (p. 42). See supra, p. I6I. 245 is a regular and favorite self-criticism during talk-back times,^ The element of celebration of life in God's world is sometimes very concrete in the coffee house setting. The obvious moving impact of some inspir­ ational readings prior to the quiet time or the rather frequent rich, personal insight or genuine faith statement expressed to the whole group by some lay person during the talk-back period are prime examples, (03.a) Where the challenge element of worship is particularly 2prominent, the supportive aspect also needs stress. Many regular wor­ shipers at the coffee house service testify that the process frequently acts for them as a stabilizing influence during times of particular stress. Not infrequently, some persons are willing to share difficult personal trials with the whole group, either in response to some challenge in a chat or from some personal, apparently unrelated, overwhelming concern. The level of genuine love and caring that arises from the group during this form of worship is heartening; persons with such needs can usually count on continuing concern beyond the service from some fellow worshipers. (C3.b and G3.c) While leaders of the coffee house service attempt to be mindful of the needs of persons in the affiliative faith style, their aim is directed towards persons of a more mature faith style. (C4, C4.a, C4.b C7.a and G7.b) There is a very definite educational intention in the coffee house worship service. It seems that worship designed to take into account the critical, doubting, questioning needs of a person's life benefits greatly by the elements of reflecting upon and sharing that are more typical of educational paradigms. This process only begins during the limited time frame of the service itself. 1See my discussion, infra, p. 251 under (C7), 2See my discussion, infra, pp. 249ff under (C6.e). 246 Frequently frustration is voiced by some persons over an inability during the hour and fifteen minutes to continue discussion of some very significant issue. Sometimes a further service, dealing with the same concern, has been developed where this need has been most acutely expressed. On occasion, smaller groups of worshipers have gathered for coffee at homes during the week to continue the discussion. However, more importantly, a process of thinking may have been stimulated and persons are encoumged to do their own further reflection. There is no intention by the ministers or worship committee to conclude these services by gathering together "neat packages of truth" (occasionally requested by a few of the worshipers), but rather to stimulate persons to promote their own growth. These elements of reflecting upon and sharing that have been incorporated into this worship paradigm seem to be regarded by most worshipers as a very helpful part of the process towards this stimulation, (05) Most of the decision making concerns of Bethel church's worship committee have to do with the eleven o'clock service, because the coffee house service, by its very nature, tends to do its own re­ structuring through the maximum participation of all who worship. Regularly persons make suggestions about topics or new ways of proceeding; many of these avenues have been explored and some have changed the direction of the paradigm. (05.a) An annual roster is prepared each autumn of lay persons who volunteer to make all the physical arrange­ ments for the coffee house services (tables, chairs, lights, refreshments, etc). There are a few opportunities provided for lay persons to contribute directly to the preparation and conduct of the actual service itself; this type of worship seems to lend itself to such involvement. At the same time, the service by its nature does provide for more participation during the worship itself than one is likely to find in more traditional 247 worship services. However, I must not give the impression that the table discussion participation periods are uniformly useful for all persons to share ideas. One of the most frequently heard complaints is that a person claims to have been at a table where no one was prepared to discuss anything of substance, The conversation perhaps turned to the weather, the hockey game or the football game at some table. Because of human nature, this may always be something of a hazard. The apparent alternatives, to program some definite content into each process or to supervise each table’s discussion seems to be less desirable than the present problem. Any solution should perhaps be discussed among the participants themselves, (C5«c) Occasionally persons have identified during the talk-back period what they regard as manipulation or indoctrination, "I didn't come here to be told I had to write hymns," said one person, "You sounded like you were presenting that biblical interpretation as some 'truth' rather than your opinion of what it means," has also been stated on more than one occasion. The talk-back has become an important safe­ guard to reduce the potential levels for any actual manipulation or indoctrination; it has also served to sensitize the ministers consider­ ably to the dangers of both. (C6 and C6,c) Three-quarters of the time, the content of the coffee house service is similar to that in the eleven o'clock service which has been carefully planned to include theological, biblical and life action concerns, balanced by a reference to the church year, the secular calendar and world events. The church year is supported among the whole congregation by our printing each week in the bulletin, all the recommended lessons that are provided in the new ecumenical lection- ary for the following Sunday, Persons are encouraged to read these at home; usually at least twice a month some of those lessons will be used at both services and worshipers have had an opportunity for advance 248 reflection. The other one-quarter of the coffee house services tend to place most accent on the Christian life and action concerns. (C6.a) The theological perspectives that inform the coffee house paradigm are examined rather regularly as a matter of course within the context of the services themselves. (C6.h) Quite commonly, hermeneutical principles are identified by the ministers during the course of the chat. It is also natural for some worshipers to discuss these principles during questions or the discussion that may follow some presentations. In 1978, I spent six consecutive weeks during the coffee house services outlining the content and giving illustrations of the same hermeneutical approach that is described above. Since that time, several persons in the congregation employ those principles with some skill in their own discussions and arguments. The open discussion feature of these services enables the worship leaders and some members of the congregation to keep a constant vigilance for a responsible hermeneutic, (c6,d and 05.b) A study of the societal effects or actual liturgical use of electronic media are frequently featured in coffee house worship. As one example of the former, a portion of the sound track of "All in The Family," (an extremely popular but controversial television series displaying extreme bigotry in a comedy setting) was shared as the major input of a coffee house service. The directed discussion following dealt not only with the content of the portion played, but with the societal effects of television on children's and adults' behaviour and attitudes. In the actual use of media, the coffee house service normally screens at least three major challenging films per year. Films like "Parable," "Inscape" or "The Detached ^See supra, pp. 106ff. 249 Americans" demonstrated their ability to promote exceptional communication across the generations among some young people, parents and grandparents. (c6.e) Davies' contention that conflict can be introduced usefully and successfully into worship has been substantiated month by month over the years in the coffee house service. Many searching persons tend to thrive on conflict and the arguments that may arise from it. Conflict can be guaranteed by the choice of a film like "War Two— Total War," screened on a Remembrance Sunday and followed by a reaction panel of two former soldiers and two university student pacifists. The immediately discernible effect of that film was that panel members began reacting with visible anger over what they assumed were the positions of the other "side"; then it began to dawn on everyone, including the panelists themselves, that the two young pacifists had been deeply moved by "seeing" some of the historical realities in which the Second World War was set, and that the two older soldiers were appalled by the vivid reminder of the horrors of war and wanted to ensure that such a thing would not happen again. All four panelists and several of the congregation stated afterwards that the total shocking process would enable them to partici­ pate in future Remembrance services with a new understending and sensitivity.^ A second vivid example of the deliberate introduction of conflict among the worshipers themselves involves the use of a "continuum,"' The room had been prepared in arrangement two (Appendix H) with a masking tape continuum running across the entire floor, between the podium and the front tables, from east to west. On the east wall end of the line The "panel" described above happened at Rosemont coffee house service in 1970; the same film was shown in Bethel coffee house service in 1972 with the whole congregation reacting, and the effect was similar but not as dramatic as the first process with the panel. 2A technical term used by scholars of "values clarification" to describe a line upon which persons may declare the intensity of their opinions or feelings. 250 was a large sign saying "strongly disagree," and on the west wall a similar sign saying "strongly agree," The chat was extremely short that Sunday, focusing on a few highlights from Amos' and Jesus' more socially oriented statements. Then the process was explained and each table was requested to appoint a representative who would come forward to take his or her stand on the continuum in reaction to various social stances of the church. I read slowly eight statements such as: We should support the presbytery's call on the government for a five year moratorium on new uranium development in Saskatchewan awaiting further medical research.We are in favour of the conference's proposal to the provincial government about a guaranteed minimum income.We should support the general council's campaign to challenge the major banks about their "corporate responsibility" in investments in South Africa and certain other countries. After each statement, the representatives were instructed to take their "stand" on the continuum. At the conclusion of the eight statements, the tables having noted the various stands taken by their delegates, the representatives returned to their tables to defend their stand on which ever issue or issues that were of primary concern to that table. Conflict was guaranteed; standing low led to accusations of being uncon­ cerned, in the middle of being "lukewarm" or standing high of being irresponsibly militant. The table discussion was lively and the later sharing in the total group led to requests that certain of the issues be considered in some depth at future coffee house services. Now and then conflict is promoted by the ministers through the chat. Two of the most violent reactions were over my choice to speak against the reinstitution of capital punishment (when the topic was becoming an emotional political platform locally) immediately after the capture of a man who had molested and murdered four Saskatoon children under age ten, and on another occasion after my appeal for Christians to support Canadian native people in some of their land claims. Loud voices have shouted back and forth and real anger has been expressed 251 by both lay persons and ministers. Occasionally, after what I had regarded to be a rather widely accepted statement (often of a biblical or theological nature), a lay person has taken strong exception and launched into a verbal attack. After some years of such strong confrontations, perhaps once every two or three months, most worshipers would likely testify with me that such conflicts are an essential element of the coffee house worship paradigm and that its overall effect is to promote degrees of honesty, respect and genuine love that are seldom found in other worship and educational settings. The emotional intensity of the conflict and anger tend to deepen the learning and worship experience and cause persons to leave the service in a continuing reflection.^ (C7) Much of the discussion in this section has centered around the integration of worship and Christian education in the coffee house worship paradigm. The further question of action in life is frequently identified by the worshipers during talk-back periods. Perhaps it is good that the congregation is so sensitive to the gap that may exist in this area. Indeed, acting as a congregation, apart from one or two letters to politicians or perhaps providing some of the inspiration behind the congregation’s adopting a "boat people" family in I98O, there has been little evidence of "action" from the coffee house worshipers as a group. However, as individual Christians, living out their faith, I contend that on the average they display an awareness, sensitivity and active caring for others that is far beyond what they themselves would acknowledge, (C7.c) The coffee house paradigm is one of Bethel United Church's different programs to serve some of those needs identified by the 1Another very useful side effect of conflict is that the ministers are frequently sensitized to previously unforseen ramifications of a topic; this insight often causes valuable modifications to the eleven o'clock sermon on such Sundays when the content is the same. 252 congregation itself and indicated also by Westerhoff. It is designed in hopes of meeting some needs of searching persons, and it does not appeal to persons who are hesitant to share their faith experience with others. The service attracts a variety of persons; students, labourers, medical doctors, teachers, retired persons, university professors, nurses, and several others. There are some indicators that the service may indeed be effective in promoting faith development; several persons who have been regular worshipers at coffee house services over an eight year period were prominent in comparison to others in the total congre­ gation in their ability to articulate their faith during an intensive fourteen week adult study program for the congregation, ^ Although some of these peinons appear now to be much more able to express their faith than they could eight years previously, it is of course impossible to measure what effect if any the coffee house service has had on this. Even though I have been using this paradigm since I968 and believe it has good potential (both from its popularity among searching persons and the generally positive comments I have been able to assign to it above in light of the criteria for faith development), I do not regard it as any panacea for the needs of searching faith. While large numbers of young people in Saskatoon have attended once or twice and have expressed great interest in its form and content, it has not motivated many of them to arise from bed early on a Sunday morning to attend with any regularity. More is needed. Several improvements need to be con­ sidered in the light of the comments in this chapter. Perhaps the most pressing need is to study ways of enriching the discussion periods so that more persons will be enabled to share more effectively with others. The service may or may not be part of the answer for the future ; it does ÎSee discussion,, infra, chapter 7, section D, on "Telling My Story— Sharing My Faith," 253 appear to be helpful for some persons today. I believe that the paradigm has considerable potential and could perhaps be enriched and improved by working with a careful and systematic application of the criteria for faith development, G, Calvary United Methodist Church Learning Together In April, 1970, an intergenerational fellowship was started in Calvary United Church in Nashville,Tennessee. The author of its story, George E. Koehler, confesses that the original participants had no inkling at the outset that they would leam to praise God in so many ways or that the members would experience new levels of caring, laughing and struggling aloud with their faith.^ He describes something of the nature of this "intergenerational faith community": Week in, week out, from fifty to a hundred of us gather to ^ the Christian community across our differences— young and old, male and female, laity and clergy, handicapped and "normal," shy and loud, liberal and conservative, new Christians and old. Through conversation over a covered dish supper, and a time of celebration planned by group members,gwe leam, little by little, what being one body in Christ means. While Koehler's book has its setting in Calvary United Methodist Church, he also draws on the experiences of many other churches across the United 3States. He notes how the "trickle" of experimentation with intergener­ ational learning paradigms in the early 1970s became a "substantial 4stream" by the middle of the decade. ^Koehler, p. 4, ^Ibid, %bid,, pp. 4, 22; see pp. 73-89. 4Ibid, From this "stream," I considered two other major books on intergenerational learning: 1. Donald and Patricia Griggs, Gener­ations Learning Together (Livermore, California, 1976), and 2, Sharee and Jack Rogers, The Family Together (Los Angeles, 1976). Both books appear to be very good resource books with detailed ideas for methods and content, with a "person centered" perspective backed by a strong biblical base. However, although both books are potentially valuable 25^ George Koehler writes his hook on behalf of the Program- Curriculum Committee of the Division of Education, Board of Discipleship of the United Methodist Church, with headquarters in Nashville. Out of his ongoing personal experience in Calvary church and his wide national experience with the Board of Discipleship of his denomination, he assures the reader that "intergenerational education is not some new program invented and promoted by denominational agencies. It is rather, an invention of creative local church leaders who are distressed by our division of one age from another, who are eager to find a better way and had the courage to experiment."^ He addresses a further logical question that he suggests any observer could ask: Is intergenerational education a fad? He begins by replying: It's a fascinating and rewarding alternative to age-level approaches. We may be tempted to try it out just for its novelty, or just because other churches are doing it. We must resist that temptation. We must take time to think through the pros and cons. The total discussion of this section of chapter six will reveal the extent to which Koehler describes and balances those pros and cons as he identifies them. He makes major use of a great number of scholarly resource books, including many which I have employed extensively in this 3thesis. Although there are several pages devoted to outlining actual session suggestions for intergenerational learning groups, he points out that his intention in this book is to emphasize the theory and basic for actual intergenerational learning groups, neither one approaches the wealth of basic concepts and general intergenerational theory that is central to Koehler's book. ^Op. cit., pp. 4f. p. 14. 3Among the books and authors that I have used, he includes: William Abemethy (section D of this chapter), Erik Erikson, James Fowler, Dorothy Jean Furnish, Ronald Goldman, Donald and Patricia Griggs, Reuel Howe, Lawrence Kohlberg, Ellis Nelson, Jean Piaget and John Westerhoff (pp. 40, 42, 44, 92ff). 255 values of the paradigm,^ "Intergenerational education is not yet a 'science,'" he cautions. He goes on to stress that although there is a good deal known, there is still much to leam, and he therefore asks 2readers to consider his book "a first, exploratory effort." Koehler clarifies from the outset exactly how the term inter­ generational is employed. Beginning with the word generation, he writes: "Ministries that are intergenerational involve participants from two or more generations. And by generation we mean five broad age groups in the human life span."^ He lists these as children, youth, young adults, middle adults, and older adults, giving specifics of the typical ages that characterize each group. He further stresses the importance of the meaning of "between" in the prefix "inter," and then enlarges on the full term as follows: The point is that each generation has some unique gifts to share with the others. And each has some unique needs for which it turns to the other generations for help and support. The work of the church is only intergenerational when there is active sharing of these gifts and needs across the generations,. when persons of different generations minister to each other,^ This emphasis on persons ministering to one another is basic to the paradigm. Following further discussion, he offers a precise definition of the meaning of intergenerational ministries: "Planned programs of the church which engage persons of two or more generations in face-to-face interaction and mutual ministry."^ He reminds the reader of several of the many settings where the community of faith can be observed to be intergenerational. Among those listed he includes such occasions as: church school picnics, potluck suppers, family nights, weddings, baptisms, funerals, seasonal celebrations, ^Ibid., p. 74. ^Ibid., p. 5. ^Ibid., p. 8. ^Ibid. ^bid., p. 9. 256 special festivals, innovative worship services, choirs and drama groups, Scouting programs, service projects and groups exploring social concerns,^ Koehler then presents another side to White's observation that the gener­ ations are not naturally together in most settings; like White he acknow­ ledges that at school, at work, at play and even at home there is limited sharing among generations. "But in the congregation we can bring the generations together again. Of all our social institutions the church 2is by far the best for achieving this much-needed reunion." This con­ tention about "a much-needed reunion" by some of the proponents of intergenerational ministry is crucial to understanding the paradigm, Koehler supports that perspective by discussing a number of theological and sociological affirmations about the nature of the church. Of his nine affirmations, I will merely list the titles of eight but give the details of the ninth (f.), because of its very special relevance to this thesis: a. the church is all generations; b, the Body is one; c. we separate ourselves from one another; d. God is revealed through persons; e, God reconciles us to one another and to himself; f, we come to faith within the faith community: It is in this Body, the church, that we learn faith— or perhaps "catch" faith, for it is not so much taught and learned as it is shared and received. By participating in the congregation— its worship, learning, witness, and service, imperfect as these may be— persons come to know and accept God's grace and respond in faith. g. the old have something to share with the young; h. the young have something to share with the old; i. all have talents to share.^ ^Ibid. 2Ibid., p. 10. See supra, p. 63; infra, pp. 404f. White, New Forms Of Worship, p. 34. ^Koehler, pp. lOf. The details of this "faith" affirmation are fully congruent with Westerhoffs contentions, outlined in detail in chapter 4, especially, supra, pp. I38, l40f, 144. 257 Koehler builds on those affirmations and gives a very high profile to intergenerational ministries, suggesting indeed that such ministries are not "frills," they are "not tonics for tired programs, not novelties for churches that have tried everything else. To be in ministry with one another across the generations— our faith implies that this is imperative!"^ There are three further statements or clarifications that I pre­ sent here before proceeding to examine the paradigm in the light of the faith development criteria. 1. The term "intergenerational ministry" is very important to understanding Koehler's total perspective. This means much more than intergenerational education and intergenerational worship which he regards as part of intergenerational ministry. The word "ministry" emphasizes the mutual sharing among lay persons and 2clergy of all ages and conditions. 2, Koehler notes that since abbreviations are typical of our time, some scholars have been using the initials "IG" as a shortened version for intergenerational ; ^ those initials will appear occasionally below in quotations. 3. While Koehler's foundational experience of intergenerational ministry and a major continuing personal setting for it is centered in the congregation of Calvary United Methodist Church in Nashville, his vast professional nation-wide contacts with other churches means that his total discussion is much more broadly based than on one congregation. Thus, in my subsequent discussion, the situation in Calvary church itself is not conspicuous to the same degree that the experiences of specific congre­ gations are crucial to the other three sections of this chapter. (Cl) "Joy! Enthusiasm! Excitement! , . . just plain fun!" are ÎOp. cit., p. 11. Although Koehler believes that some inter­generational experiences are "imperative" in the life of almost every community of faith, he describes also the importance of continuing peer group worship and educational settings; see especially p. 16. ^bid., pp. 4, 9, 12. %bid., p. 9. 258 words that various churches use to describe intergenerational educational experiences, says Koehler. The active involvement of whole persons, including having a good time together, and physical participation is of utmost importance, he contends, "Sitting and talking are very adult things to do. But if the generations are really to communicate with each other your activities will need to be much more varied than that."^ (Cl.a) Basic to the intergenerational paradigm is putting "persons first" and affirming one another, "The resources and methods are mere tools. The first essential and the primary value is that we know and love one another," Children must be regarded as "real people" in their own right and senior adults valued, loved and supported; persons of in-between 2generations are of equal importance. Recognizing and articulating several differences among the generations, Koehler also notes several common characteristics including the needs to be affilmed, to be greeted by name and to enjoy eating and laughing with others. He notes how persons' most important relationships change or develop with increasing maturity and outlines a chart illustrating how forty-one such prominent changes may take place over a lifetime. He then demonstrates how know­ ledge of this concept is so important to the fostering of close personal relations in intergenerational groups. Most persons at home, school or work experience both positive, affirming relationships and others in which they "feel put down, excluded or used." Intergenerational settings can be planned "where some of these joys and agonies can be shared and examined, where the light of the gospel can be brought to bear on them. ^Ibid., pp. l6, 40. At the same time Koehler warns: "And remember the physical limitations of the younger and older generations (p. 4o)." ^Ibid., p. 14. ^Ibid., p. 34. 259 and new depth and direction discovered."^ This promotion of personal relationships is so central to the paradigm that Koehler lists it second (after feelings) as an important factor for the group to evaluate. He suggests that the group ask; "Are people sharing openly and listening carefully? What rewards are they discovering in interaction with one another? Are any communication blocks developing? If so, why, and how might they be overcome?"^ (Cl,b) Everyone must be made to feel comfor­ table, he insists. "They need to get the message that in this group it's OK to be just who they are, that there's no need to pretend," (Cl.c) Perhaps in this area of promoting a sense of belonging and welcoming new persons from a variety of backgrounds, the intergener­ ational paradigm appears to offer exceptional opportunities to a com­ munity of faith. Theologically, Koehler begins with Ephesians 4:25 and affirms: "Through an intergenerational setting all these different people may come to know that they are members of Christ's body, and 4'members one of another, '" The intergenerational group may not only strengthen nuclear family life, he says, but its interaction could be instrumental in assisting older adults, single parents, divorced persons and others living alone to discover the kind of "family" experience that they have been seeking,^ He goes on to cite particularly the special needs of handicapped persons who are "overlooked" in so many other life settings. He regards the intergenerational paradigm as uniquely suited to including them. The points he offers in support of his contention are so valuable in my estimation, not only in understanding this setting, but in indicating the whole perspective of intergenerational ^Ibid,, pp. 36f. ^Ibid., p. 67. ^bid., p. 69. ^Ibid,, p. l4. ■^bid., p. 15, 260 ministry, that I include them all here; , Our attention is first and foremost on persons, not their abilities or even their growth. We see each other as human.. Because of our age differences we accept difference more easily.We know from the beginning that participants have varied abilities. There is no implied standard of performance all must meet,, Indeed, we celebrate human differences. It is our differences that make this fellowship unique and from which our learning grows,c Yet we celebrate our likenesses. And our underlying unity. After all, we are all human. And all Christian, We are one,. In fact, we cannot be "one" so long as we exclude some kinds of people from our fellowship. Until the handicapped are part of the community there is no wholeness.. God reveals himself through persons— not just through "perfect" persons. He reveals himself through ability and disability, through streng-tti and weakness, through success and suffering,, We all have talents to share. And some persons, handicapped in one area, have developed extraordinary talent in another,, We all need affirmation. Many persons who are handicapped suffer from low self-esteem. Through mutual ministry of an IG group all can be acknowledged, affirmed, cared for.^ Koehler then gives several starting suggestions to a community of faith on how to understand and include persons with various types of disabil­ ities (e.g., retarded, physical disabilities, blind or deaf, emotionally 2disturbed, and culturally impoverished). He moves on from this subject to deal with the inclusion of persons with ethnic differences, wisely pointing out that in America, the "melting pot" concept is dead; persons 3now celebrate their pluralism. His special sensitivity and insights in this whole area of promoting a sense of belonging and remaining open to others through the intergenerational paradigm appear to be especially important, (Ol.d) Koehler further discusses in other settings how the community of faith needs to be aware of the gî.fts that each person may bring and how the congregation should deliberately plan to include such gifts. Among several searching questions he suggests for this planning ^Ibid,, p, 45. ^Ibid,, pp. 45ff. %bid,, pp. 4?f. 261 are; "Which persons most need to share their gifts? Which gifts are most needed in order to reach the objective of the setting?" He then affirms: "An IG setting is a place for giving and receiving gifts," (Cl.e) At no point does Koehler suggest that intergenerational learning should become "the" educational means for a congregation. Quite the opposite is the case as he insists that although he regards intergenerational ministries as essential, “They don't take the place of age-level 2education," In support of this contention, he offers the following use­ ful list of values in peer group education; , There are stages of Christian growth appropriate to each age level and we need to concentrate on helping each age with such growth., There are personal and social issues which peak at various age levels. People of like ages need a chance to think these through together,. People of all ages leam certain things best from their peers, not from another generation. Therefore, we should group peers together for such learning., Most people enjoy being with persons of the same age and will want to do some of their learning that way,, Abilities vary by age. Many learning activities and resources are useful only for a narrow age span,-^ His balance in this dual emphasis is entirely consistent with my criterion and with the faith development arguments of Westerhoff upon which the 4criterion is partially founded. (C2) Koehler bases his intergenerational paradigm on both general human development concepts and specifically on a faith development theory that are almost identical to those described in the thesis chapter four. He outlines charts and examines eight "more or less common dimensions of the lifelong journey we each make."-^ In each case he uses a parallel listing method where the life span is divided roughly into seven periods; ^Ibld., p. 38. ^Ibid., p. 18. 3 4^Ibid., p. 16, See supra, pp. 162-166, •^ Op, cit., p, 34. 262 younger children, elementary children, youth, senior highs, young adults, middle adults and older adults. He sets out the details of characteristics in eight areas of life: important life events, important relationships, needs and concerns, gifts, physical development, intellectual develop­ ment, moral development and religious development. His first four charts are characteristic of persons at various age levels and the other four charts speak about growth or development through the various levels. He identifies the sources for his final three charts; these are of special significance to this thesis; intellectual development is based on Piaget, moral development on Kohlberg and religious development (faith develop­ ment) on a combination of Erikson and Fowler,^ The religious or faith development chart that Koehler has developed from Erikson and Fowler is almost identical in its overall content with Westerhoff*s theory; its only difference appears to be in the number of "stages" through which the person develops. Koehler, like Erikson, also makes it clear that all of his age level or developmental charts are not to be regarded as "prescribed schedules" for each person. He warns; "In other words, these charts are generally 'descriptive,' not individually 'prescriptive.'"' (G2.a) Koehler points out that the characteristics of persons identified in the eight different charts should influence a congregation's decision about which ages ought to be included in various intergenera- tional settings.^ At the same time he notes how some age level separation can be "bridged" in the community of faith and says: "we find that we can truly communicate across our differences, that we can touch one another's lives, that we can hold each other in love. An IG educational ^Ibid,, pp. 34-44. 2Koehler, p. 35; Erikson, Childhood And Society, p. 270; supra,p. I6l. ^Op. cit., p. 34. 263 setting is a laboratory for learning openness and trust in spite of 1differences." He highlights the unique potential role that a community of faith has in encouraging and supporting the development of another person's faith: As a church we are concerned for human development in all areas, but especially in "religion," and for two reasons: We have a stake in the ultimate questions with which religion deals, the questions of origin, destiny, meaning and value,* this is our special agenda. And, secondly, we are the only institution in society that helps people with these questions; others deal with physical, intellectual and moral development, but only the churches and synagogues with the religious. While one could argue persuasively that some public institutions are now offering studies on "origin, destiny, meaning and value" (from other than theological viewpoints), his primary contention that the church has a vital and unique role in this area is important. (C2.b) The entire intergenerational paradigm is based on the potential mutual support and encouragement that may come from "interaction among the generations, the mutual ministry, the giving and receiving of help across the age boun­ daries that often divide us."^ (03 and G7.a) Koehler's book is almost entirely concerned with "learning" through intergenerational ministries; his frequent references to worship are provided in that context. "Celebration" is his favorite term to describe worship or devotional exercises: "From time to time, perhaps in each session, times of celebration may be appropiiate: worship in formal or innovative ways, play, song, dance, a parade!"^ ^Ibid., p. 13, 2Ibid., p. 42. In some aspects he appears to employ the word "religious" in a way similar to Tillich's and Westerhoffs usage of "faith," although perhaps Koehler's term is not quite as rich in his explanation; I have noted how his eighth chart "religious development," is based on Fowler's "faith development" concepts, along with Erikson. ^Koehler, p. 34. Ibid., p. 70. He sees -worship as being an element in the educational setting: "Here we can help people share and celebrate their common humanity. Here we can join in knowing and worshiping the Lord who unites us,"^ (04) Koehler quotes the Christian education objective of the United Methodist Church and maintains that it is a description of "what Christian education is all about." Apart from a slightly altered wording in its introduction and a few changed words in its body, it is almost identical with the objective developed by the Cooperative Curriculum 2Development, He goes on to suggest that intergenerational ministry is educational when it involves one or more of nurture, discovery or training. Briefly, he describes these terms as follows: Nurture is to "nurture people in the faith, to nourish and affirm them, to help them jto He goes on to describe it in terms very much like Sutcliffe; A nurturing community is essential. This nurture doesn't happen through instruction, or urging one another to try harder, or passing out rewards for achievement. It happens largely through life together. . , Nurture is rather intangible. You can't plan it, though you can plan for it. . . Intergenerational education, then means, in part, two or more generations engaged in this mutual nurture.^ This emphasis on nurture happening through "life together" is consistent with my usage of that term in this thesis. In "discovery," he speaks about knowledge of the gospel, the human situation and the relation between the two. It is -to "discover more deeply our own nature."^ His total description is very close to the hearing, reflecting upon and understanding in my definition of Christian education. Training, he describes as "guiding people in their active discipleship in the church 1Ibid., p. 34. See supra, pp. Il4, ll6f. Wyckoff, like many other Christian educators, describes some worship as part of the process of Christian education. 2Koehler, p. 12; infra, p. 409, 1 4"Koehler, p. 12. Ibid., p. I3. 2651and world, helping them jto There are strong elements of "sharing" and "applying the word of God in their individual and corporate lives" (from my criterion's definition) in his description of training. I do not personally give a high profile to his use of that word in this setting because of the danger of that term bordering on indoctrination ("guiding people"); apart from this personal reservation, however, he describes training in terms largely congruent with the stance in the criterion's definition. He concludes this discussion with a definition of a setting for intergenerational education; "A planned opportunity for nurture, discovery or training in which a major puiprase is the inter- 2action and mutual ministry among persons of two or more generations." This is quite consistent with the "deliberate process" of the criterion. In another setting he emphasizes the importance of persons in the inter­ generational setting "sharing" their growth and learning with one another; "the persons and the learning should be more important than the form and polish of the sharing. Perhaps the best sharing is quite 3informal, say through conversation in twos and threes." (C4.a) Koehler's emphasis upon human development at various stages in life leads him to warn adult leaders against attempting to teach children concepts or use a process "for which they are not yet ready 4intellectually." One can see how this theory of sensitivity works out in practice from an example he provides of a church school class for sixth graders and their parents.^ ^Ibid. ^Ibid., p. 14. ^Ibid., p. 70. \bid., p. 40. •^bid., pp. 8yf; Appendix 1, chart 4. I provide the details of this unit in the appendix strictly as an example of educational models and procedures that appear to be appropriate to the identified needs and skills of two generations. On the basis of the outline data provided, for an event of five weeks duration, I would be very critical 266 (C5) Koehler's intergenerational learning paradigm is founded on the principle that everyone is a responsible participant, "No one is a spectator. It's a democratic, open environment in which all are free but all have responsibility for the experience,"^ He points out further how this concept is especially refreshing for younger and senior members of the church "who may have gotten the impression elsewhere that they are 2only to receive what the leaders dish out." He suggests further that intergenerational learners should be part of the planning process as well; "You may want to involve them in setting more specific goals, choosing among alternative plans, or planning for particular sessions or experiences coming up.""^ He describes in detail a very complex twenty- nine step process for planning an intergenerational unit; presumably participants in the group could be invited to give major leadership at several of the stages of this development.^ He lists four groups which should be involved in the evaluation process, and the first named group consists of the participants themselves, (C5.b) There appears to be a great opportunity in intergenera­ tional education for persons to experience the wide spectrum of ages, needs, attitudes and beliefs that are found in a community of faith. Adults can learn from young children, young people from grandparents and of its apparent lack of any reference to or concern for life in the world beyond the Bible and the Christian year, and the absence of any ^mention of individual or corporate action beyond the process within the group itself. ^Op. cit., p. 15. ^Ibid. ^Ibid., p. 69 4.Ibid., pp. 50-55» infra. Appendix I, chart 1. •^ Ibid., p. 67. The other groups for evaluation are; the ship team, the planning group and the administrative group (67). 267 "preachers from mechanics."^ However, a community of faith needs to be sensitive to potential dangers in intergenerational education, warns 2Koehler. Children may dominate or adults may dominate the experience. The different paces of mental and physical growth and the varied needs and abilities of all participants must be considered.^ Koehler lists a great number of types of potential learning activities for intergener­ ational groups under five general headings: 1. activities for deepening interpersonal communication and ministry; 2. activities for exploring facts, ideas, meanings; 3. activities for expressing attitudes, opinions, values ; 4. activities for celebrating faith and life; 5» activities for helping persons move into Christian discipleship. To mention only some of the suggestions from the "faith .and life" category, that area most closely connected with the central theme of the thesis, he lists such varied activities as; choral reading, costumes, creating music, dancing, decorating, game making, litany. Lord’s supper, pantomiming, parade, 4picnic, poetry writing, praying, recreational game, singing and worship. He warns at the same time that it is not easy to plan to meet the wide range of knowledge and interest that are reflected in such a group. (C5.c) Koehler suggests that a congregation should strike a careful balance between encouraging persons to venture out into new intergener­ ational contacts and experiences on the one hand and not forcing them into uncomfortable relationships or situations on the other hand.^ (g6) Very often content and activities will have to be chosen ^Ibid., pp. I4f. ^Ibid., p. 17, 3Ibid., p. 35. For a list of planning questions for activities, see Koehler’s criteria, infra, Appendix I, chart 3* ^Ibid., p. 65. -&bid., pp. 17, 47. ^Ibid., p. 69. 268 that will have "different levels of meaning" for participants at various levels of development; this will be normal if there is to be both challenging content for adults and a concern about going beyond the learning ability of children.^ For each intergenerational "unit" (a series of experiences planned for a given period) the goals will have to be set carefully by keeping in mind several matters, such as these identified by Koehler; . The needs and mission of your congregation , The objective of Christian education. The nurture, discovery and training functions of education , Our biblical and theological heritage , Distinctive purposes of intergenerational learning. , .. The needs, gifts and abilities of each generation . Your own values and hopes for ministry . The learning resources 2. The IG group itself, once it is underway. Koehler calls the Bible "our primary 'resource'" in Christian education. Beyond that he provides many suggestions to help a congregation discover and develop its own resources.^ (C6.c) He gives special content to "persons' concerns" with a suggestion about marking significant life events of the participants; it is important "to acknowledge, explore and celebrate these big moments in each member's life history," He sees a valuable opportunity here for the community of faith to provide personal support at a significant moment in a participant's life with the potential for younger members to anticipate such an event or older members to relive 4past experiences. (C7) Koehler's whole description of the intergenerational paradigm lends further weight to his further contention that an ^Ibid., p. 35. ^Ibid., pp. 50, 5%. Ibid., p. 63. See infra, Appendix I, chart 4, for an example of some of the "starters" or "for instances" that he offers. However, see also my qualifying statement about this particular example, supra, p. 265, footnote 5. \bid., p. 36. 269 intergenerational learning group may be potentially well qualified to help a community of faith integrate its total life. He writes specifically: Members who have shared across differences in an IG group may find it easier to do so in worship, planning and other activities. People who have found a new depth of faith and mission may want to move the whole congregation toward more vital outreach.^ (G7.c) However, he emphasizes that intergenezrational education is only one "valuable" resource, and suggests that a congregation develop a 2balanced approach to its programs. Some students have a deep sense of loyalty to peer groups ; this needs to be encouraged, he says."^ Some parents may want to get away from their children and some children from their parents; Koehler sees this as a legitimate need that the community 4of faith should recognize by providing a variety of programs. Even within the intergenerational paradigm, Koehler describes six different models which should be considered to provide a variety of experiences.^ When a congregation does choose to adopt some intergenerational learning process, Koehler suggests four ways that it could be implemented (elective, short-term; elective, ongoing; basic, short-term; basic, ongoing) and describes each.^ However, he makes it clear that when a congregation is experimenting with the paradigm, it should be introduced yas an elective, short-term option.' Generally, he prefers to recommend it to every congregation as one paradigm among others for Christian education. Koehler outlines several possible "hazards" in intergenerational learning, some of which have been identified above. He describes some other potential problem areas such as a possible lack of continuity, too 4bid., p. 16. ^Ibid. %bid., p. 18. ^Ibid. •^bid., p. 56; see infra, Appendix I, chart 2. 6 7Op. cit., pp. I8ff. 'Ibid., p. 20. 270 frequent change of leadership or irregular attendance by participants.^ His very first warning should perhaps be obvious from the discussion to this point: this pai^igm requires a tremendous amount of planning and work! Planners need to be aware of so many differences among ages that this compounds the considerations in the development of a program. He explains further: "A leadership team will need to spend many hours developing the purposes and plans for your setting, gathering resources, 2preparing for the activities. Count that cost in advance." However, at the same time, he reminds a congregation: "But bear in mind the enthusiasm and commitment which often grow from such investment in new and rewarding ministries. There are leaders who will respond to this challenge."^ His central emphasis reflects the sentiments in the last quotation, He maintains further; "Many a church has discovered that a happy by­ product of intergenerational settings has been a new sense of life and unity in the congregation,"^ That message appears to be quite congruent with the balanced data that he provides in his guide for learning together. Generally, this intergenerational paradigm, based upon the same type of faith development concepts that are advocated throughout this thesis, appears to be a very promising potential instrument for the promotion of faith development, D. South Congregational Church Service in Three Acts William Beaven Abemethy, a graduate of Harvard and Union Theological Seminary, New York, is the minister of South Congregational Church in Middletown, Connecticut. He has written a detailed (I73 page) book that describes the theology, theory and operation of an integrated 4 l3id., pp. 17f. tbid., p. 17. 4bid. Ibid., pp. 15f. 271 worship and Christian education paradigm developed by South Church.^ His very responsible handling of the whole subject, with the major weight of his arguments being based on theological and theoretical foundations, makes the book particularly useful for scholarly examination. Abemethy's main arguments in the worship area are derived from E)velyn Underhill, 2with reference to other scholars such as J. G. Davies. In the Christian education area he does not cite individual scholars or identify sources for his concepts; however, his theory is compatible with the direction and priorities of the Cooperative Curriculum Project, maintaining a balance among person centered, biblical based, relationships and experience oriented concepts. His special emphasis upon the full inclusion of children in all womhip (including the Lord's supper) and educational activities is congruent with von Allmen, Michael Taylor, Sutcliffe and Westerhoff.^ South Congregational Church is described as a congregation of between four and five hundred members with persons from a wide variety of ages and educational and occupational backgrounds. The church was founded in the middle of the eighteenth century in Middletown, Connec- 4ticut, which is currently a city of around 37,000 inhabitants. Abemethy describes the surrounding community now as including "a strong Roman Catholic population, a variety of different Protestant denominations, several black churches, a Jewish synagogue, and some Protestant and fundamentalist s e c t s . H e describes how the congregation 1William Beaven Abemethy, A New Look for Sunday Morning (New York, 1975), pp. lOf. ^Ibid., pp. 49ff, 149, 153f, 165. %bid., pp. 29, l62ff. \bid., p.22. ■^bid,, p. 23. 272 wrestled with several concerns in worship and education, changed the hours of service and considered the abandonment of the Sunday school. This led first to an "Experimental Church School" with interest oriented progressive education, and later, after considerable theological reflec­ tion and congregational study, to the three act service which is described in detail in his book,^ In very brief outline at this point, the three part service is described as follows: A full, but condensed, conventional church service is followed by Sunday school offerings for all ages; the rooming is tied together at the end by a time of celebration, a period of informal, spon­taneous, spirited worship. The total two-hour service is, in effect, one drama in three acts. The whole service begins in the sanctuary at ten o'clock, breaks to various parts of the church building for the Christian education portion at 10,50 and then all persons return to the sanctuary at 11.40 for the celebration period.^ Abemethy describes the practical rationale and actual results of the total time frame; The overall time limit of two hours reflects several practical concerns. The church wanted to keep the total time short enough to let the majority of people in the congregation feel willing and able to make a commitment to attend the three acts; our experience since the program was implemented has been that about two-thirds of those who came at ten o’clock stay all the way through. The one major variation on this theme is on the first Sunday of each month when an all age congregational communion service is held; the educational and celebration acts are replaced by an informal coffee hour on such Sundays.^ To illustrate how the three acts are designed to flow, I will ^Ibid., pp. 25ff. ^Ibid., p. 10. ^Ibid., pp. 20, 38. ^Ibid., p. 39, ï^bid. 273 outline one example.^ A worship service was centered around the twenty- first chapter of Jeremiah, aaphasizing the stem warning in verses four and five, that God would turn the peoples' weapons hack on them and would fight against them. Ahernethy preached a sermon that criticized the American involvement in the war in Vietnam. There were veterans from that war in the congregation and others who disagreed with the sermon. The forty-five minute worship service was followed immediately by the educational program period which included a group who discussed the sermon, Abemethy describes the situation: "By the end of that education class, the discussion about the war had moved from being essentially a monologue by the minister during the sermon to becoming a heated dis- 2cussion within a particular group of highly involved participants." When the congregation gathered back together again in a very informal seating arrangement in the sanctuary, the minister introduced the final act with a reminder that celebration "could mean celebrating the broken body of the suffering Christ as well as celebrating the new life of the Risen Christ.""^ Various persons contributed thoughts and suggestions to this part of the service, including a request from a woman for everyone to sing "Kum Ba Yah" with an additional special verse which she proposed, Abemethy describes: "At the end of the song we found ourselves in a period of silence, unplanned yet powerful in its impact. There were still no answers. The arguments would go on with people in that congre- 4gation on most sides of almost every one of them," He continues by suggesting that persons came to recognize that they were in the presence of Jeremiah's God who still loves and judges. The congregation greeted one another, joined hands for the benediction and the chorus of ^Ibid., pp. 15-20. ^Ibid., p. 17. ^Ibid., p. 18. \bid., p. 20. 274 "Kum Ba Yah," and then the people left for home. The theological rationale of this three act service is based on the model of the Lord's supper, says Abemethy, The opening act is meant to correspond to the service of the word and the closing act to a celebration of the presence of Christ, "not only in the bread and wine, but in the whole of life," The educational act is designed to help persons digest the opening worship and to prepare for the closing celeb­ ration, Throughout all three acts, Abemethy suggests that the personal "relationships could be affirmed as windows through which we see God's 2love." He describes the closing celebration simply as "worship at another level. . . The church is involved in three separate acts, but as its members progress through these acts they pass from one level of 3involvement to another." With these background comments, I tum now to an examination of the specifics of South Church's paradigm in the light of the criteria for faith development. (Cl) In all three acts there are frequent references to persons' feelings being involved in the process. While much of the educational act has been described above as appealing to the intellect, there appears to be a good balance in both education and worship that should appeal to 4the whole persons. There are constant references to the all age nature of the paradigm, but most of the special emphases seem to be directed towards the children and young persons.^ Very little is said about any elderly persons in the congregation. It appears that everything (except perhaps the fozm of worship in act one) is geared primarily for families, active adults, young persons and children; if this is indeed the case. ^Ibid., p. 35. ^Ibid,, p. 36. 4bid., p. 37. 5bid., pp. 70f. %id., pp. 29f, 56-60, 73-77. 275 one would need to examine the reasons for such a choice. (Cl.a) Both education and worship (especially celebration) are regarded as prime loci for the promotion of sound personal relationships. Education is described as person centered, at the same time avoiding any compartmentalization of person centered and program centered concepts.^ (Ol.b) The basic description of Christian education used by the church emphasizes the mutual sharing at the centre; passing on knowledge is not the primary objective. (Cl.c) While families that are already associated with South Church receive regular mailings and various forms of encourage­ ment on Sundays to assure each person that he or she belongs, there are also careful procedures developed by the congregation to identify and welcome visitors and to assure them that they are personally invited to take full part in all three acts of the service. This includes the provision of some courses in part two that start fresh each Sunday and are not dependent on any continuity. Active members are assigned to look for visitors and make them feel at home. The special coffee hours on communion Sundays and the "passing of the peace of Christ" during act three are designed to be opportunities for free conversation among all persons,^ (Cl.d) Different educational programs enable persons to be engaged at various levels of involvement, but the celebration act is designed to invite maximum contributions from all persons.^ (Cl.e) Act one and act three are intergenerational, and act two normally offers a choice between peer group and intergenerational education,An interes­ ting act one worship feature is the provision of paper and pencils in ^Ibid., pp. 36, 91, 95, 99. ^See (C4) below. ^Ibid., pp. 104f, 107, 127; see Michael Taylor, pp. 72-76, 4Abemethy, pp. 79ff, 112ff. ■^ Ibid., pp. 71f, 75, 83f, 96ff. 276 the pews, either for adults to make notes or for children to draw pictures without distracting others.^ The community of faith took the decision "to invite children of our congregation to participate regularly in the 2Service of Communion, including the taking of the elements." They describe their perspective; Opening the lord's Supper to children, however, does not mean abandoning the importance of understanding that sacrament. It does mean a recognition that different age groups comprehend things at different levels. And a child, we believe, can understand enough of the significance of Holy Communion to enter into that celebration responsibly and to grow through continued participation,^ (C2, C2,a, C2.b and C2,c) Abemethy does not describe his paradigm in specific terms of "faith development," nevertheless, it is possible to make a few general remarks in that area. He uses the word faith to speak about "the deepened faith" that can be realized when children and adults are brought together in Christian education and worship, and the "faith content" of Christian education or a faith affected by the climax 4of celebration. He also speaks of persons expressing and sharing their faith; this is central to acts two and three of the service."* In another setting he notes that it could help free adults on occasion to recall something of their earlier childhood faith, "whatever that faith may be."^ (C3 and 03.b) Most of the discussion of the South Church paradigm is related to C3; celebration will occupy the major part of this study because of its unique nature. Act one is traditional worship that appears to have been developed with a special sensitivity to persons who exhibit an affiliative faith style. The actual order of service is a 4bid., P. 73. ^bid., p. 163. von ^bid., p. 164. I have noted how this concept is consistent with Allmen, Michael Taylor and others. Supra, pp. 63f, ^Ibid., pp. 10, 108, 139. %id., p. 27. ^Ibid., p. 120. 277 simplified version of examples provided in the service hooks of the 1United Church of Canada or the Church of Scotland. Abemethy describes what he means by "traditional" worship; Act one gives more emphasis to order than to spirit, though there is room for the life of the Spirit within its oMer, Worship is traditional in that it brings to bear the richness of the tr^ition of the church on peoples' experience of the presence of God. He describes act one in terms of remembering and responding and appears to define worship in those simple terms; this is consistent with the fimt part of my definition of worship.In contrasting this act to act three's celebration, he suggests: "Part of the difference between the opening service of act one and the final act, however, is that the former is essentially leader-centered worship, while the latter is congregational 4worship." While Abemethy's term "celebration" for act three could at first appear to be fully congruent with my description of "celebrating life in God's world," he invests the term with additional meanings that I neither employ nor intend. His perspective and usage needs to be explored in some detail. He describes a tension that arose in South Church over persons who wanted "traditional" or "formal" worship and those who preferred a "spontaneous" or "informal" style. The congregation later embraced both and described the former as "worship" and the latter as "celebration," recognizing that these were two different aspects or modes of worship and that both could be included in the three act concept; this is perhaps one interesting application of White’s eclectic principle. 'ibid., pp. 21, 67. ^Ibid., p. 77; see p. 59. ^bid., p. 62. The influence of Underhill reinforces this definition; see supra, p. 49. 4Aberhethy, p. 111. ■^ Ibid., p. 32; White, Christian Worship In Transition, p. I33, 278 In contrast to act one's "remembering" (groundai in the past), Abemethy regards celebration as future oriented.^ One member of the Board of Deacons of South Church describes act three; The essential ingredients, in no particular order, include: (a) Fellowship (sense of community and friendship); (b) Sharing (showing concern for the important events in the lives of individuals in the church); (c) Spirit (the feeling that a religious feeling or Holy Spirit is present in the gathering); (d) Dedication (a renewal of spirit for the coming week). Several methods of attaining the ingredients are songs, prayer, verbal communication, physical contact— the semi-spontaneous expression of individuals under the general guidance of a leader, Abemethy's further statement that the focus of celebration is the presence of Christ, "at work in the whole world," is closest to my "celebrating life in God's w o r l d . P a r t of his theological description of celebration and its connection to outreach emphasizes the action of God in and through the pemons in the community of faith: In celebration we affirm the lordship of Christ over the whole of God's creation. , . Celebration, however, is not something we do for God, but something that we let God do in us and through us, , .If celebration is related to outreach, it is we who celebrate and God who reaches out through us. . He raises some very significant theological points in that particular usage of the term celebration. Abemethy describes in some detail twelve potential contents or aspects of celebration such as fellowship, religious festivals, reacting to world events, seasons of the year or celebrating personal events. Because of its less structured format, he uses the term "play" in a manner very similar to Davies' usage, to characterize the style of act three.^ While the congregation encourages freedom and spontaneity, there 1 2Abemethy, p. 61, Ibid., p. 110; see p. 36. p. 117. tbid., p. 118, %id., pp. 119-131. ^Ibid., p. 116; Davies, New Perspectives on Worshin Today, pp. I-I5. 279 Iis also leadership and form provided for this act. He explains the congregation's intent: Celebration requires a balance between planning in advance and spontaneity. Too little planning can lead to an experience of chaos or emptiness of little value. Yet too much planning can destroy the spirit of spontaneousgworship which the church is trying to celebrate in act three. The outline model for act three usually includes: music, an invitation to celebrate, sharing the Peace, the "Consecration of Christ's presence in our lives," a commission, dedication and musical response. He notes that the concepts of the structure are derived from the Lord's supper liturgy."^ Abemethy seems to be very realistic about the extent to which act three may affect persons' lives; he points out that there is "no 4guarantee that a church will be able to 'rejoice in the Lord always.'" He speaks specifically about consecration, a key element in part three: We cannot expect a mountaintop experience every Sunday. What the church is saying during this period is that Christ is present not just back there in the Bible but also right here in our lives today, if we can only leam how to look for him, sense him, listen for him.^ The key to this act from South Church's perspective is that it is an amateur part of the worship seirvice with maximum congregational par­ ticipation.^ Their overview of the two forms of worship, act one and act three, is that the two complement one another and they suffer when yseparated. Although both elements are integrally combined in my own definition of worship, Abemethy provides this different meaning, con­ siderably more detailed in structure and substance for the term "celebrate" ^Abemethy, pp. 59, 113. ^Ibid., p. I35. ^Ibid., p. 133. ^Ibid., p. 119. %id., p. 134. ^Ibid., p. 139. ^Ibid., pp. 54f. 280 as it is used in South Church, (03,a) South Church speaks about the whole order of worship in act one being designed to bring stability and a sense of security to all persons in the congregation,^ (G3.0) Special provision has been made on occasion for young persons (in the searching faith style) to provide 2major leadership in the three act service. (C4) Abemethy describes Christian education in terms of the church articulating and sharing its way of life "in such a way that people can be led into a deeper participation,"^ The articulation is explicit in the "deliberate process" and "hearing" on the criterion, and the sharing element is identical in both his and my statements. His "deeper participation" is implicit in my "develop in faith," make personal decisions," and "applying." He also uses the term "church education" to describe congregationally integrated education through worship, the Sunday school and all other groups and activities.^ Abemethy describes church education in this way: When church education is seen as the passing on of a way of life rather than the objective presentation of accumulated knowledge, one gains an important perspective on the organizational problems of religious education in the parish, . . Religious education as the sharing of the church’s way of life is far more compatible with an integrated church and church school.^ ^Ibid., pp. 56, 70; the challenging aspects of South Church worship are described below under (C6.e;, ^Ibid., pp. 56ff. ^Ibid., p. 79. 4This term was employed in the 19oOs among scholars like Wesner Fallaw, who defined church education as "a teaching-leaming enterprise, grounded in theology and scripture whose goal is that of enabling persons to leam of God through Christ as experienced in Christian community, the church." Wesner Fallaw, Church Education For Tomorrow (Philadelphia, i960), p. 25. Abemethy uses the same basic philosophy of integration that is described in detail by Fallaw; he does not, however, suggest the almost exclusive use of professional teaching personnel that is a drawback of Fallaw'5 total scheme. "Abemethy, p. 80. 281 This "passing on" or "sharing" a way of life concept is characteristic of Westerhoff and other scholars and may also he a safeguard against iindo ctrination, South Church mails out monthly to all the congregation a list of the various types of courses or experiences that are being offered in act two, Abemethy explains: "Each person is able to choose from among a limited number of course offerings. The hope in this cafeteria approach 2to learning is that freedom of choice will breed quality and interest." South Church has an interesting concept that is consistent with its integrated worship arid education approach, that act two could be regarded as a "response" to the intellectual challenge of scriptures and sermon in 3act one. However, it appears to me that this response element claimed for their educational act does not actually apply to many of the "cafeteria" offerings in act two ; it would seem to correlate mainly to persons who choose educational groups that discuss the act one content. Some of the Christian education groups may last several months for in- 4depth study. Generally, Abemethy's overall Christian education approach appeam to be quite consistent with that reflected in the criterion's definition of education in the context of faith development. (C5) Even before South Church began their three act service, their experimental church school attempted to involve everyone, all children included, in self-expression and sharing "his or her faith with others."^* Perhaps, however, young persons should be involved more actively in 2Supra, pp. 92ff; also, see (G5.c), 2Abemethy, p. 104, Again, this concept appears to lower the indoctrination potential, (C5.c). "Ibid., p. 35. \bid., p. 89, %id., p. 27. 282 designated leadership roles in areas where they may have particular skills. While Ahernethy describes one course: "Instead of a course taught to youth by adults, this offering was described as 'a group for people who like to sing songs about war, poverty, etc.— protest songs and others,'"^ it appears that this, still approaches an "adults dominate youth" model in an area where young persons could potentially have so 2much to teach the adults. Many lay persons beyond the boards and com­ mittees in South Church are invited to participate in the congregational planning process and development of courses for act two. The board members themselves and all members of the church staff are also central to the total planning and implementation process.^ (C5.a) While South Church encourages maximum participation by everyone in act three, the church does request individuals who plan in advance to offer leader­ ship, to notify the minister so that if their part is to be included it can be introduced at the most effective time and in the most meaningful way.-^ (C5.b) The congregation generally offers courses in act two for persons of any age, but they do advertise the general age level to which the course is primarily addressed,^ (C6) During the period of the experimental church school, Abemethy notes how there was some criticism over the lack of a "Bible- centered approach" being used; he contends, however, that in the subsequent 'ibid., p. 97. fif. Sutcliffe, pp. 17, 52f; infra, p. 423. 3 h-^Abemethy, p. 101. Ibid., pp. 102f. -^ Ibid., pp. 135ff. This appears to be one very practical way of implementing Davies' suggestions about various persons bringing com­ponents for worship services; Davies, New Persnectives on Worship Today, p. 115; supra, pp. 65f; infra, p. 390. ^Abemethy, pp. 103f, 283 ongoing life of the church there has been an increase in the use of biblical materials,^ The church describes act three in particular as being a time for action and outreach, (C6.a) Throughout a full year of congregational evaluation, South Church examined its life in the designated areas of program, finances and organizational structure. Abemethy developed a set of theological perspectives to support the resulting concepts; this continuing theological examination is prominent through­ out his book.^ (C6,c) The congregation appears to have a wide variety of content in worship and education including biblical resources, cele­ bration of the church year, harvest thanksgiving, UNICEF month, peoples’ interests, and a variety of social and political issues.^ (C6,e) Included among some of the latter content are controversial, conflict providing issues such as a class taught by a Vietnam war veteran on what it was like to be in that war, a celebration period dealing with corruption in high places, a letter to the new President from the minister (read during worship) criticizing President Ford for the timing of his pardon for Richard Nixon, and a celebration centered around the protest by American Indians at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.*^ From Abemethy’s description of these events, the controversy in most instances appears to have had a positive, cleansing effect on the lives of participants. 'ibid., pp. 29, 45. ^Ibid., pp. 117f. %bid., pp. 33, 35ff, Abemethy notes the humour in another setting of how "practical" this theology may become: "One person felt that there were strong theological reasons for placing the morning offering in the third act of the three-part service, the celebration period. He may well have been right. But others protested that there would be more people present during the opening worship period than in celebration, and that we would get more money in the plates if the offering were left in the first act. The practical reasons won out, and the theology had to be adjusted accordingly." (pp. 39f). ^Ibid., pp. 4lff, 65, 86, 91, 93. %ld., pp. 95, 129, I4lf, 130. 284 (C7) The entire South Church paradigm is based on the concept that a community of faith should see itself whole and should integrate its worship, education and action life,^ Abemethy presents a carefully 2developed theology and theory to support this direction, including an emphasis on the responsibility of all Christian persons to live and act with that same integrity.^ (C7.a) Ahernethy supports "the idea that there is a worship dimension and an educational dimension to each of the three 4different experiences of the two-hour program." He says that the Board of Deacons does not have the same perspective as the Board of Education, but the two complement one another in the integrated service,^ (C7.b) Many of the educational offerings in part two are designed to help persons participate with more understanding in parts one and three; he mentions specifically courses dealing with hymns, prayer concerns, sermon discussion and a study of the Lord's supper.^ (C7.c) There is some flexibility in the paradigm to meet the needs of individual members; 7some persons do not choose to attend act three in particular, Abemethy does not pretend that the three part service meets the needs of all persons in South Church, but the congregation does believe that the paradigm's wide variety of experiences supports many persons.® Generally Abemethy seems to be quite realistic about the South Church program. He says that the book was written to stimulate other persons and not to offer South Church's experiences as some ideal model; 4bid., PP> 9, 11, 33, 76, 89. ^Ibid., pp. 34, 65, 149, 152, 169. %bid., pp. 81, 86, 117ff. 4Ibid., p. 90. ■^bid., p. 102. ^Ibid., pp. 61, 66, ?Ibid., p. 88. ^Ibid., pp. 11, 76. 285 he warns other congregations against thinking that the adoption of that or some similar paradigm could cure financial or attendance problems in a community of faith,^ He is also cognizant of the danger that such a 2weighted program could tend to over-emphasize one day of the week. The paradigm appears to offer a great number of positive compon­ ents in the light of the faith development criteria. Perhaps one of its greatest strengths is the way in which so many lay persons are involved in significant leadership roles. However, any congregation which adapts or develops a similar paradigm needs to be very clear about the tremendous ongoing investment of time that will be required in studying, planning, organizing, promoting, programing, presenting and evaluating such a comprehensive, integrated paradigm."^ South Church believes it is worth all the work. ^Ibid., pp. 11, 13, 171. ^Ibid., p. 171 %ee ibid., pp. 101, 171. A Brief Evaluation of the Accuracy and Reliability of the Instrument Used to Study Hope Park Sunday School (Apuendix G) The five page instrument which I developed and used in the study of Hope Park Sunday School is based structurally on an instrument that I developed in I969 and had scrutinized and approved by professional research persons (Laing, "Scouting in the United Church," pp. 6, 190ff), The earlier instrument was employed to study Christian education com­mittees and various educational paradigms in 418 congregations of the United Church of Canada. It contained twenty general information questions, eleven questions about Christian education committees, sixteen questions about leaders and curricula and fourteen evaluative questions (requiring opinions about the "success" of programs). The latter questions were based on the stated educational objectives of both the United Church of Canada and Boy Scouts of Canada. The method of research and the subsequent results, detailed in my S.T.M. thesis, were regarded as acceptable procedure by researchers and scholars concerned. The Hope Park instrument, in its A, B and C sections is structur­ally parallel to the previous study; many of its questions are identical, and new questions, based on the criteria for faith development, reflect only the different context and different content. I suggest that section 286 D of the Hope Park study is more acceptable than the previous study since it allows the respondents to express degrees of assent or dissent to evaluative, opinion type questions. The major criticism of the 418 respondents to the earlier instrument was that they disliked the necessity to give "yes" or "no" responses to qualitative and quantitative questions about the assumed effects of Christian education paradigms; many sug­gested that such questions should have been posed on a scale of one to ten. This method, now widely used In similar evaluations, has been incorporated into the Hope Park study. However, I must point out that I do not attach a great deal of significance to the percentages that result from compiling and averaging the returns, for two reasons. First, this is a very small sample, nine persons. Second, while the questions Ql? to Q24 may have varying degrees of measurability, Q25 to Q32 are strictly "intensity of feeling" types of questions that have no basis upon which to verify the opinions expressed. Thus, in reporting the results of these replies, I only regard the percentage figures as indicating in the broadest terms the "feelings" of the persons concerned. While feelings are not to be dismissed, neither are they to be regarded as very reliable in research. The positive statement that can be made about this part of the process is that a very general understanding of attitudes of teachers may be surmised from the percentage figures quoted. It will be noted that in view of the above qualifications, I do not attempt to compare figures, apart from very broad references to radically different figures for two different age groups, within certain questions. In view of the above qualifications, I regard that the content and process of the instrument are sufficiently accurate to support the tentative type of generalizations that I have made as a result of its use. 287 CHAPTER SEVEN A STUDY OF POTENTIAL PROGRAMS FOR FOUR FAITH STYLES Paradigms such as those examined in chapter six are usually dependent on a variety of programs or curricula to provide some of their process and content. In this chapter, I study four programs that could he considered by a community of faith depending on the needs that are identified. The first three of these programs are interdenominational and the fourth was written by and for the United Church of Canada although it has been used by congregations of other denominations. The first program is a curriculum for a Sunday church school aimed at children who would typically be in the latter period of the experienced faith style. The next two are youth movements: the one is for girls toward the end of the affiliative faith style and the other for young persons in the middle of the searching faith style. The final program is a course for adults of the mature faith style; it combines elements of evangelism, Christian education and worship. Each of these programs is examined in this chapter in the light of the criteria for faith development with particular emphasis on C2, A. Joint Educational Development for Primary Children In most North American religious education curricula that are based on a three year "group-graded" approach, the children in school grades one to three are usually referred to as "primary children,"^ ^Peatling, pp. 367f. 288 Since the children in North America usually start school a year later than those in Britain, this means that these children are of typical ages six, seven and eight ; five year olds who will be six by December of the starting year are usually admitted to schools and church schools. This age range would appear to correspond generally to children who would be expected to exhibit a fairly well developed experienced faith or be moving into an affiliative faith style. In this section I will attempt to focus in particular on the youngest primary children (five to six years of age) who are only beginning school, are just learning the basics of reading, and perhaps demonstrate primarily characteristics of the experienced faith style. Among a great variety of denominational and joint church curricula that are currently available in North America, the "Discovering the Bible With Children" series has considerable popularity. These curricula are more commonly known as "JED" (Joint Educational Development), The materials are published jointly for fourteen denominations : American Baptist Churches in the U.S.A., Baptist Federation of Canada, Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, Cumberland Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Covenant Church of America, Moravian Church in America, Presbyterian Church in Canada, Presbyterian Church in the United States, Reformed Church in America, Second Cumberland Presbyterian Church, Seventh Day Baptist Churches, United Church of Canada, United Church of Christ and United Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, The JED resources are one option among a number of curricula that may be recom­ mended to congregations by the participating denominations. In the JED primary series, there are teachers' resource books and corresponding children's books produced quarterly. My study is based on the twenty- six weeks from September, 1979 to February, I98C; the four books for that period were written by Muriel E. Lichtenwalner, 289 The focus themes for JED for the years 1979 to 1982 are: God’s Self Revelation, People of God and Faith Response.^ Lichtenmlner points out to teachers that printed materials, no matter how attractive, are only one part of the resources available to a teacher, "Your own open­ ness to God's will and the children's needs is a prime resource as you guide children in responding to God's Holy Spirit," (C4) She adds to this by advising teachers to choose their own objectives for each lesson. There are curriculum writer's objectives provided in addition, but she suggests: "Underline the objectives you wish to use, cross out others, and add new ones of your own choosing,"^ (C2) At the beginning of the first teacherb* book, Lichtenwalner offers a brief description of some developmental characteristics’ of primary children. She acknowledges the inadequacy of charts to describe persons but points out that such charts could help new teachers to recognize some of the limitations, gifts and skills of children of that age. Her first charts are in the areas of physical development, social- Lemotional development and intellectual development. Then she offers a fairly extensive chart called "Faith Development in Primary Children," and speaks about faith development in relationship to: God through Jesus Christ, the Church, others and the Bible,She says of God through Jesus "These children identify with the boy Jesus: the growing boy at home, at 1Muriel E. Lichtenwalner, Discovering the Bible with Children. Teacher's Resource Book (Valley Forge, Sept,7 Oct. ,~Nov.", 1979) (JED-Tl) inside front cover. These are substantial books; both teachers' and pupils' books are 64 pages each on A4 size paper, ^Ibid, ^Ibid, 4Ibid,, p. 2. The specifics are typical of what one would find in Erikson, Piaget and the Cooperative Curriculum books. She stresses the concrete thinking of intellectual development among primary children. ■^ bid,, pp, 2f., 290 school, in the carpenter shop. He becomes a model for them. They sense that Jesus had a relationship with God in his growing y e a r s . P a r t of this emphasis appears to be congruent with Goldman's "constant focus upon Jesus, as an example of God come to earth, and as the incarnation of love," for younger children, and Westerhoff's "observe/copy (acquiring role models and foundations for the integrity of belief and action)" of the 2experienced faith style. Under faith development in relation to the church, Lichtenwalner states: "Their relationship to the Church con­ tinues in part to be shaped by the attitude and behavior of the adults who minister to them,"^ There are similarities here to Westerhoff's description of experienced faith; "Experienced faith, therefore, results from our interaction with other faithing selves. . . To live with others in Christian ways, to put our words into deeds and our deeds into words, to share life with another. . . is to provide the necessary environment for experienced faith," In faith development in relationship to others, Lichtenwalner suggests further that children have a "developing sense of right and wrong. Abiding by the rules can become important to many children,"^ This has a resemblance to Westerhoff's "Authority/our story ^Ibid,, p. 2. She cites a Linda Isham as the source of these charts. 2Goldman, Religious Thinking, p. 232; Westerhoff, Learning Through Liturgy, p, 163; Appendix P. My reference to Goldman is his focus on Jesus land not the helpless Babe of Bethlehem) for children who think concretely as opposed to a focus on the abstract concept of God, Lichten­walner' s special reference to the growing Boy Jesus is not explicit in Goldman, but perhaps is congruent with Goldman's call for teachers to surround primary children with various feelings including those about "Jesus, the strong kindly Son of God." Goldman, Readiness For Religion.p. 93. %p, cit. 4Westerhoff, Will Our Children Have Faith?, p. 93. ■%p. cit., p. 3. 291 and way— a search for conviction" of the affiliative faith style and to Goldman's recognition "of their need for an infallible authority,"^ Lichtenwalner suggests under faith development in relationship to the Bible, that primary children enjoy Bible stories and are able to relate 2some Bible stories to their own experiences. It is at this point that Lichtenwalner has a fundamental difference in direction from Goldman, Goldman begins with children, not the Bible, and maintains : "If, however, life themes are couched initially in terms of children's experiences, biblical material can then be used to illustrate them,"-^ In the same context, Goldman states his basic principle; "A clear distinction must be made, therefore, between 'teaching the Bible' and 'teaching from the 4Bible.'" While Westerhoff speaks of God making himself known through Jesus Christ the Word become flesh,^ he does not indicate specifically what use of the Bible itself would be appropriate for persons of the experienced faith style. His emphasis at this developmental stage is clearly upon adults "being Christians" with younger children.^ Generally, however, recognizing some of the above variations among scholars' per­ spectives concerning biblical content, Lichtenwalner describes primary children's faith development in terms similar to characteristics of the experienced faith style with mention of one affiliative faith style aspect, the developing sense of authority, (C1 and C4) The use of biblical materials is of course central to the "Discovering the Bible With Children Series," as one would assume by the name. Lichtenwalner lists three objectives of the curriculum itself ^Op. cit., p. 80. ^Op. cit. %p. cit., p. 71. 4Ibid.; cf. Goldman, Religious Thinking, pp. 232f, -^ Op. cit. ^Ibid. 292 for children under the age of twelve: 1, to make them aware of the great themes of the Bible,2, to help them discover that the Bible speaks to issues in their lives, and,3, to aid them in developing a variety of skills for using the Bible in individual and group study. The first stated objective in particular and the third objective to a lesser extent are clearly at variance with Goldman. In discussing the needs of children at this age he maintains: "A great deal of preparatory work is still necessary before, in later years, any systematic study of 2the Bible can be anticipated." I suggest that his warning is very important in the teaching of primary children; the first and third JED objectives seem to be addressed to persons older than those in the experienced faith style.. Perhaps Goldman would express the JED second objective in reverse order; in one setting he describes the direction of using the Bible with primary children, "beginning with the children’s normal and natural experiences": But it is obvious that some themes will tend to arise time and again including adults, other children, the natural world, life and death and many others. . .Such questions to be explored and themes to be looked at, from as many angles as possible, may involve the use of the Bible. But it should be used sparingly at this stage. As long as it is used lovingly and with enjoyment by the teacher this is enough.^ Goldman begins with Issues in children's lives and sees that parts of the Bible could speak to these. His point about the loving teacher sharing his or her enjoyment is a key factor, constantly highlighted by Westerhoff in his description of children's needs in this faith style. I contend that all three JED objectives require considerable modification in order to be congruent with the characteristics of children at this age. 1Op. cit., inside front cover. 2Goldman, Readiness For Religion, p. 101. ^Ibid,, p. 92, 293 As I discuss three specific lessons from Lichtenwalner's twenty-six, the nature and scope of the JED objectives will become more apparent. Although the content and process suggested in the materials make constant reference to the needs and concerns of the pupils, one would have to label this curriculum as "Bible centered" as opposed to "pei^on centered" or "experience centered," (G5) Although I call this a, "Bible centered" curriculum, Lichtenwalner points out to the teachers from the outset that teachers should attempt "to include children in planning,"^ She gives specifics from time to time on ' how this type of class participation can happen with primary children,^ (C6,c) The suggested sessions are set forth to cover a great variety of activities involving persons' concerns, the church year, the secular calendar and biblical themes. In Appendix J, chart 1, I have listed the twenty-six sessions to give some indication of the scope and balance of the content. In order to preserve the continuity that is necessary for each session, I will outline three representative sessions, one at a time, and compare each component with the criteria for faith development. I chose each of the particular three sessions to demonstrate the variety of content and approaches, and in the case of the last one, to deal with a potentially serious problem of a Bible centered curriculum for young children. The basic outline in the teachers' book for each session includes the following components in this order: Background: Scripture, a verse to remember, purpose, themes, a preview in outline of the total session; Preparing: review of the learning activities and evaluation of the previous Sunday, study Bible passages indicated for the current I Op. cit., front cover, ^Ibid., e.g., pp. 45,55. 294 session (a brief interpretive outline is provided), think about the children, consider objectives for the session, plan the session; Learning 1together: starting, discovering, closing, (Cl, Cl.a, Cl.c, Gl.d and Cl.e) "Birth of Isaac" is the title for the session on 16 September, 1979. The whole session is presented in such a way that it tends to affirm whole persons, promote rich relation­ ships among persons, and give a sense of belonging; the session also has one interesting intergenerational component. Its scripture is Genesis 21:1-3» 17:19; its stated purpose: "To help learners to discover that God keeps God’s promises"; its themes: "God always keeps God's promises; God plans for a good world," (G4,a) The pupils’ book contains the 3biblical story retold in children's language. The simple story sets out how Sarah was considerably older and did not think that she would be a mother at her age. "But God keeps God's promises! God gave Sarah a son." The story discusses Isaac's name and continues: "'God has been good to us, ' said Abraham. 'Now we have a son. I know that God keeps God's promises. God will make a new nation with Isaac, ' 'We must keep our promise to God,' said Sarah. Abraham smiled at his wife. 'Yes, you are right.'" (C4.b) Then Lichtenwalner points out to the teachers, in what I regard as a very useful statement, a theological questioning and critical inquiring need that is a potential for children as early as the The latter part is usually divided into six to ten suggested activities for the class; these are numbered and some activities that are regarded by the curriculum writer as "alternatives" are preceded by numbers in parentheses. However, the teacher is encouraged to choose those types of activities that best suit the teachers' own objectives, e.g., ibid., p. 7, ^Op, cit., p. 14. %uriel E. Lichtenwalner, Discovering the Bible with Ghildren. Opening The Bible (Valley Forge, Sept., Oct., Nov., 1979) (JED-Pl), 295 experienced faith style: They are aware of fighting, prejudice, disease, and poverty in our world today. But signs of God's good plan are all about us too.If God can cause the sun to shine, babies to be born, and plants to flower, can we not count on God' to give us strength and wisdom to face and overcome our problems? This is the important theme of this session, as we consider God's gifts and the fact that we are in God's plan. Many so-called "children's programs," and especially North American cartoons on television are filled with violence and trouble; youngest children today are exposed to considemble sadness in life through the media in particular, (C4) Lichtenwalner outlines her own objectives for this session in these terms; 1. Tell the story of God's keeping God's promise to Abraham and Sarah.2. Describe at least two ways God takes care of us and helps us grow.3. Give an example of something God plans for us to do. She always adds to her objectives; "You may not be able to achieve each of these objectives, and you may think of others which will be more 2suitable for your class," Her first objective involves mainly hearing and sharing, her second, reflecting upon, sharing and understanding and her third, understanding and applying. Later, in each component of the "learning together" section, she suggests which objective she has in mind for that activity. (Cl.a) In planning and preparation, the teacher has asked each parent to supply a baby picture of the child in the primary class; these are placed on a table along with the teacher's own baby picture. (Cl, Cl.e and C6,c) Also suggested for preparation is an invitation to one couple of new parents to visit the class with their new baby at the appropriate time. (Cl.c) The learning together begins; (l) Identify baby pictures (objective 2). Welcome each child and invite children to go to the table ^JED-Tl, p. 14. ^Ibid., p. 15. 296 with baby pictures, try to identify his/her own, and bring them back around an imitation campfire and share the pictures with other children, (Cl, 01,a, Gl.b and G6 Bible) 2. (Objective l) Read or tell the story of Isaac and talk over questions that follow the story in the children's book: Is there a new baby in your family? Have you watched Mother and Dad hold the baby? How do you think they feel about the baby?, . . Once you were a tiny baby. You needed lots of care. Your parents held you. They love you just as much now. You are God's gift to them. What are some ways your parents show they love you? Earlier, in the preparation instructions under "think about your children," Lichtenwalner has warned teachers to try to be aware of family circum­ stances among the class members, in particular situations where primary children may have been jealous over parental attention paid to a new baby at the pupil's home. She counsels: "Watch for feelii^s such as this in today’s session. Help children to be honest in expressing these feelings," (C4 hearing) 3 . (Objective 1) "Is anything too hard for the Lord (Gen. 18:14)?" is a verse suggested for the children to remember. (C4,a) (4) (objective 3) This is a suggested brief discussion period about the affirmation: "God has a plan for you"; Lichtenwalner warns against the teachers' suggesting that there is a "right" answer. She suggests using ideas from the "think about your children" section in relating to "God's care for us and our world. (g6 Bible) 3. (Objective l) This activity adds to previous weeks' sessions where a family tree has been begun for Abraham and his descendants; Isaac's picture from a resource sheet is added by a'child volunteer, (cy.b) 6. (Objective l) Teach the children a stanza of a song to be used in closing devotions. (Cl.e and G6 Christian life) ^JED-Pl, p. 15. ^JED-Tl, p. 14. %bid,, p. 15. 297 7, (Objective 2) At this point the mother, father and new baby are shown into the class and introduced to the children, "Ask the parents to tell when the baby was born and their own feelings about having a new life in their care. , , Encourage the children to ask questions and talk about their own experiences of having a new baby in the family."^ (C6,c persons' concerns) (8) (Objective 2) This activity is making a mobile, "Have the children look at their own baby pictures again. Try to instill a spirit of awe and wonder as the class compares the tiny babies in the pictures to the young boys and girls who are holding them. 2Ask what are some of God's gifts which help us grow," Detailed instruc­ tions are provided to help teachers with the content and actual construc­ tion of the mobile. (C7.a and C5.a) 9. (Objectives 1,2) The class sings the song learned and prays together in class devotions. Children are encouraged to add their own sentence prayers if they so desire. Hints for evaluating the total session are provided at the conclusion of each week's outline. (C6.b and Cl) In this particular lesson, there does not appear to be any serious violation of accepted hermeneutical principles. A very simple biblical narrative about the birth of a baby (with little reference to the problem of the age of the parents) has been related to the children; such a story can be taken quite literally without causing confusion among the children,^ Goldman points out: "The younger the child the greater his emotional needs,and notes further that "artistic and emotional ways of understanding their experience are perhaps the ^Ibid., pp. 15f. ^Ibid., p. 16. %ee Peatling, pp. f66f. 4Goldman, Readiness For Religion, p. 82. 298 most effective methods" for working with primary children,^ The structure of this whole lesson builds on children's emotions (bringing their own baby pictures, experiencing the presence of a new baby with its parents, and talking about parents' love for children). This emotional component is one of the similarities between the context of the text and the context of the children hearing the story; in all generations parents have felt deeply about a child's birth. Relating this story to the child's own birth and home context could perhaps enable a sensitive teacher to do what Goldman suggests, by helping to "surround the children with a feeling of wonder in. . . the love which binds us together"; Goldman maintains that such ideas are necessary to "provide 2a framework of meaning and cosmic security" at this primary age. (G3, 06.c secular calendar, 07 action life, 07.a and 07.b) "God’s Care For Creation," is the harvest thanksgiving theme proposed for 18 November, 1979.^ The scripture is Psalm 104:1, lO-lla, 13» l4a, 24b, 27, 28a, Jl lo , 33 (TEV); the purpose, "To enable learners to express thanks for God’s care"; the theme, "Thank you God."^ (01, Gl.d) In "think about your children," Lichtenwalner stresses how children love holidays and ties this in particular to the celebration of Thanksgiving. She concludes: "As the learners today give thanks for God's care for all of God's creation, they can become partners in sharing God's bounty with others."*^ (C6 and 06,c) Lichtenwalner’s own suggested objectives for the Ibid., p. 93. ^his date coincides roughly,with the United States' Thanksgiving; The Canadian's Thanksgiving is 8 Oct., 1979, and the lesson on 7 Oct. provided an opportunity for that fact to be recognized in both nations. ^Ibid., p. 59; JED-Pl, p. 58. -^ JED-Tl, p. 59. 299 session are; 1. Recognize at least two ways God takes care of God's creation.2, Name at least two ways we can help God take care of God's creation,3, Share food with someone who is in need, ^4. Express his/her feelings about Thanksgiving. (03) (1) (Objective 3) She proposes that the session begin with children placing their own gifts of food at the worship centre; a thanksgiving song is rehearsed. (C5.a) (2) (Objective 4) "Plan with the children for the special harvest woi^hip and dedication of the foods 2they brought." She continues with suggestions about the content for such class worship and with ideas for involving the children in the planning, (C4.a) 3» (Objective l) Teachers are requested to read the actual Bible verses selected (printed in JED-Pl) to the group; this passage is short, simple and directly related to the Thanksgiving theme. (07) 4. (objective 2) Using a special space in the children's book, they are requested to draw a picture about ways that they can act as partners with God ("ways we can help God"); a sharing session with input from all proceeds this activity. (C6.c secular calendar) 5. (Objective 4) All children are encouraged to share ideas about what Thanksgiving means to them, how their family celebrates Thanksgiving; it is further suggested that the children write a letter about North American Thanksgiving to some children from another part of the world (particulars are provided about where to get names if none are known to the participants). (03, 07.a) (6) (Objective 3) Lichtenwalner provides a suggested order of service for a class Thanksgiving service; they previously had an opportunity to develop some of their content for it (2). (07) (7) (Objective 3) Here the learners are actually involved in planning for or preferably doing the distribution of the food they brought for the ïtdd. ^Ibid., p. 60, 300 worship service. Follow-up is advocated: "Do plan to report next week about how much the gift was appreciated,"^ (Oy.a) 8. (Objective 4) A closing prayer from the learners' book is proposed if the class did not have time to use the harvest worship (6), In the total learning together session, Lichtenwalner has indicated by her parentheses that activities (l), (2), (6) and (?) are "alternate activities," presumably because some of the children may have attended or may attend the harvest worship of the whole community of faith. However, whether or not they did or will attend such worship, I maintain that there is considerable liturgical and educational value in including these particular elements in the 2learning session she has outlined. (C4,a) The third and final session I will examine is by far the most intricate, because it raises some important hermeneutical issues and a number of complex educational concerns. Lichtenwalner has either chosen or had imposed upon her by an editorial board the biblical passage, Luke 4:1-13, the temptations of Jesus, one o f the actual passages researched by Goldman and Peatling in their extensive studies. For these children of the experienced faith style, on 20 January, 1980, she calls the session, "Jesus Was Tested"; her purpose is; "To provide learners with opportunities to express their feelings about making wrong choices and being forgiven"; the themes stated are; "It isn't always easy to be the person God wants me to be; God loves us; God forgives me when I'm s o r r y . I will begin by addressing some of the issues raised by Goldman and Peatling on the ^Ibid., p. 61. 2Goldman suggests that harvest is a festival that may be especially meainingful for primary children and notes how they express its spirit naturally, Goldman, Readiness For Religion, p. 100, Pluriel E, Lichtenwalner, Discovering the Bible with Children. Teacher's Resource Book (Valley Forge,~Dec, 1979, Jan., Feb. I98O)IJËD-T2), p. 47, 301 text itself and by Lichtenwalner's careful rewriting of the biblical story into what she calls primary children's language, Goldman and Peatling, in their research procedures, use content of actual biblical texts of Matthew 4; 1-11 and Luke 4:1-13 for the story that they tell all children, Goldman, who selected the passage in the first place, discusses the two most pressing concerns that he saw in them and indeed upon which his questions were based; the first has to do with the devil and the second with Jesus' potential powers for turning a stone into bread. He describes these; The whole point of the narrative of the temptations is seen more clearly when we press the questions, "What waSpGod doing?" and "Why didn't he stop the devil tempting Jesus?"The Temptations narrative leads naturally to a discussion of whether Jesus could have turned the stone into bread if he had tried. Our purpose here is not to discuss the motivation of Jesus in refusing to do this, but to examine what divine powers pupils feel Jesus had, and how far these extend to intervention with natural laws.^ Goldman's questions posed to the participants about the story are congruent with these statements. Question 1 concerns whether or not the pupils have heard or seen the story previously, and question 3 is about Jesus' sinlessness; these are not aspects of the present discussion. Question 2 A and B deal with Jesus' potential power to turn the stone into bread. Then all the rest of the questions, 20, 2D, 4A, 4B, fA, and 30 deal with the devil's part in the story or current attitudes to 4the devil. Similarly, although Peatling uses a different approach in his questions, their content reflects Goldman's priorities. His four questions on this story (in outline form) are: 1Goldman, Religious Thinking, p. 234; Peatling, Appendix, "The Peatling Questionnaire/' p. 16. 2Op. 'Cit., p. 169. %bid., p. 112. ^Ibid., pp. 236f. 302 13. If Jesus was hungry, why didn't he turn the stone into bread?16. How could Jesus tell if it was the devil speaking to him?17. Why didn't God stop the devil tempting Jesus? ^18. Is the devil still about today, telling people to do wrong? Thus both Goldman and Peatling regard the devil and the question of Jesus’ ability to turn stones into bread as the two salient elements of that story which would appear to limit or indeed preclude its use among persons who do not think abstractly. (C6,b) However, what makes Lichtenwalner's telling of the story so fascinating is that she carefully avoids any reference to or assumption of the devil's presence and also manages to handle, the question of Jesus' turning stones into bread in a manner that would appear to reduce 2questions about this aspect from primary children. Rather than intro­ ducing the devil, she tells this part of the story simply; He heard a voice. "Jesus," the voice said, "You could turn this stone to bread. You could give food to the people. They would thank you. They would follow you. You are God's Son. God would give you this power." ■ Jesus thought about this. He was sure God wouldn't like it. "No," Jesus said. "I won't do this. People need more than food, I will find another way."^ The balance of that biblical story as told by her is consistent with that careful approach. From her total writings in the four books, and indeed from a recognition of the scholarship that is available to her through the many denominations that produce these curricula, it is evident that she is reasonably familiar with the principles of C4 .a. In effect, what she has accomplished is to demythologize the story in her retelling it for primary children. Whatever else the devil may signify to persons, the devil is eliminated from Lichtenwalner's story 1Op, cit.. Appendix, "The Peatling Questionnaire," pp. I8ff. 2Lichtenwalner's full story is found in Appendix J, chart 2. %uriel E. Lichtenwalner, Discovering the Bible with Ghildren, Opening The Bible (Valley Forge, Dec. 1979, Jan., Feb., I980) (JED-P2) P- 36. 303 and replaced by "a voice." The story wisely gives no suggestion as to whether the voice is exteinal to or internal with Jesus (it says earlier that Jesus was alone) but one can speculate that dealing with young children's questions about a voice, if such questions should arise, would appear to be much easier than explaining the nature of the devil. Lichtenwalner's retelling of this story raises some difficult questions. Is her removal of the devil from the original story hermeneuti­ cally responsible or is it too radical a form of "surgery?" Further, would the teachers who employ these lessons be capable of sustaining the sensitivity of the author? Looking at the first question, she appears to have told the story in such a way that it would preclude many of the questions posed by Goldman and Peatling in their research. However, she has accomplished this by imposing her own application of the text on the original stozy itself; she has interpreted the devil rather than dealing with the devil in the context of the text. In effect, she has changed a Bible story in order to avoid some potential problems, but perhaps has succeeded only in causing other problems. I suggest in reply to the second question I raised, that few men and women who teach classes of primary children can be expected to possess the skills required to understand and maintain Lichtenwalner's sensitivity. I would doubt that many primary teachers, including those with a rather mature faith, would be aware of the potential distortions of concrete primary thinking about this story, especially if the story were introduced by the teacher as the voice of the devil tempting Jesus. Indeed, Lichtenwalner's description of the passage for the teachers themselves begins by identifying, "Jesus' temptation by Satan." She continues; "The Gospel writers understand Jesus' experience of temptation as an encounter with Satan, whose power he had come to destroy. Jesus was alone at this important time."^ ^JED-T2, p. 47. 304 Her further suggestions do not warn teachers to leave Satan out of the story, even though she appears to have done a fairly commendable piece of work in "explaining" her interpretation of the devil, Lichtenwalner then provides "talk it over" instructions for the teachers to share with the pupils (or for the pupils who would be capable of reading themselves); Jesus wanted people to know God loved them. He wanted them to beclose to God, Here are four things he could do;1. See that everybody had enough to eat.2. Tell people they had to love God.3. Do a miracle so people would know he was a great person.4. Show people God’s love through the way he treated them.Which way do you think would be the best? Why?Which way would be easiest for Jesus? Why? It could at first appear that her questions are consistent with C4's "reflecting upon, . . the word of God," however, her third point seems to be stiangely out of keeping with primary children’s concrete thinking. This difficult concept about doing miracles is further compounded by her asking children the two very complex value questions, including her asking them about their rationale, "Why?" At this point I will reserve further comments on C4.a and C6.b with respect to this session, until the conclusion of the following very brief outline of the total session. (C4) Lichtenwalner's objectives are: 1. Tell the story of Jesus' testing,2. Explain how Jesus' testing helped to prepare him for his life's work.3. Explore his/her own feelings when faced with temptation.4. Explore his/her feelings of forgiveness from God. (C4 understanding) (t) (Objective l) This activity suggests a review of a picture gallery of Jesus’ life and work; this has been developed over the past few weeks. (C4.a) 2. (Objectives 1, 2) The Bible ^JED-P2, p. 37. ^JED-T2, p. 48. 303 story is read or told from JED-P2 and the questions at the end discussed,^ (C4 understanding) 3. (Objectives 1, 2) Ghildren explore the meaning of the word "tempt." (C4 hearing) 4, (Objectives 1, 2) Introduce a suggested verse to remember: "Worship the Lord your God and serve only him (Luke 4:8)!" (C4 reflecting) (3) (Objective 3) The teacher gives an illustration of a time when he or she was tempted and asks the children to think of such a time in their lives and to draw a picture that depicts it. (C4 making personal decisions, applying) 6. (Objective 3) In the pupil's book, two practical situations of children avoiding or cheating on a spelling test or cracking a dish in a shop are told; a process is sug­ gested to help the children explore their approaches to the issues. I maintain that this item in particular and some others to a lesser degree in this whole session, assume a level of moral development beyond that which Kohlberg would acknowledge for primary children. (C4 sharing) (?) (Objective l) A very interesting "story machine" activity is proposed here; this would carry on for further sessions. (C4 applying) 8. (Objective 4) A brief summary discussion is recommended about God's forgiveness and giving persons another chance. (C?) (9) and 10. (objectives 1, 4) It is suggested that the class sing a song learned previously and close with a prayer asking God to help when facing temp­ tation and thanking God for being ready to forgive. Looking back over the total discussion on this "temptations" session, there appear to remain some issues that are difficult to reconcile. (C4.a and 06.b) Although Lichtenwalner skillfully rewrote the biblical story, she had to remove important contextual material from the original. This seems to add to the growing impression that the 1See the questions quoted supra, p. 304, and the total Bible story as retold in JED-P2, Appendix J, chart 2, 2See Appendix D. 306 passage was probably inappropriate in the first place for children of this age. Her questions arf.sing from the story require a maturity that is not typical of primary children (particularly those nearest the age of five years). Further, it is unlikely that one can prune Bible stoiies and "protect" children from the more "mythological" elements when those elements could be regarded as the most interesting details to older members of the nuclear family.^ Then, I doubt that there are many teachers who are sufficiently skilled to handle a session of this type with the 2sensitivity that is obviously required, This session is a very clear illustration of some potential problems inherent in a "Bible centered" approach to Christian education, particularly an approach where specific biblical passages are selected without an apparent examination of the ramifications of the principle of C4.a. (C6,b) If one were to approach Lichtenwalner's twenty-six sessions from a strictly hermeneutical perspective, it could be argued that while the purposes, themes, process and content within many of the individual lessons appear to be congruent with the text, in several instances they seem to deal with secondary or indeed peripheral considerations from the point of view of the text. This situation accents the problems that can be raised by a "Bible centered" approach and emphasizes the necessity for the Christian church to press on continually toward a better integrated 1The family could well be discussing the same passage near the same time; Luke 4: 1-13 is recommended for worship in the new ecumenical lectionary for 24 February, I98O (Word And Table, p. 3 3 ) , Most of the denominations using this curriculum also use that lectionary, 2Peatling.writes: "There is far more often a tendency to assume that, in some way, adult intent can be accomplished with children at any level. This study could cast serious doubt about such an assump­tion." Op. cit., p. 567. 3E.g., 30 Sept., 25 Nov,, 6 Jan., 24 Feb.; see Appendix J, chart 1 for outlines of these sessions. 307 theological, developmental and hermeneutical understanding.^ I consider the "temptations" session in Lichtenwalner's series to be quite inappropriate for primary children and have strong reser­ vations about some of the other sessions for hermeneutical and psychological reasons outlined above. While the content, process and hermeneutical approach of the other two sessions that I outlined appear to be of a veiy high quality, in the light of the criteria for faith development, I suggest that there are numerous potential difficulties for teachers when using many of the other lessons in this series. If experienced faith is to be supported among primary children, it appears that these JED materials require very careful scrutiny by those responsible for Christian 2education in the community of faith, B. "Canadian Girls In Training" for Intermediate Girls Canadian Girls in Training, referred to almost exclusively as "CGIT," may appear to non-Canadians to be an unusual name for a youth movement; however "CGIT" has become a household word in Canada for three generations, CGIT historians trace the origins of the movement back to 1835 in England to Miss Emma Robarts whose prayer circle of twenty-four persons prayed "every Saturday evening for young women in all walks of 3life." That kind of concern for girls that continued over the years i Canada as well, was highlighted in I87O with the opening of the first 1See my discussion of Loder's call for the integrated theological and developmental approach, supra, pp. I44f. 2In October, Î98I, the United Church of Canada made the decision to withdraw its membership from the JED planning committee; materials will still be available to congregations, but the national church is lowering considerably the JED profile. Frances Russell, The CGIT Manual For Leaders (Toronto. 196k ) (Manual), p. 173, ~ 308 Young Women's Christian Association in Canada, and came to a sharp focus in 1913, during the First World War, when representatives of the Anglican, Baptist, Presbyterian and Methodist Churches and the YWCA met to study the needs and interests of teenage girls,^ The training of persons for war perhaps influenced the choice of the name of the movement: "it was approp­ riate to talk about Canadian Girls in Training— in training for living 2at their best for Canada and for God," The CGIT program is today officially recognized and used by the Baptist Federation of Canada, the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Presbyterian Church in Canada and the United Church of Canada, The National CGIT Committee of the Commission on Canadian Affairs of the Canadian Council of Churches administers the movement and supervises, prepares or provides all supporting materials for CGIT groups, ^ A CGIT group normally consists of two distinct age groupings in the North American "group-graded" system; intermediates (school grades seven to nine) and seniors (school grades ten to twelve) The Handbook recommends that a CGIT group seems to operate best with between eight to twelve members. It notes that the usual practice is to divide a group into the natural age groupings because of the different needs and interests of the girls.Muriel Israel describes her view of the younger group: The youngest Intermediates are likely to be full of bounce, fond of lively songs and energetic games; interested in doing things and making things; impatient for results; given to hillarious conver­sation and vigorous arguments; often careless of their personal 1Ibid., p. 176; Muriel Israel, CGIT Handbook For Leaders (Toronto, 1973) (Handbook), p. 49. The year 1913 is regarded as the actual "foundation" year for CGIT as a movement. handbook, p. 49. ^Ibid., pp. 8f. ^Ibid., p. 14. ^Ibid. 309 appearance; still sharing secrets with their girl friends and interested in their own affaii^. It is this younger, intermediate group, particularly the twelve and thirteen year old girls, who are my major concern for this section. Perhaps the majority of these girls would still exhibit most of the characteristics of the affiliative faith style; some of the more mature intermediates would be moving into the searching faith style. In my examination of the movement that follows, I intend to place most of my emphasis upon the affiliative faith characteristics, but I will identify the searching style aspects when appropriate. The National CGIT Committee provides several important resources for groups. The basic Handbook is the successor to the earlier and more detailed Manual. The Torch is a regular magazine providing program ideas and leadership development resources. Annual Christmas Vesper Service materials are produced and distributed, "Camp Councils" (annual girls' leadership development camps) are given basic Bible study resources and other national leadership development programs for adult leaders are 2provided as required, CGIT girls and leaders wear a uniform consisting of a "white middy with navy blue collar and cuffs, with the CGIT monogram embroidered on the left sleeve above the elbow. A black tie with a Friendship Knot," is worn also, together with a navy skirt, slacks or shorts, depending on the occasion. Very few symbols (perhaps a membership pin, one or more maple leaves as symbols of office or atten­ dance at a Gamp Council, a lanyard or world friendship badge) complete 3the uniform. With that brief description of the background, I propose now to turn to an examination of what CGIT is and does in the light of ^Ibid., p. 21. ^bid. p. 9. %bid., p. 52. Girls who graduated from an earlier "Explorer" program for junior girls may wear a small "E" pin on the CGIT uniform; this is provided upon graduation into CGIT, 310 the faith development criteria, (Cl) From the overall perspective of most CGIT literature, I believe it is appropriate to suggest that CGIT regards itself primarily as a "person centered" movement. In the 1960s there were regular debates within many Canadian denominations about "Christ centered," "program centered" or "person centered" paradigms. The CGIT movement seemed to maintain a reasonable balance among those concepts and in the 1960s described a program that should appeal to whole persons : The group meets for a program of worship, fellowship, recreation, and a project or some part of a project such as a mission study,Bible study, discussions, dramatics, crafts and activities that serve Church and community. While CGIT is more than a recreational program, it must be recognized that recreation has an important part to play in the program, and there is room and need for plenty of light-hearted fun.Through these experiences of thinking, playing, working, worshiping and learning new skills together, the girls develop habits of living consistent with their growing understanding of Christian faith.CGIT is designed to help girls grow into responsible Christian citizens as members of the Church. Very clearly those activities outlined are intended to cover many aspects of living for individual persons in fellowship with others. While the work of the whole group is important, the newer Handbook cautions: "Groups perform tasks but tasks must never become more important than 2the girls." I believe that this important focus upon whole persons will become even more evident as the total program is examined in the light of the criteria for faith development. (Cl.a, Gl.b and Cl.c) Many CGIT members tend to cherish through­ out life the close relationships that frequently develop through the movement. Israel suggests: "CGIT groups offer a special opportunity to develop a sense of giving and getting. Both ingredients are essential to healthy relationships in today's w o r l d . S h e goes on, employing ^Manual, p. iv. andbook, p. 11. ^Ibid. 311 colourful metaphors, to try and describe what this "group" life means to the girls; The CGIT group must be a group, not an indiscriminate mob. It is not a stew, with everything tasting the same. Rather it’s like a salad where each ingredient keeps its own flavour and appeal, makes its own contribution to the beauty and nourishing qualities of the dish, picks up a little savour from the other ingredients and imparts a little of its own to them. It is bound into^the whole by the magic of its dressing, the feeling of "groupness," The Handbook describes girls in terms of wanting "to be me," wanting to 2belong and wanting "to love and be loved." It continues by describing their need to "feel safe and warm and equal, able to ask their questions, share their thoughts,' shape their goals." Israel goes even further to suggest: "They need a sense of belonging strong enough that when they wish each other good-bye they still carry with them the feeling of 'I belong to this group. (G2, C2.a and G2.b) With the information provided in various parts of the Handbook, it is possible to make direct comparisons between Westerhoff's faith development concepts and those implicit in the CGIT movement. The Handbook speaks of physical, emotional, mental and spiritual development. The first three are described in developmental teims very typical of Piaget, Erikson, Robert Havighurst^ and the Cooperative Curriculum Project.-^ The "spiritual development" described in that particular section and elsewhere in the Handbook contains cor­ responding phrases for virtually every phrase in Westerhoff's three part summary of the characteristics of the affiliative faith style. Here then. Hbld. p. 18. Vbid., p. 21. 4Robert J. Havighurst, Developmental Tasks And Education (New York, 1932); see further discussion of Havighurst’s work, infra, -^ Ibid., pp. I6f. 312 is a comparison of Westerhoff’s summary with the CGIT statements (all Westerhoff’s statements are found in Appendix P). Westerhoff begins: ’’Belonging participation/engagement in service for others, a sense of community," CGIT says in outline (and the numbers are mine for purposes of identification); 1. Hopefully CGIT will be for the group; enjoyment of each other, appreciation of the worth of others.2. Through all the processes of small-group life— contact of person with person, words exchanged, encounters felt, insights awakened— girls and leaders grow together in the capacity to love and be loved. Let us keep CGIT a small intimate group within a la.rger group; the fellowship of the Church.3. Teenage girls -respond best when there is a listening leader who really hears what they are saying and what they leave unsaid.4. It takes time but as the girls in your group are willing to commit themselves in a depth relationship to one another and to God, and to work together as a team, they are becoming the people of God in love, trust, acceptance. The whole group, leader included, is experiencing Christian community.5. Teenage girls seek ways to be involved with God in actions that express love and concern for all people. Numbers 1, 2 and 4 express very strongly as well the close personal relationship and belonging discussed under Cl, Cl.a and Cl.c. The emphasis of 2 upon assuring that CGIT is an intimate component of the total community of faith (C?) is central to CGIT’s attitude to the church. The leadership concept implied in 3 is stressed throughout 2CGIT literature. The theme of 5 is also explicit in C6 and G7. Westerhoff’s second description of the affiliative faith style states; "Affections/religion of the heart dominates— a strong desire and need for significant religious experiences." From the CGIT Handbook are the following statements: 1, All persons have the same emotional needs. These include : love, security, a sense of belonging, affection, recognition, a feeling of self-worth. All of these are satisfied through relations with other people and may be fostered in a CGIT group where warm, deep. ^Ibid., pp. 6, 14, 21. ^Ibid., pp. 22-29; Manual, pp. 57-70. 313 inter-personal relationships with others have a chance to develop.2. Teenage girls seek ways to celebrate the presence of God in moments of real worship.3. Religion means more to them when they experience it concretely than when they learn it abstractly. Worship makes little sense unless it is related to life in today's world,4. They wonder about God and creation, and about the knowledge we now have of the universe. Often they will fight to see God's gifts used for man and for the beauty of the earth as well,5- To the girls, the group means friends; shared experiences,enthusiasm, undeistanding, emotions, a place to give as they need to give, and to get much that they need to get.6. With the love, the caring, and the friendships formed, these adolescents may grow up to become the girls God would have them be. Number 1's stress on these basic emotional needs being typical of all persons is an impoirtant reminder to balance an unfortunate assumption that could be gained from Westerhoff, who seems to imply from his total scheme of faith development, that strong emotions are somehow most typical of this particular faith style, I am not sure what the author is attemp­ ting to convey with the adjective "real" before "worship" in number 2; it appears she is trying to describe a worship experience that is personally significant to the participants. Likewise in 3, from the context it seems she is using the word "concretely" there to describe relevance in worship. The developmental language of number 6 is taken from the CGIT "purpose" described below under C4. The third summary of Westerhoff’s affiliative faith style reads: "Authority/our stoxy and way— a search for conviction; the establishment of a firm set of beliefs, attitudes, and values. Learning who and whose we are," The CGIT Handbook makes these statements: 1. In all of our living as a CGIT group we have faith to believe that Christ is at work in us, teaching us to know ourselves, making us able to accept one another as each one actually is, just as God accepts us.2. They are looking at values by which the general public lives and questioning whether they are truly valuable.3. Teenage girls want to discuss things, to be helped to discover things by themselves. ^Handbook, pp. 6, 10, 14, 18, 21. 314 4. Teenage girls look for a chance to leam— from each other and from their leader— who they are to be, and how they can cope with the problems of living. The strong faith statement of 1 probably reflects the positive influence of "group dynamics" upon the writers of this Handbook. Numbers 2, 3 arid 4 are among the searching components identified by GGIT that are also characteristics of Westerhoff's affiliative faith style (C4.b). (C2,c) I noted at the beginning of this section how the senior girls in GGIT would more typically be exhibiting a searching faith style and how some of those searching characteristics would also be found among a few of the intermediate girls. The GGIT Handbook also describes these traits; I compare those statements to Westerhoff's searching faith style in Appendix K, (G2) In brief summary, The GGIT Handbook is clearly describing faith development for intermediate girls in the affiliative faith style in exactly the same terms that have been accepted as working hypotheses in this thesis. Further, the objective of the National Gommittee for GGIT (which "aim" is described below under G4) is expressed primarily in terms of providing "opportunity for teenage girls and their leaders to grow together in Ghristian community," with the first, third and fourth objectives being explicit in Westerhoff's description of the affiliative faith style and the second objective being explicit in his searching faith style. It will become clear (under G4 below) that GGIT has articulated a basic objective that could be termed a faith develop­ ment objective, and indeed a faith development objective fully congruent with that employed in this thesis, (G3) a chapter on "Worship in The Group" begins with the strong pp. 6, 13, 17. 315 affirmation : "GGIT is worship,"^ Israel describes what she calls at least three different "kinds" of worship under the headings of "spontaneous," "informal" and a more formal "worship service," The spontaneous worship is described as something that follows naturally out of an event. "It cannot really be planned for in advance, but happens when leaders or girls can relate the Ghristian faith to life as they experience it in 2the group and elsewhere," Informal worship is regarded as "An approp­ riate response" to any one of a number of experiences; it could become the closing of a meeting. Some type of advance planning is regarded as the major element that distinguishes this from spontaneous worship. The Handbook describes worship services as taking place either in the gathering of the whole GGIT group (intermediates and seniors) or among the total community of faith. It is stated that the National GGIT Gommittee wants "the girls to feel at home with it" and further recommends that the minister or other knowledgeable member could be invited to explain 4the "why and how" of the congregation's worship services. The balance of the discussion of this chapter in the Handbook speaks about typical ingredients of worship in terms that are identical with those enunciated in the Service Book for the Use Of Ministers.^ (C3.b) GGIT has its own hymn, sung to the tune "Hymn of Light" by Mary S. Edgar. Its words reflect very strongly Westerhoff's description of characteristics of the affiliative faith style; ^Handbook, p. 39; see further discussion and details, under G7. 2Ibid., p. 40; Laing, Let's Celebrate, p. 64. handbook, pp. 40f. ^Ibid., p. 41, ■^bid,; see also pp. 42f, The volition, response and celebration elements of G3 are all implicit in this chapter's description of worship. 316 Now we unite to pledge a new allegiance,To Christ the Lord and Master of us all;Me would be like Him, so we seek His leading.Gladly we answer to His tender call. Me would increase in wisdom and in stature,Growing like Him, in love with God and man;Seeking the best, in all His world around us.Living our lives according to His plan. We would be strong, for life is all before us.Nothing can daunt us, guided by His hand.Eager to serve, we seek to follow Jesus, ^Giving our best for God and for our land. The Manual outlines some different needs of intermediate girls in worship as compared to the senior girls, and describes the younger (affiliative faith style) girls as "more practically minded" and the senior (searching faith style) girls as "more thoughtful." Several specifics about the types of music that each group appreciates are suggested; all these observations appear to be congruent with the ETC and ETA descriptions of Peatling, and hence with differences between the two faith styles,^ (C3.c) In view of these differences among girls, the Manual fully supports C3.c by suggesting; "intermediates and Seniors should worship separately, except for certain special services. There is usually a considerable difference in their approach to worship and the details of the service 4needed." (C4) The National GGIT Gommittee describes the objective of GGIT in the following terms; to provide opportunities for teenage girls and their leaders to grow together in Ghristian community— as persons in relationship to God realizing their self-worth ^Ibid,, p. 38; Manual, p. 102. ^Ibid., p. 140. Ibid., pp. I40f; Peatling, p. I76, See supra, p. 173, footnote 3* 4Manual, p. l40. 317 — as persons searching for life's meaning through Jesus Christ — as persons learning to he open and trusting in relationships — as persons responding in love to the needs of people in all areas of life.l I noted under G2,c how this objective is expressed more in terms of faith development than of Ghristian education. At the same time, it also contains Ghristian education elements, similar to the definition of C4. "Provide opportunities . . . to grow together in Ghristian community" and "to assist persons at each stage of their lives to develop in faith"; "persons searching for life's meaning" and "make personal decisions" and "reflecting upon"; "learning to be open and trusting in relationships" and "sharing"; "responding in love to the needs of people in all areas of life" and "applying the word of God in their individual and corporate lives," The Handbook suggests further that the leaders and girls together 2should explore objectives and determine group goals. GGIT's most promi­ nent objective, the objective that is most closely connected to Ghristian education is the girls "own" purpose. The acceptance and regular reaffir­ mation of this purpose is one of the few conditions of continuing GGIT membership. It states: As a Canadian Girl In Training under the leadership of Jesus, it is my purpose to: cherish health, seek truth, know God, serve others, and thus with His help, become the girl God would have me be.^ All of those elements, apart from "cherish health" are implicit in G4's 4definition of Ghristian education. ^Handbook, p. 9. ^Ibid., p. 11. ^Ibid., p. 7. 4A member's purpose such as this is typical of movements such as GGIT, the Boys' Brigade, Scouting or Guiding, which are more properly referred to as "youth serving organizations" rather than "youth organi­zations," This means that the youth program is adult sponsored in part or in whole, and that leadership is shared by youth members together with adults. The "Youth's" promises or purposes are only theirs to the degree that the individual young persons accept them. See Dorothy Roberts, Partners With Youth (New York, 1956), p. 65, 318 (C5) The National GGIT Gommittee states that it "sees the girls and their leaders as equal participants" in the GGIT program,^ This stance is emphasized in many different parts of the Handbook, "Make sure everyone has a say" in determining the group objectives or in deciding on specific group projects, says Ismel, In part of the discussion about knowing each member of the group, the Handbook emphasizes the importance of each individual being assured that her "being alive has made a difference 2to people," Very specific and useful suggestions are provided for adult GGIT leaders to enable them better to support girls* development and to encourage girls to participate more fully in the total group process. Among these suggestions are: watching and listening to each person in the group, talking to girls individually, inviting girls to the leader's home, getting to know each girl's family, making notes, and keeping records; details are offered under these headings.^ The leader is further reminded of the democratic principles of GGIT: You are their leader, but you are also a member of this group; contributing ideas, restraining yourself to allow others to con­tribute, taking responsibility with others for the success and failure of the group, growing and learning with others, as you share a common purpose— to grow into Ghristian maturity.^ This very clear expression of the principle of C5 further ties the concept to increasing faith development ("to grow into Ghristian maturity"). To help the girls make well-informed decisions, a number of practical guidelines are offered to leaders. In order to preserve the democratic principle, these seven suggestions are stated by way of questions such as; "Is it important to us? Does it help us to reach out to anyone? Will ^ be any closer to living our purpose because of it?"-^ 1 2 Handbook, p. 9. Ibid., pp. 11, 18. ^Ibid., p. 20. ^Ibid., p. 26. ■%bid., p. 33. 319 As a further application of this principle, not only does the National GGIT Committee offer leadership development courses for adult leaders, hut annually, there are "Gamp Gouncils" sponsored by regional or provincial committees; these events (normally of about ten days duration) provide leadership development opportunities for a limited number of the girls themselves,^ (05.a) The Manual suggests that when girls have been given suf­ ficient understanding about "why and how we worship God," through their active participation, they should be given opportunities to prepare and . 2conduct group worship. The Handbook outlines several helpful questions about worship to be discussed by the group and then a number of sugges­ tions about the actual preparation of a worship service. These guidelines deal with such areas as attitudes, personal devotional life, resources, rehearsal of components to be used, and the leader's special encourage- ment to the girls,For many years Ganadians of all ages have experienced GGIT Ghristmas Vesper Services, a service prepared in outline by the National GGIT Gommittee, and used in hundreds of congregations by GGIT 4groups. Occasionally a GGIT group may be requested to conduct another full service of worship at a different time of year for the whole community of faith, (G^.c) The Handbook describes three leader­ ship styles in terms that are almost identical to those described by Mitchell, and suggests descriptive names for these styles; "know-it-all," ^Ibid., p. 8; normally these girls are just beginning the senior section of the GGIT group. Manual, pp. l4lff. handbook, pp. 42f. \bid,, p. 8. ■^ Op. cit., pp. 357f; supra, pp. 92f. 320 "anything-goes" and "let*s-work-it-out-together,"^ Israel advocates that the latter "shared leadership style" ought to become the rule, rather than the exception in GGIT. The further practical explanations of this 2style are fully congruent with the principles articulated in this thesis, (G6) As a general principle, the National GGIT Gommittee does not offer a "blueprint" for GGIT program content, but expects each group to 3develop its own projects and program. It does offer a sample program outline that can be used as a basis for the group's consideration. Pointing out that "a set pattern should not be followed," it gives this example: opening ceremony, three minutes; recreation, twenty minutes; worship, ten to fifteen minutes; business, ten to fifteen minutes; project or activity, forty minutes; closing ceremony, two minutes (several detailed comments about the content for each component are offered) The Handbook describes GGIT as "a doorway to the church" through which girls can look at society and explore the church's responsible role there, "Within the GGIT movement she may be helped to see her relationship with other Ghristians in the world, and the task that God is calling her to do for Him in His w o r l d . T h e mission aspect of the church's work is very prominent in GGIT literature; Bible study, likewise, is a central part of GGIT program content.^ (C6,c) A great variety and balance of programs are suggested; the rationale behind this balance is offered: move into areas of programing that will;— interest your group— help them with their real questions and concerns — help than work on things that are really important to them — let them discover their identity as real persons — give them meaningful relationships with others ^Handbook., p. 24. ^Ibid., pp. 24f. Manual, p. 81. ^Ibid., pp. 98ff. -handbook, p. 21. ^Ibid., p. 32. — point them to their place in society 321— stretch their minds and hearts ^— let them experience what being Christian is. The sources of large numbei^ of suggested resources for programs that could promote such program objectives are outlined under general headings 2of group work, worship, music, camping, Bible study, ecology and crafts. (07) In a discussion of lines of communication, the Manual points out that "the GGIT group is only a part of the congregation and not an autonomy with independent and complete self-jurisdiction."-^ Similarly, the Handbook emphasizes also that GGIT is responsible to the Ghristian education committee of the community of faith, and notes how the whole 4congregation has expectations for GGIT leaders and groups. The worship, education and whole life of the congregation are seen as one in GGIT literature: GGIT is worship. , , through study of everything, from the Bible to problems of drug addiction, . . , through music and song, discussion, prayer . . . to see beyond the Sunday service; to develop an awareness of the relevance of the Ghristian way of life to everyday experiences. Worship is the mainspring of our lives. Everything we do and are depends on our attitude to God. As we worship, so we live; as we live, so we worship. In GGIT, worship is not super-imposed on the program as an activity quite apart from other activities.-^ This integrated view is further extended to the GGIT movement's inter­ denominational contacts and its connections with provincial and denomi­ national headquarters.^ (G7.c) The Manual notes both the importance of variety in programs and the value of having some degree of continuity or progress without loss of variety; examples of such development are 7provided. ^Ibid,, p. 9» ^Ibid., pp. 60ff. Manual, p. 173* ^Handbook, pp23f. %id., pp. 39f. ^Ibid., p. 59. "^ Manual, pp. 80ff. 322 From this total discussion of the GGIT movement, it becomes apparent that I am hard pressed to discover a discordant note between GGIT theory and the criteria for faith development. If those working hypotheses can be regarded as useful indicators and if actual GGIT groups could operate according to the theories upon which the movement is based, it would appear that GGIT is potentially a very significant instrument to promote faith development among girls in the affiliative faith style, G, "Venturers" for Middle Adolescents Venturers is referred to as a "section" of the Scout movement in Canada, A Venturer company consists of young men (and in many instances young women) of typical ages fourteen to sixteen, together with adult advisors.^ When Robert Baden-Powell’s book, Scouting For Boys, was published in I908, thousands of copies were sold and Scout patrols, formed by the boys themselves, sprang up all over Great Britain, Baden- Powell had originally written the book in the hope that its methods could be useful to existing organizations such as churches, the Boys’ Brigade and the Young Mmi’s Ghristian Association; suddenly, however, he discovered that he was the founder of a youth movement rather than the 2developer of a curriculum. To this day, Scouting in Great Britain is accountable to the Scout organization only. By way of contrast, in Canada and the United States, Scout groups are sponsored by churches or other institutions who work as "partners" with Scouting.^ In 1979, There are five sections in Canadian Scouting: Beaver colonies (typical ages 5-7); Cub packs (typical ages 8-1O); Scout troops (typical ages 11-13); Venturer companies (typical ages 14-16); Rover crews (typical ages l6-2l). When referring to the whole movement (all five sections) I will call it Scouts or Scouting. 2Laing, "Scouting in the United Church," pp. 9f. ^Ibid., pp. 11, 18-23; Laing, Let's Celebrate, pp. 9f, 21. 323 834 congregations of the United Church of Canada sponsored one or more sections of Scouting, There are several thousands of Venturers in companies that are sponsored by communities of faith in Canada, The three pieces of literature upon which most of the study in this section is based were all written by me. The earliest is "Scouting in the United Church" (A Study of United Church Congregations' Sponsorship of Scout Groups in Christian Education), my thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Sacred Theology at Vancouver School of Theology in 1972. In that thesis, my study was based primarily upon the Cub and Scout sections with only occasional reference to Venturers. Subsequent to the publication of some of the thesis' results, I was requested by the National Church Relationships Conference of Boy Scouts of Canada to write a book on worship and Christian education for all Canadian Scouting, In 1974, Boy Scouts of Canada published my Let's Celebrate, a 140 page book introducing worship and education theory, articulating some develop­ mental concepts and suggesting a few resources for worship and Christian education. This book has received wide acceptance and is the official resource accepted by the national youth or Ghristian education boards and most local congregations of Anglican, Baptist, Latter Day Saint, Lutheran, Presbyterian, Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints, Roman Catholic, Salvation Army and United Church of Canada denominations in Canada. I wrete the pamphlet Religion in Life Program. The United Church of Canada, together with William Adamson, professor of practical theology in St. Andrew's Theological College in Saskatoon, and Eleanor Geib, a professional Ghristian educator and a minister of the United Church in Saskatoon. This was subsequently amended and adopted ^Boy Scouts of Canada, Annual Report (Ottawa, 1979), back cover. 324 by "ÏÏAGSUGC."^ At the time of writing Let's Celebrate. Venturer companies were not co-educational. Since that time some groups in some provinces have accepted young women as members and I write this section with that fact in mind. Venturers cover an age range of young persons who would typically be expected to be in the searching faith style. This discussion, then, concentrates on a church program for young men and young women in that faith style; this worship, education and action program has the potential for being integrated fully into the life of a community of faith. There are several resource books for Venturers and Venturer advisors that deal with some of the very typically "Scouting" aspects of the Venturer program: camping, sporting, community service, leadership . development, careers planning and others. Venturers are also encouraged to make use of many other agencies' programs as program options for the company (e.g., Duke of Edinburgh Award scheme, Ganadian Red Gross water safety program, Royal Life Saving Society courses, St. John's Ambulance Society first aid courses), Recognizing that there is a wide variety of programs for Venturers, some of which may have potential for promoting faith development, I wish to concentrate in this thesis more specifically on those program elements that are most clearly related to worship and Ghristian education in the Venturers' lives in a community of faith. Like GGIT, Venturers may be uniformed. They may wear a beige coloured shirt and olive green beret; young men wear olive green trousers and I National Advisory Committee on Scouting of the United Church of Canada, Religion in Life Program. The United Church of Canada (Ottawa, 1980). When referring to this committee below, I will use its usual designation, "NAGSUGG"; I have been a member of this committee since its origin and was its chairman until June, 1979. Occasionally the word "Ranger" also appears in this pamphlet; it is used also for United Church Girl Guides of the Ranger section, although the Guide movement in Canada does not have "sponsorship" of its units by churches. However, individual Guides are encouraged to take part in the Religion in Life program. 325 young women an olive green skirt or slacks. They may also wear a sash on more formal occasions that has sewn on it a very few symbols to indicate development or progress through certain designated programs. While it is hoped that the total life and program of the Venturer company will be viewed from a faith perspective and will be regarded as an integrated whole, there is one optional program that requires special mention. Each denomination sets its own objectives and content for a "Religion in Life Program"; there are four steps in this program (the Beaver section is excluded). The objective of the United Church of Canada for all four stages of the program states: The Religion in Life Program of the United Church of Canada for Guides and Scouts is designed to complement Ghristian teaching already happening in the young person's life and to integrate this learning into the Scout/Guide program. Through’the youth's involvement in the program and especially through a close relationship to a congregation, it is expected that the Scout/Guide will understand more about the United Church and will grow in Christian faith and service. There are several important elements in that statement that need to be noted; "complement Ghristian teaching already happening in the young person's life and integrate this learning into the Scout/Guide program"; this is seen as one part of Ghristian education and worship for Venturers in addition to other formal and informal experiences. While I maintain that "spiritual" aspects of Scouting should permeate the whole program, this program is a very "deliberate process employed by the community of faith (C4)." The "close relationship to a congregation" is central to the Religion in Life program; it is hoped that the minister of the community of faith will take some signifi aant part in working with the Venturers in this program. "Understand more about the United Church and ^NAGSUGG, Religion in Life Program, front cover, 2Laing, Let's Celebrate, p. 8. ^ibid., pp. 19f, 59f. 326 will glow in Christian faith and service" are explicit in 04, 02 and C7. This should he regarded as an ongoing program in Venturers, although at some point the young person's minister may recommend that a Religion in Life emblem (Alpha and Omega symbol surrounded by a circle) be presented as a visible recognition that a Venturer has satisfactorily completed the basic components of the program and is attempting to do his or her best to live daily in Ghristian faith. Usually such a presentation is made by the minister and Venturer advisor in a service of worship for the whole congregation when the complete Venturer company is "on parade," Whether or not individual Venturers or the company as a whole chooses to partici­ pate in this special program, there are many further suggestions for worship and Ghristian education for Venturer companies. I will consider the Religion in Life program together with the developmental theory and more general program components in the subsequent study of Venturers in 2the light of the criteria for faith development. (Cl) Let'8 Celebrate affirms; "There is only one Aim in Scouting; you can't break boys down into mental, physical, social or spiritual 3components." Whole persons are the primary concern of Canadian Scouting; the movement's basic assumptions articulated in the 1960s state further; "That Scouting will be more boy-centered as opposed to program-centered."^ It is further emphasized that the Scout movement and communities of Hbid., p, 59. 2The full outline of Venturer objectives and guildlines for the Religion in Life program is outlined in Appendix L, A Leaders' guide to facilitate the implementation of each component of the program is being produced by NAGSUGG. 3Op. cit., p. X. This refers to the "Aim" of Scouting discussed below under C4. 4Boy Scouts of Canada, Scouts '68 (Ottawa, 1968), p. I5, Basic Assumption number 9. 327 faith should combine resources to do things together "with boys, not for boys or ^ boys," The primary responsibility of adult advisors is described as helping young persons "be whole people now."^ Further, the fourth United Church objective for Venturers in the Religion in Life program states; "To encourage young people in their search for personal identity and worth," (Cl.a) The personal lives of the advisors and the relationships that are developed between advisors and Venturers are seen as central elements for sharing experiences and promoting development among all persons in the company. An example of Reuel Howe's "language of relationships" is quoted and explained in Let's Celebrate in support of this principle.^ (C2) Both my S.T.M, thesis and Let* s Celebrate were written prior to the publication of the theories of faith development that are cur­ rently under consideration. My developmental understandings were based primarily upon two other sources available at that time, Erik Erikson's and Robert Havighurst's books, Erikson's theory, based on psychosocial crises, has been described in some detail in chapter four of this thesis. Havighurst, another developmental psychologist, has had considerable influence on Norih American educational theory and methods for a generation with his theory of "developmental tasks." There are clear and striking parallels thicughout Erikson's and Havighurst's stages. Boy Scouts of Canada has also made major use of Havighurst's develop­ mental needs and developmental tasks theories in the background of Laing, Let's Celebrate, pp. 9, 14. ^Op. cit. 3Howe, Man's Need and God's Action, p. 148; Laing, Let'sCelebrate, p. 16. 328 îScouts *68 and other new program resources, I opened Let's Celebrate with a statement about dynamic faith from a poem by Earnest Larsen: Religion, faith differs greatly from "just a subject" learned in school like any other.Faith is something else.It is not a shrinking flower protectively hoarded by old women but a tempestcapable of turning men's heart to fire,A tremendous shout for joy, a mission to re-create this world into something more— 2to make men more than flesh and blood, . . Based on such developmental understandings and dynamic faith concepts, I made statements like these to young persons in Let's Celebrate; "In your spiritual development you are aware of acute searching, involving much questioning, doubting and testing. . . you must discover a personal faith for yourself. . . some of you continue your search in many directions for a meaningful faith." You should "strive to develop an atmosphere of freedom in which everyone will be able to testify to his or her faith, and raise doubts, questions and concerns and have them taken seriously , . .new ideas, new relationships and wider mental horizons will be achieved as persons struggle together towards a mature faith." I maintain that such understandings are congruent with the faith develop­ ment concepts articulated in this thesis and in particular with the characteristics of the searching faith style. In a section specifically addressed to Venturers and Venturer advisors, I also commented on the continuing identity search which Westerhoff describes primarily in the affiliative faith style.^ The advisors are cautioned that young persons cannot have adults solve their ^Op cit., p. 21. Havighurst, especially pp. 15-71. 2Op. cit., p. 1. ^Ibid., p. 55. ^Ibid., p. 50. 329 crises for them: "They must grow by struggling, testing and meeting the icrises of life themselves," It is hoped that the Venturer company could become one setting where peers and advisors could exchange important life 2concerns in a spirit of trust. In response to the questions that I assumed were characteristic of adolescent faith, I advised; You can't live on your parents' faith. Take a good look at their beliefs and values, however, and then at your own. What are your beliefs and values? What part does God play in your life? What do you think of Jesus Christ? How open is your life to the influence of Jesus Christ?^ Consistent with these concepts, WACSUCC stated the fifth Venturer objective for the Religion in Life program; "To assist young people to explore and articulate their developing faith," and supported that objective with this specific guideline: "Share important aspects of your Christian faith 4with your group." The fifth and ninth Venturer guidelines in that program and a paragraph about the work of the community of faith and the danger of persons giving "only lip service" to their commitment (in Let's Celebrate) are very closely related to Westerhoff's "Commiiment to ideology/engagement in related action" of the searching faith style. The total discussion of faith development in these two thesis paragraphs thus include virtually all of the components of the characteristics of of the searching faith style as described by Westerhoff; clearly, the Venturer program is intended to address persons who are in that particular style. (C2,a) Although Let's Celebrate as a whole is addressed primarily to adult advisors, the specific sections for Venturers and Rovers are addressed mainly to the young persons themselves in view of Scouting's shared leadership concepts (C5). It is stated that Venturers together with advisors should develop programs that will be fun, will provide ^Ibid., p. 13. ^bid., p. 51. ^bid. ^Appendix L. 330 challenge and will give opportunities for persons to listen to many- different approaches to life so that persons can base their lives on tested ideas. It is suggested throughout that persons can support one ±another in this faith development, (03) Venturers and advisors are encouraged through both general 2policies and programs' content to "come together" regularly in worship. The Religion in Life third objective is to help Venturers "see worship as a response to the God who supports them in their life struggle."^ It is suggested in the guidelines that Venturers discuss the meaning of worship and develop and present a worship service for their own needs or for the whole community of faith. Worship in Let's Celebrate is described as celebrating life in God's world; through a hypothetical situation describing a Venturer camp, one advisor says to another; "this worship service today ought to be a real experience of celebration 4and thanksgiving to God." Thus all three components of the criterion's definition of worship are prominent in the description of wo2?ship for Venturers, (C4) The partnership formed between Boy Scouts of Canada and the community of faith which sponsors a group places obligations on both sides. Boy Scouts of Canada covenants to provide an aim, principles, operating policies, program objectives, program resource materials, advice and assistance with advisor recruitment if required, uniforms and such things as leadership development programs for advisors and local support from a Scout council. The community of faith undertakes to operate the programs ^Ibid., pp. 50f, 55. 2Boy Scouts of Canada, Bylaws. Policies And Procedures (Ottawa, 1969), section on "policy on religion"; Laing, Let's Celebrate, pp. 2. 3ff, 59,67. 3 k-^Appendix L. Op. cit., p. 2; cf. p. 3I. 331 in keeping with the aim, principles and policies of Boy Scouts of Canada, to provide a suitable meeting place and to recruit or to supervise the recruitment of advisors who are able to interpret to the youth members the content of that congregation’s objective for Ghristian education,^ This latter point is of particular importance; the definition or objective for Ghristian education for each church sponsored Venturer company is determined by its own community of faith, not by Boy Scouts of Canada, Supporting this partnership, the very general Aim of Boy Scouts of Canada, stated in developmental terms, says; The Aim of the Boy Scouts of Canada is to help boys develop their character as resourceful and responsible members of the community by providing opportunities and guidance for their mental, physical, social and spiritual development. The actual helping of the young persons is the responsibility of the sponsoring body. The fii^t stated principle of Boy Scouts of Canada is that "man must, to the best of his ability, love and serve God" ;^ the Venturer "promise" likewise uses that term, "love and serve God," as its first statement. This type of partnership and such theological state­ ments underlying an inter^denominational movement such as Boy Scouts of Canada make church sponsorship appealing to a number of congregations. Although the community of faith should be encouraged to have its own definition or objectives for Ghristian education for all its groups and organizations, the Venturers themselves are encouraged to participate in developing some of the specific objectives for the company.^ (C4,a) Ven­ turer advisors are invited to avail themselves of leadership development ^Ibid., p. 9. 2Boy Scouts of Canada, Bylaws, Policies And Procedures, p. 3, 3Boy Scouts of Canada, Scouts *68. p. 34. 4Laing, Let's Celebrate, pp. 26ff, 332 opportunities that are provided by (a) the sponsoring body, (b) Boy Scouts of Canada, and (c) the community at large. Boy Scouts of Canada states that "there is no alternative to having a knowledge or understanding of youth if the Aim of Scouting is to be achieved," and its leadership 2development courses tend to be heavily weighted in that direction. (C5) Throughout Venturer literature, the point is reiterated that a primary Scouting objective is to "develop" leadership among the youth members rather than to "provide" it through advisors.^ (C5.a) Several resources are provided to help Venturers participate fully in the development and conduct of worship services. They are encouraged to develop services for their own group or to see if there are opportunities for them to plan and conduct worship in their community of faith or 4among the younger sections of the Scout movement. , One very informal type of worship, designed for group devotions that requires the full participation of all members in the planning and the involvement of many in conducting it, is described in detail. This "let's do it ourselves" worship service focuses upon persons' feelings about their experiences of God in everyday life. In very brief outline, the six steps include; 1. A leader introduces the concept to the whole group. 2. Providing pencils and papers, each individual is asked to write down feelings and attitudes about which they have positive experience. 3. They share these feelings in small groups. 4. Each small group chooses an approp­ riate way to share with the whole group the feelings that are most significant to that sub-group (reading, singing, skit, story, each 4bid,, p. 25, 2Boy Scouts of Canada, Scouts '68. pp. Iff, 3Ibid., p. 23; Laing, Let's Celebrate. pp. I3, l6f, 50f. 4Ibid., pp. 57, 67; NAGSUGC, op. cit., (Appendix L). 333 person telling his or her experience, etc.). 5. They share their experience with the rest; this is the actual worship service. 6. The advisor attempts to draw together some of the thoughts into some meaning­ ful conclusion.^ Suggested samples of more traditional worship services are also provided; some of these have a high degree of congregational participation in the preparation and conduct of the service, (C5.c) The Scout Leader magazine for advisors, in a major article on leadership in Scouting generally, sets forth the principle advocated by Mitchell that should have the effect of reducing potential levels of indoctrina­ tion in Scouting sections: Leadership may be described as action by anyone which helps a group toward achieving what it wants to do. Thus lead.ership belongs to the group rather than being the exclusive property of one indiv­idual, In this way, any member of the group, at any one time, may be providing leadership, but as the situation changes other members will give leadership. , . Both directive and non-directive leadership can be appropriate depending on the situation and/or what you are trying to do,3 The last sentence also indicates an important safeguard, especially for situations that may involve physical danger to persons. Generally, in learning situations, the sharing of leadership by the whole group is the 4norm according to Canadian Scouting's leadership concepts. (C6 and C6,c) The Religion in Life program for Venturers, through both objectives and guidelines, includes specifically the areas of content described in C6. "God revealed in Jesus Christ" is explicit in the third objective and third and sixth guideline; "the Bible" in the first two objectives and the first two guidelines; "Christian life ^Laing, Let's Celebrate, pp. 73f. ^Ibid., pp. 79ff. %oy Scouts of Canada, The Scout Leader (Ottawa, Vol. 47, No. 7, March, 1970), pp. IDf. 4Ibid.; Laing, Let's Celebrate, pp. I3f. 334 in action" in the third, fourth and seventh objectives and the second, third, fifth, eighth and ninth guidelines,^ A balanced combination of several content elements such as those described in C6.e includes suggestions for such activities as ; having a chaplain's hour with the minister on occasion to discuss Christian values or meaning, discussing values or beliefs held by each Venturer, studying the operation and perhaps undertaking leadership in another church program for younger children, studying various scriptures as a basis for understanding more fully the Venturer promise, studying the lives of such persons as Bon- hoeffer or Martin Luther King, undertaking a mission project to the point of commitment, studying areas of full time Christian service, adopting a child through some international "foster parent" plan, working with choirs or another church group for programs highlighting the church year, considering ways that the company could help with local social problems, sharing experiences where each Venturer "thinks or knows that God has had a part in them," undertaking a study of other denominations or other religions, providing transportation for senior citizens to worship, delivering goods to persons in need, studying Christian views on moral subjects, studying and discussing Christian ecological under­ standings and considering appropriate action as a company, planning and providing entertainment for senior citizens homes or schools for 2handicapped or other groups. These suggestions are only provided as examples; Venturers are encouraged to try to be aware of any significant opportunities for personal faith development or commitment to service.^ (07) The official policies of Boy Scouts of Canada and the United 1See Appendix L for a complete list of objectives and guidelines, 2Laing, Let's Celebrate, pp, 52f, 56f. ^Ibid,, pp. 39, 61. 335 Church of Canada call for the closest possible integration of the Venturer company into the total worship, education and action life of a community of faith. The "policy on religion" (î, a, b, and c) states that young persons and advisors are encouraged to belong and to par­ ticipate actively in "the religious programs and activities of a religious community"; the partnership arrangement further emphasizes this integration,^ The Manual of the United Church of Canada states that the planning and direction of all groups associated with the congre­ gation "shall be exercised" through the congregation's Christian education 2committee; further, where a Scouting section is sponsored by a con­ gregation, the Scouting section or sections should have a representative 3member on the Christian education committee. From the research of my S.T.M. thesis, a set of seven priorities for congregations to support and integrate a Scouting section into congregational life were developed. Four of those, revised slightly for Let's Celebrate, include the concepts: 2,"Consider the Scouts as part of your congregation's ministry among young people." 4. The community of faith ought to recruit persons as advisors who are capable of providing the kind of Christian orientation to the group that is consistent with the congregation's objectives and ought to p2X)vide leadership development opportunities for all leaders. 5. "Your church should consider building upon the general appeal of Scouting by supporting its outreach, service potential, inter-church cooperation and worldwide brotherhood." 7. Evaluate the Scouting group in the light of the congregation's total educational responsibilities 2Boy Scouts of Canada, Bylaws. Policies And Procedures, op. cit.; Laing, Let's Celebrate, pp. x, 3, 5, 9f, 17, 21. 2Op. cit., section 126. ^Ibid,, sections 127 (a) i. through section 132 (d). 336 and perhaps find better ways to enable those groups to "become a more integral part of your congregation's mission,"^ The minister of the congregation is also given every possible encouragement to share in some 2significant way with the Venturer group. It thus appears from the foregoing paragraph, that on a policy and organizational basis, a church sponsored Venturer company can and should be integrally bound up with the worship, education and action life of a community of faith. However, my S.T.M, thesis demonstrated that in 1970, on a quantitative basis, many United Church congregations tended to grant maximum autonomy to Scouting sections and did not integrate them in the same manner that they integrated the church school or a CGIT group into congregational life,^ While 70^ of all. congregations had Scouting representatives on their Christian education committees, only ^Vfo said that the Scouting section was "accountable" to the committee and 59^ said that those representatives actually reported to the committee.^ Some 66^ of Christian education committees reported that they had studied the curriculum materials for the Sunday church school, 38^ had studied CGIT and other "church centered" midweek group curricula, but only 10^ claimed to have examined the Ghristian education material then available to Scouting sections,^ From major comments from a number of reporters, it appears that there were some institutional problems ^Laing, "Scouting in the United Church," pp. 175^; Laing, Let's Celebrate, p. 30. pp. I8ff, 52, 56, 59, 67. %rom my survey in I969, 44.5$ of all the United Churches inCanada who sponsored Scouting groups replied; there were 418 returns. 4Laing, "Scouting in the United Church," pp. 102f, p, I96. -^ Ibid., pp. 110, 196. 337 between local Scouting authorities and specific congregations of the church; others simply explained that they were not aware of the potential integration that was described in the questionnaire.^ There have been considerable changes in the ten year period since the thesis research: Let's Celebrate was published and is widely used, a new Religion in Life pirogram was introduced and leadership kits and Christian education workshops were developed by NAGSUCC. Venturer Religion in Life program material is nearly completed. Congregations which now choose to make use of these new resources should have the necessary information to integrate a Venturer company more closely with the rest of the congregation's Christian education groups. From the above examination of Venturing in the light of the faith development criteria, it appears that Venturers may well be one program with potential to promote faith development among young persons in a searching faith style in a community of faith. D. "Telling My Story— Sharing My Faith" For Adults Anne Bishop, an educator and sociologist with the national staff of the Division of Mission in Canada of the United Church of Canada, and Eldon Hay, professor of systematic theology at Queen's Theological College, Kingston, Ontario, wrote the actual materials for a fourteen week "adult study course in lay evangelism." This course was developed by and for the United Church of Canada in 1978 and has since been used by some congregations of other denominations as well. The first draft of the course was tested in twenty-six congregations of the United Church, evaluated and revised before coming out to communities of faith for general use in the present 115 page book plus a leader's supplement. ^Ibid., pp. 201-205. 338 The course is particularly well suited for examination in this thesis since it considers the three main thesis areas (worship, Christian education and faith development) ; it also adds an interesting fourth dimension, evangelism. The stated objectives for the course are: (1) to enable Christian lay people to grow in their faith and make their personal encounter with God more real and dynamic;(2) to liberate Ghristians in the sharing of their faith, and their experience of the faith through word and deed.^ I have had more than a research acquaintance with the program. In the summer of 1978, three lay persons from my congregation and I attended a weekend leadership development workshop that was directed by the two authors; there we considered some of the theory behind the study course and then in small groups we practiced the actual process and content of four of the sessions. Then in the year 1978-79, the three other leaders and I from our congregation conducted the total program with ' two different groups, a total of forty persons. Each person was given a copy of the full book; the "leaders'" copies contain the ten page supplement which give further details about general theory and the proposed process. As an integral part of the first session, the authors describe their own objectives for the consideration of those persons who are contemplating taking part in the course. They state: We hope that as you go through this course, you will become more aware of the resources of your own life experence, and the resources of scripture (C6 and C6.c);You will feel excited about expressing your faith and know why it is important (C2.a);You will gain more skills both for expressing your own faith and listening to others (Cl.b). Within the quotations I have indicated the particular criteria for faith ^Anne Bishop and Eldon Hay, Telling My Story— Sharing: Mv Faith (Toronto, 1978), p.l. ^ ------ p. 16. 339 development that are suggested by the authors* objectives. They suggest further that the participants ask if these course objectives are congruent with their own. This question becomes especially significant since each participant will be asked the following week to make his or her own covenant to the total course; the first session describes this clearly so there will be no mistake about the levels of commitment . that persons will make. Team leadership is recommended for the course if it is at all possible to do so. Bishop and Hay say: "There is so much to be learned 1and so much support in a team," Thorough advance planning together and careful evaluation after each session is recommended for the leader­ ship team. Generally it is expected that each session will be between 2two and two and a half hours in length. Fifteen peinons is considered the outside maximum size of the group; much of the directed process will require the group to subdivide into pairs or triads.^ There is one uniform structure that runs through each session. The sessions begin with a "purpose" statement that is set out clearly for all participants to read together, A "community" section uses "group building" techniques to promote closer relationships among participants. Then a "learning time" contains a study of the theme for this session. A period called "reflection" provides a time for personal quiet, a period when it is hoped that members will "sum up the experience and put together what you’ve learned," The "worship closing" is called 1Ibid., p. 5, supplement. 2Ibid,, p, 2, supplament, 3Ibid., pp. 1, 3, supplement. AThe titles and the stated purposes for all fourteen sessions are listed in Appendix M. 340 "a ritual which closes and celebrates each session." At the conclusion of the lessons there is also a "giving and getting more" section which provides extra reading and suggestions for additional in-depth reflection at home or with a few others from the group during the week.^ The first seven sessions relate to the question, "What is the Good News?" Then the following two sessions attoïipt to deal with the question: "Why does the Christian share the Good News?" The balance of 2the sessions suggest methods for persons to communicate their faith. At this point I provide a brief overview of the total program in the light of the first six series of faith development criteida; this is followed by a closer examination of a representative session and then a discussion of the C? series. (Cl) Since evangelism is such a prominent aspect of this program, the authors clarify from the outset that they believe the new interest in evangelism that is arising in the church is not to be viewed "as a swinging of the pendulum away from social action— but as an expression of the whole Gospel concerned about the whole person."^ This emphasis on "whole persons" in the sessions themselves becomes quite evident as one examines the process: there are provisions for worship, listening, writing, eating, moving about, sharing, hümor, imagination, creativity and other experiences. (Cl.a) The "community" section of each session is a period designed to enable persons to get to know one another well and to promote the closest possible relationships among participants. The very first session begins with the affirmation which will be read by each member; "You are not a lonely individual in this course, but a ^Ibid., pp. 6f. 2Ibid., p. 1; see also. Appendix M, ^Ibid. 341 member of a group. These exercises will help the group become a community where people feel supported and challenged by others,"^ This principle is followed immediately by the first community experience where each person is given a large (A4) piece of paper upon which he writes his first name in large letters and then writes a few personal affirmations about "who I am." These papers are then taped to each member's chest and persons move about, reading other persons' names and "descriptions"; participants are invited to discuss together the comments that others have written. (Cl.b) The introduction for everyone to the course states; "God is at work in human lives. That is why we have devoted part of 2each session to telling our life-stories and hearing others." This mutual sharing is indeed central to the whole course process; each participant has at least three major periods of sharing during each session. These are not merely "opportunities" to share; each person who covenants to embark upon this course will find it necessary to share at each time provided. (C2) The authors provide neither a detailed statement about "faith development" nor a description of their personal definitions of "faith." Perhaps this points to one of the strengths of the whole course; some detailed concepts are offered and challenges are provided continually, but few "answers" are provided. There are, however, some major statements offered for further reflection under the instructions; "Read and ponder," such as that which is based on Paul Tillich's "You Are Accepted" from The Shaking of The Foundations. In part, here are a few selected quotations from two full pages outlined in the study guide; Do we know what it means to be struck by grace? It does not mean that we suddenly believe that God exists, or that Jesus is the ^Ibid., p. 11. ^Ibid., p. 5. 342 Saviour, or that the Bible contains the truth. Furthermore, grace does not mean simply that we are making progress in our moral self- control, in our fight against special faults, and in our relation­ships to men and to society. . .We cannot force ourselves to accept ourselves. We cannot compel anyone to accept himself. But sometimes it happens that we receive the power to say "yes" to ourselves, that peace enters into us and makes us whole, that self-hate and self-contempt disappear, and that our self is reunited with itself. Then we can say that grace has come upon us. The statements about grace and "belief’ and grace and life generally that are contained in this whole passage seem to sum up many of the attitudes to faith in Telling My Story— Sharing My Faith. They are further congruent with Tillich’s and Westerhoff’s general statements on faith discussed earlier, and in particular with Westerhoff s 2theological statement about faith being received by grace, Westerhoff describes the mature faith style first in these terms: "Personal belief/a clear sense of personal identity with openness to others." The program affirms that personal belief element by stating from the outset; "There are answers to our deepest questions. However, there is not one answer for everyone, and there are no ’canned' answers. , . , Don't look in this guide for a set of answers 'in a nutshell' that everyone can use all of the time. Instead, embark on a journey— your 3journey, . ." This advice is consistent with the text of the whole course; nowhere are "answers" provided to searching questions, A general stance of the whole course seems to be reflected in this sentence; "The truth of our own experience becomes clear in the light of the Bible. The emphasis is on m^ story and m^ faith; not on some objective and consistent "story" or on some agreed upon "correct" Christian faith. ^Bishop and Hay, pp. 33f. ^Supra, p. 144. ^Ibid., p. 5. 4Ibid. 343 For example, when dealing with pivotal questions such as: "Who is Jesus? What is my relationship to him?" the course suggests a varied list of some fifty words and images that may he associated with Jesus, A typical sample from this variety includes: Healer, Friend, Redeemer, Lord, Revolutionary, Fool, Rebel, Shepherd, Effaninate, Master, Leader, Refuge, Free Man, Big Brother, Manipulator, Meek, Christ, Son of God, Deluder; these are listed in that random order and further spaces are provided for persons to add their own images,^ Persons are asked to circle five or six of all these terms which they feel best describe Jesus and then number their choices to show an order of preference. Following a few more steps in the process, persons are asked to share their concepts with one other person; nowhere is it suggested which answers should be "preferred," On the second part of Westerhoff*s statement, "a clear sense of personal identity with openness to others," the whole course is designed to clarify each participant's personal faith identity. The definition of evangelism is based on an openness to others. In a major reflection under the heading; "The Importance of Listening In Evangelism," it is stated: It would be a great thing if Christianity became a listening religion more than a talking religion, if each Christian became a practiced listener rather than a habitual talker, , , Willingness and trained ability to listen should be among the basic elements of an evangelistic life style,^ Such a perspective seems well suited both to lowering the potential for indoctrination through evangelism and to requiring a high degree of "openness to others." Westerhoffs second characteristic of the mature faith style, "Witness/religion of the will dominates," is again the very basis for this course on "How does one witness to the Christian faith?" The "will" ^Ibid., p. 37, ^Ibid., p. 344 again is prominent in the emphasis upon each person understanding and being able to articulate his or her own faith, Westerhoff s third statement is: "Centeredness/integrity of belief and action," One can sense a carefully planned progression in the course where the "telling my story" portion of each session (under "community") is developing, perhaps unconsciously, into "sharing my faith,"^ If this "centeredness" or "integrity" is escaping the notice of the participants, it comes into sharp focus in session ten. Immediately after the statement of purpose, the fii^t activity under "community" is entitled: "Telling my story: A significant event in my life." The instructions state: Working alone, think of a significant event in your life. You will be telling the stoiy of this event in ordinary, everyday terms and your partner will tell you how interesting it was to listen to. Then you will be looking at it more closely to see the action of God in the story, and telling it again. The exercise will work best if the story you ghoose is a really significant event in your life, a turning point. The following instructions remind the members that in retelling their story they should try to tell it as an action of God in their lives; it adds: "Perhaps you told the story this way the first time,"^ Then, after suggesting that the whole group make a comparison of three different versions of one of Paul’s stories (Acts 9:1-19; 26:12-23; Gal. 1:11-17), persons are asked to reflect on how their stories change as they are retold in different situations. In the later reflection section, persons are asked to reflect on the phrase: "I am a co-worker with God, My story is part of His story.Without saying so explicitly, this whole exercise brings together for the participants what the course has been suggesting from the outset: that persons may tell their story in 1See especially, session 3, "Telling my story: the past week," ibid., pp. 29ff. ^Ibid., p 79. ^Ibid., p. 81. ^Ibid,, p. 82, 345 different ways in different circumstances, but that "my story" and "my faith" are integrally bound together. This type of thinking is virtually identical with the centeredness and integrity of belief and action that Westerhoff regards to be major characteristics of the mature faith style. (02.a) The course introduction affirms that persons learn about faith from one another. It describes how persons will tell and hear each other's stories and share reactions to biblical materials and then states: "You will leam from one another and your faith will be enriched hearing 2one another's faith. This basic principle of 02,a is explicit in the process and content throughout the course. (02,b) A logical question is addressed from the outset of the introduction: "Will I get the Christian faith in a nutshell?" Bishop and Hay suggest: You will be able to express your faith appropriately, but not immediately or in one single form. Be prepared to work at getting your answers, and be prepared to leam a lot about yourself, as well as the faith, along the way. The encouragement and challenges for faith development begin from the outset of the sessions and increase as persons presumably grow in confidence. (C3) While there are various references to corporate worship within the content of the sessions, the actual devotional experiences of this program are brief periods called "worship closing" at the conclusion of each session. A general pattern is advocated: persons sit quietly for a two minute period thinking about the session; perhaps a sentence, prayer or song that expresses how the person feels about the session will come to mind. Then all persons join together into a "circle of prayer" ; the leader may choose to say a few words, introduce a song or lead in a prayer. Each member has the opportunity to share his or her reflections ^Ibid., p. 6. ^Ibid., p. 7. 346 or to remain silent.^ (C4) The introduction explains that persons leam from both content and process. It warns the participants: "If you are looking only 2for content, you may get very impatient with the process we are using," Certainly this is a very "deliberate process employed by the community of faith" to challenge persons to reflect deeply about the lole of faith in their lives. The word "reflection" is used each week as a named part of this process; this reflecting upon element is also implicit in other 3parts of the process. Bishop and Hay explain to the participants in the first session, the purpose of the reflection period: "It will contain a few questions to help you think back over the session and focus on what 4you have learned," Both the elements of reflecting upon and under­ standing are emphasized for these periods. The essential hearing and sharing components of C4* s definition of Christian education are perhaps stronger in this unique course than one would likely find in most other curricula. The "applying the word of God in individual and corporate lives" element is explicit in both content and process.^ (C4,b) The questioning, critical inquiring needs that are still present in a mature faith style are constantly recognized and persons are facilitated through content and process to struggle for their own answers,^ ^Ibid., e.g., pp. 17, 25, 111, Our own experience was that an ever increasing number of persons shared more and more as the course progressed, ^Ibid., p. 6. 3Ibid.; see also, for example, pp. 97, 104. \tixd., p. 17. pp. 23f, 38, 46, 60f, 63, 75, 82, 104, 108f. ^Ibid., p. 5. 347 (C3) The designated leaders of this coirrae are provided with a useful overview of some of the leadership principles that are required for the process. Seven areas of leadership are discussed under headings of good listening and deep caring, the leader is also a learner, the leader is not the source of answers, the leader acts as a guide, the leader has a difficult double task of listening with care to problems as they arise and yet keeping the session moving, he or she needs to be prepared and the leader will benefit from a sense of humour,^ From my own three uses of the course, the combination of each person having all the course outline in hand, the team leadership concept, and these principles tended to promote perhaps one of the best "shared leadership" adventures among all participants that I have experienced. (C5.a) The closing worship process which enables and encourages each person to participate seems to work well in the context of this course. One of the several follow-up suggestions from the final session was that interested members of the group were invited to prepare and conduct a service of worship for the whole community of faith; it was proposed that they could tell personal stories, share individual faith experiences, express in music and scripture some of the highlights of the total course, (C5.c) Because this course combines education and worship with "evangelism," one is inclined to look very carefully for evidence of indoctrination. However, from the outset, evangelism is described in terms far removed from indoctrination; the authors quote D. T. Niles of Sri Lanka, "Evangelism is one hungry beggar sharing with another hungry ^Ibid., pp 4f. ^bid., pp, 109 and 7 (supplement). This was actually done by a number of members from the Bethel United Church group; the resulting service of celebration reflected an enthusiasm, joy and level of maturity that appeared to be much appreciated by the whole community of faith. 348 beggar where he or she has found food,"^ The listening side of evangelism is stressed equally with the telling side. The course process is highly directive, to the point where one could almost term it "manipulation" in education. The authors note that some exercises may be uncomfortable for some persons, but maintain that this may be essential to promote growth. They observe: Discomfort is a very healthy sign when it means that the exercise is pushing people to think about something new, share something risky or do something they have never done before. If you can push people to do the exercise anyway, you are all bound to leam something new and bring the group closer together as a community. At the outset of the Very first session, this confronting technique is used; at the end of that first session, persons are warned about the future of the course; "If you have any doubts about the course being right for you, you need to make a decision before the group writes contracts next week."^ It is clear that the confronting techniques of the course are evident from the outset; however, the constant sharing process and the lack of "answers" to questions posed tends to lower any potential for indoctrination. (C6 and C6.b) Bishop and Hay state that "God speaks through the Biblical stories," and point out to participants that part of each session 4will be devoted to reading, listening to and thinking about Bible stories. Passages such as Matt. 25:31-40 conclude with questions for reflection like these: "Can you accept these people as Jesus? What makes it easy or difficult?"-^ (This had been proceeded by a reflection period asking about who are the outcasts of today.) Since this course is not primarily a Bible study course, the biblical passages that are offered for study 1 . 2Ibid., p. 1. Ibid., p. 5» supplement, ^bid,, p. 16. \bid., p. 5. -^bid., p. 39. 349 have been carefully selected to support the general topic of the session. Although the authors do not offer any "answers" to the meaning of the passages, perhaps the context of a few of their selections and later questions tend to minimize some of the hermeneutical principles that should pertain, I identify this primarily as a tendency to oversimplify, not to suggest that the situation is sufficiently serious to cast doubts on the more typical hermeneutical responsibility and general content and process of the course, (C6.c) The individual experiences and concerns of 2each participant are integral parts of the content for this whole course. (C6,e) The possibility and indeed the likelihood of tension and anger through the content and process is affirmed by the authors. Bishop and Hay recommend that anger be expressed and dealt with during the session. Session six is described here in outline and examined in the light of the criteria for faith development. Session six is entitled: "The Journey: Escape from Sin And Death" and its stated purpose is: In this session we'll look at these questions:What is the power of sin over us?What is the power of death over us?What happens to the power of sin and death when we respond to Christ?4 The first seven sessions are examining some of the components of the biblical faith. (Cl) The community period is designed to help persons explore personally the meaning of being powerless. Its five steps propose: 1. Working alone, complete these sentences:This past week (or recently) I felt in control when , . ,This past week (or recently) I felt out of control of thesituation when . , . 2. Now, recall a time in your life when you felt oppressed, isolated, powerless, out of control (for example a child under an authoritarian teacher, or parent, being fat in a slim world. ^See ibid., pp. 53, 60f. ^Ibid., p. 5, %bid., p. 5 supplement. ^Ibid., p. 51. 350 an only woman in a male group, a single among couples, among people who do not speak your language, etc.)Write a few words to remind you of the experience.3. Reflect on these questions: Who was in control?What power did he/she/they/it have over you? What were your feelings - about yourself?- about those in control?- about a way out? 4. Share in pairs. ^5. Share briefly with the whole group if you wish. Having been through this particular .carefully designed exercise myself three times, I suggest from personal experience and that of the group, . that it offers a potentially useful mental and emotional experience for all participants, (Cl.a) By the sixth session, persons are very familiar with sharing such intimate experiences with others and some tend to speak with candour and then listen with sensitivity. The recommended learning time that follows, divided into four sections, is approximately an hour and fifteen minutes. A. (C6) The first period, titled "sin is," suggests two steps: 1. In total group, set up a newsprint sheet and list as many different completions as you can for the phrase "sin is . . ."(you are not listing specific sins, but rather descriptions, meanings, synonyms, adjectives. Don't discuss any of the suggestions. Just list them.)2. When you have run out of suggestions, look together at the words and phrases : Gan they be put into categories or groupings? Is there more than one kind of sin? What are they?^ B, (c6) This process is repeated under the heading "death is," 1. Set up a new sheet of newsprint and list as many completions as you can for, "Death is . . ,"2, When you run out, look at your list:Gan you put these in categories or groupings?Is there more than one kind of death?What are they?3 C. (C4 reflection) Now the process considers the "community" exercise ^Ibid., pp. 5îf. ^Ibid., p. 52, ^Ibid. 351 and the two previous learning time experiences and suggests: "Now that you have remembered what it feels like to be powerless, and reflected on sin and death, what does it mean to be in the power of sin and death? Discuss briefly."^ D. (C4 hearing) The fourth part of the learning process in this session offers more theological interpretation than is typical of most other sessions. The instructions continue: According to the New Testament, we are in the power of sin and death, but we are now free. Christ took the sin of the human race upon himself and died for it; we are forgiven. How can this be so? Let's look in more detail at Paul's thinking on sin and death,Paul deals with sin and death in three different ways.In Romans, Paul says that those who live in Christ do not need to die physically. We know rabbis writing at.the time of Paul believed that death came to the human race as punishment for the sin of Adam. Because we are a sinful race, they say, we are condemned to die. Paul follows this logically when he says that because Chinstians have their sins forgiven, they do not have to face death, (Roman 5** 12-19) Usually the passage suggested would be read by one or more volunteers in the group while the rest of the group follows in their Bibles, The background material continues: This is obviously not the whole story, and Paul explains further in other passages. In 1 Corinthians, he says that the "sting" has gone out of death. The fearsome part of death is judgment and punishment for sin, but we who are forgiven need not fear death.It is simply a transition to another form of life, (l Cor, 15: 55, 56) Again, after examining the scripture passages concerned, the group follows on while a member reads further from the background; Most often, however, Paul speaks of death as death of the spirit.It is the death of being cut off from the Holy Spirit, involved in unloving human relationships, tied to material things ("things of the flesh"). For those who live in sin, he is saying, death is already present. Those who open themselves to the life of the Spirit are free of death. (Roman 8:6; 1 John 3:14-18)3 Then the group is invited to discuss (C4 reflecting upon): ^Ibld., p. 53. ^ibld. ^Ibid. 352 How does Christ free us from, sin and death?How would you re-state the following passage in your own words?"And we know that our old being has been put to death with Christ on the cross, in order that the power of the sinful self might be destroyed, so that we should no longer be the slaves of sin." (Romans 6:6)^ The reflection period of this session suggests two questions (C4 under­ standing) : "What did you leam from this session? What are your feelings 2about this session?" The closing worship is the usual circle of prayer where everyone has the opportunity to contribute as well as receive (C5.a) In "giving and getting more," there are several further exercises suggested for home study. It is recommended that persons re-study passages such as Roman 6:9-11 and do further reflecting on questions like: "What is the Good News? How do you feel about it?"^ Further background reading is also identified in adult curriculum books of the United Church of Canada, I have outlined this one session in total as one example of the content and process of the fourteen sessions. According to the later reflections by participants in all three groups where this session was conducted, the particular process had especially significant learning and emotional help for several participants. (C?) The major focus of the Telling My Story— Sharing My Faith program is on evangelism, Christian education and worship, and probably in that order. Throughout the sessions there are regular questions about what all this means to daily living. The final session is devoted 4primarily to the question: "Where do we go from here?" A detailed list of potential responses is suggested that includes elements such as enriching family and church life where I am already working, forming an ^Ibid. ^bid., p. 54, 3 4Ibid., pp. 54f. Ibid., pp. 8ff, supplement 353 evangelism action group in the community of faith, creating and partici­ pating in a corgregational service of celebration, working in church or community groups, engaging in further Bible study, and other sugges­ tions,^ Depending on the interests and responses of the participants, there are specific follow-up instructions offered in the supplement to 2enable persons to do something specific about any resolutions to action. Generally, the program tends to promote a good integration of total church life, I offer some further geneial observations about the course as a whole. It became apparent to all that the leaders were also struggling and growing in their search for faith answers (C2,a). The constant sharing of the process in twos and threes, supported by manageable questions, is perfiaps one of the best I have encountered, and truly promotes maximum sharing and closer personal relationships among the participants. This is not to suggest that all the sessions have uniformly useful content and process; regularly our leadership team substituted both content and process for part of a session and we decided to omit session twelve entirely because we believed its basic process would be unsuitable to our understanding of the persons in the group.^ Generally, however, all the participants in this program had an extremely positive feeling and said they believed that it contributed greatly to their faith Î 2Ibid., p. 109, Ibid., pp. 8ff, supplement. 3Our omission of this session was much to the relief of those participants who had read ahead and admitted later had come to this session only out of a sense of duty. The process was dealing primarily with communications skills involving deliberately interrupting another person when that person was telling his or her story, yawning in their face or pretending you were paying no attention. Persons said they read it for themselves and "got the message." 354 development, their interest in further study and worship in the church and their concern for participating in Christian action.^ 4The forty persons in Bethel United Church's two groups included several housewives, several teachers and nurses, secretaries, librarian, professor of biology, professional musician,, media advertising person, plastic surgeon, retired persons and others. The evening group of 15 persons was more "effective" from the point of view of the leadership staff, perhaps because the 25 persons in the morning group caused it to be too large for some of the discussion. 355 CHAPTER EIGHT LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATION FOR PROMOTING FAITH DEVELOBIENT In the previous two chapters, four sample worship and education paradigms and four possible programs have been examined, using the criteria for faith development. The process of examination itself has perhaps demonstrated'that from a research point of view, these thirty-one working hypotheses may be useful for studying the faith development potentials of existing or proposed programs in a congregation. However, I believe it is necessary to move one practical step further and ask the question.* would these criteria be generally usable by a congregation through the existing structures of a community of faith? A more explicit way of posing the question would be; if the minister and leaders in a congregation wish to employ these or similar criteria for faith develop­ ment on an ongoing basis, for the promotion of faith development and as working tools for the evaluation or study of worship and Christian education programs, does such a process seem to be feasible? This final brief chapter has that question as an underlying concern as I attempt to address some further general implications of the criteria for faith development in two areas of congregational life that are crucial to its worship and education tasks: leadership and organization. A full consideration of these areas would of course require detailed examin­ ations of leadership theories and theories of group organization; such studies would clearly be beyond the scope of this thesis. In this context, in the leadership area, it is my intention to draw primarily upon the criteria themselves, together with some of the discussion in the previous two chapters; when appropriate, these concepts will be supplemented with 356 limited discussion from the writings of the Cooperative Curriculum Development and a few other scholars. Then in the organizational area, I will again use the criteria themselves and the discussion of the previous two chapters. The general organizational pattern that I describe could be adapted for use in most Christian denominations. Since there is a basic polity difference between the Church of Scotland and the United Church of Canada with respect to the duties of the session 1and the duties of ministers, I avoid the terms "elders" and "session" and employ two neutral terms, "congregational leaders" and church "council." These general terms are intended to represent those persons and that body that is responsible for the "spiritual oversight" of persons in a community of faith, including having concern for the areas of worship and Christian education. A. Some General Leadership Concents The minister together with various congregational leaders are responsible for worship, Christian education and a number of "faith" concerns in a congregation. Perhaps it is therefore appropriate to begin with a brief exploration of their leadership roles (C3,a). I have noted 2Under the duties of the Session in the polity of the United Church of Canada are included: "(3) The administration of the sacraments,(4) The religious training of the young, and the organization of meetings for Christian fellowship, instruction and work. (5; The order of public worship,, including the service of praise and the use of the church edifice." United Church of Canada, The Manual, p. 55» section 90, Those duties belong to the minister in the Church of Scotland polity: "The ministry of the Word, the conduct of public worship, the dispensing of the Sacraments, and the instruction of the young belong to the minister, subject to the control and direction of the Presbytery." James T. Cox, ed,. Practice and Procedure in The Church of Scotland. Sixth Edition (Edinburgh, 1976), p. 56, chapter IV, section I. However, I believe that a minister of the Church of Scotland who accepts the general leadership principles arising out of the criteria for faith development could exercise his responsibility in worship and education by consulting widely in the congregation and involving several elders and other lay persons with him in his leadership task. See Beckett, p. 11, 357 in chapter two how the four worship scholars that I studied all gave a high profile to the leadership that will he provided by the minister of the church, but how each scholar, with varying intensity, insists that worship leadership needs to be shared with the members of the community of faith. Von Allmen holds the minister responsible for the worship, emphasizes his representative function, but insists that worship needs to be "declericalized," Davies’ books studied do not provide details in this area but he does suggest that the minister needs to consult 2widely and perhaps employ a dialogical approach to certain subjects to avoid manipulation. White generally prefers a style of ministry that is dialogical in character; the minister should conduct the service on Sunday but through it, should coordinate the needs and concerns of the congregation, Taylor, while emphasizing an important enabling function for the minister, suggests that he or she may not take a very significant part in the actual conduct of the liturgy unless the minister is especially skilled in that area,*^ Whichever one of those styles is adopted by a minister and congregation, the minister still retains an important function in worship leadership. From recent books on worship that are written by ministers in the pastorate like Abemethy or Peny, it is clear that in these times a minister still has a major leadership responsibility and that this role is increased by the desire to involve ^Supra, pp. 64f. 2The Church of Scotia,nd Committee on Public Worship and Aids to Devotion makes the same point in reference to introducing new forms of worship in a congregation. "The aim of consultation is not just to per­suade, but to allow a real partnership between minister and people in the planning and development of-worship. The Kirk Session should be involved at an early stage. It is true that the minister is ordained to lead worship,, but the session as a body has spiritual oversight of the congregation. By consultation with the elders, it is possible to take the temperature regularly." Beckett, p. 11. %nfra, pp. 384, 391, 396, 402f, 358 lay persons in more significant opportunities for participation and shared leadei^hip.^ Similarly in the Christian education area, ministers continue to have a significant leadership role. In my Î969 study of 4l8 congregations of the United Church of Canada, 78^ of the ministers of those churches indicated a direct leadership connection with the church sponsored Scouting sections in their congregation’s,^ (C5) The minister will indeed share leadership with many other designated leaders in the congregation, but that sharing does not diminish his responsibility nor does it allow him to believe that a particular area is covered by some other person, Nathaniel Forsyth, an American Christian educator, in a useful book about the role of the minister contends that even "when a church has a director of education, the minister should know a good deal about the Christian education program. . .He should support the program and assist in the planning to reach its particular goals. Foi^yth's contention is explicit policy in the Church of Scotland;^ this type of identification by the minister with the designated leaders in the Christian education programs appears to emphasize the important link between the Christian education pamdigm and the rest of the life in the congregation (C7).^ Randolph Crump Miller, for over a generation iAbemethy, pp. lOf, I3, I7I; supra, p. 285; Perry, pp. 48f, 54ff. ^Op cit., p. 196. Nathaniel Forsyth, The Minister And Christian Nurture (New York, 1957), p. 25. See Kenneth D. Blazier, A Growing Church School (Valley Forge, 1978), pp. 17f. 4"The minister being in charge of the instruction of the young is the head of the Sunday school, even where, as is common, another person acts as superintendent." James T. Cox, p. 129. -^ Laing, "Scouting in the United Church," pp. l48f. 359 one of the key figures in North American Christian education theory, maintains that an important priority for a minister is to help with leadership development for all the designated leaders of Christian education groups so that their devotion can be turned into more effective leadership and teaching. Through such leadership development opportunities and other contacts with designated leaders in the community of faith, the 2minister both ministers and is ministered to by others. The men and women who will be elected by the congregation to the council will serve together with the minister in all the congregation's worship and education concerns and will be expected to take on major leadership responsibility. Some of the congregational leaders will perhaps be appointed to a Christian education committee; others may serve on a worship committee if the council chooses to appoint one. Those serving on the Chiistian education committee in particular will in turn be expected to help recruit other persons for designated leadership in the congregation's Christian education groups. Paul H. Vieth, for many years the professor of Christian nurture at Yale University, lays special stress on the importance of a congre­ gation having a long-range, carefully planned program of recruitment for designated leaders; he contends that all too often this aspect of church 3life is a "hand-to-mouth operation," Vieth suggests four criteria for the recruitment of leaders generally; with his statements I indicate the criteria for faith development that have special relevance: 1. Prospects should be found mainly among members and adherents (Cf),2, Qualifications should take into account what persons are now Rudolph Grump Miller, Christian Nurture and The Church (New Yorky 1961),_p. 32, See also, locfce E. Bowman Jr., Straight Talk' About Teaching in Today"s Church (Philadelphia, 196?), p. 148. ------------ 2See supra, p. 257. 3Paul H. Vieth, The Church School (Philadelphia, 1957), p. I94. 360 able to do and what they are willing to be trained to do (C4.a),3, Motivation for service is important; persons need to love other persons and be able to accept the objectives of Christian education (Cl.a, 01.d, C4),4, The term of service should be renewed annually, not be open- ended.^ Vieth's second criterion implies a further obligation that will have to be considered by the community of faith; the provision of leadership development opportunities. His fourth criterion has implicit in it an element of evaluation of leadership that is prevalent among many North 2American Christian educators. The personality or identity of any person who will be selected as a designated leader is vitally important claim George Albert Coe, the Cooperative Curriculum Development and others. (C2 mature faith and G?) Coe, one of the key founders of modern North American Christian education theory, speaks about the importance of the integrity of life in a designated leader; "What the teacher is mingles itself inextricably with what he says, so that the response of the pupil is a response to the teacher as well as the curriculum he uses, the Church that commissions him, and the God on whose behalf the Church speaks through him,"^ jn a similar vein, the Cooperative Curriculum Development details this integrity further when speaking about the identity of a designated leader; 1. He should be related to God in worship (praise, word, fellowship, offering, pmyer, sacrament) and as God's servant in the world (C?).2. He should be related to God's world in responsible stewardship and should view the world as a place that arouses curiosity and offers opportunity for exploration, experimentation, discovery of the meaning and creativity (Cl.b, C4),3. He should be related to others, adjusting his role to their integrity, and responding with enthusiasm, openness, flexibility. Ibid., pp. 196-99 (summarised). ^Koehler, pp. 6?f. 3-"George Albert Coe, "The Starting Point of A Solution," in Basic Writings in Christian Education, ed. Kenneth Brubaker Cully (Philadelphia, i960), p. 328, See Robert K. Bower, Administering Christian Education (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1964), p. 96; Laing, Let's Celebrate, pp. Ijf. 361 love,, acceptance and loyalty in an "I-Thou" relationship (Cl, 01.a,01.b, 02 mature faith), I have indicated with these quotations how the descriptions by Coe and the Cooperative Curriculum Development appear to be practical extensions of the criteria for faith development in the area of congregational leadership for worship and Christian education. The emphasis upon integrity, relationships and freeing other persons seems to be especially significant. Vieth'8 point, noted above, that leadership recruitment should take into account both what persons are presently capable of doing and what they are willing to be trained to do is a prominent theme in the previous two thesis chapters. I have discussed how in particualr, 02,a, C4.a and 05.c appear to require some specialized knowledge about educational 2process; in this wider context it should also be noted that Cl.b, 05.b and 06.b require special skills. The point has been repeated above how designated leaders such as Sunday church school teachers, GGIT leaders, Venturer advisors or others either feel the need for leadership development themselves or the persons who develop their curricula recog­ nize this special requirement.^ Iris Cully, speaking of leadership development in the context of the church school, and other educators, speaking of leadership development for various specialized p3x>grams, emphasize the need for designated leaders to understand both basic principles such as those of Cl.b, G2.a, C4.a, G5.b, 05.c and C6.b, and also the need for training in the skills necessary to use various ^Op. cit., p. 99. See Evelyn M. Huber, Doing Christian Education in New Ways (Valley Forge, 1978), pp, 63f. 2Supra, pp. 225f, ^Supra, pp. 225f, 319f, 332f, 338f. 362 curricula,^ (C4) Koehler emphasizes in addition how designated leaders require specific ongoing leadership development to keep them conversant with the objectives of those persons in. the community of faith who 2institute programs or who determine the congregational policy. To accomplish this ongoing need. Cully, Edwards and others suggest both 3preservice and inservice training opportunities. The Cooperative Curriculum Development highlights some of these implications for leader­ ship development and expands on the concept to include education for leadership for every single person in the community of faith; here is their summary compared with various criteria for faith development: A, The designated leader is a part of the curriculum. He is a means by which the church provides the teaching-learning experience (Cl.a, C5).B, The leader enters into the curriculum of the church as a learner as well as a leader and is nurtured as part of the program (C4),G. The education of the Christian, including the designated leader, comprises preparation and education for roles in the institutional life of the church in the world (Cl.d, C4 applying the word of God and G7).D. Education for. leadership is a lifetime process. It is continuous over the life-span (C4 at each stage of their lives).E. Training for leadei^hip should be given to all persons at each age level, with specialized training provided for those who are to assume designated leadership responsibilities (Cl.b, Cl.d,C4 at each stage of their lives) C and E in particular aaphasize preparation for Cl.d, so important to an integrated faith, and vital to the whole concept of enabling all persons Supra, p. 231. See John H. Westerhoff III et al.. The Learning Centre A-pproach in Church Education (New York, 1973), p. 24; Margaret Sawin, Educating by Family Groups (New York, 1977), pp. 23f, ^Koehler, pp, 58ff. 3Supra, p. 231. Mary Alice Douty Edwards, Leadership Developmentand the Worker' Conference (New York, I967), pp, 6I, 93ff. This partic­ular book by Edwards has been an important resource book for congregations for specifics in leadership development; its methods and content are generally congruent with the criteria for faith development and with the leadership principles articulated in this chapter. 4Op. cit., pp. 71f. 363 to develop leadership rather than simply providing leadership through a few.^ (Cl,d) The several references that I have cited above have impli­ cations for all four programs that were studied in chapter seven. What­ ever type of program is provided by the community of faith, it appears that there should be opportunities for even the youngest persons to participate in leadership. Roberts and Snyder emphasize how guidance from adults if very important in enabling this youth leadership to develop, and yet how important it is for designated leaders to allow children to struggle and make their own mistakes as a vital part of their own leader- 2ship development. Under the whole area of Cl.d, the Cooperative Curri­ culum Development suggests four points under the heading: "Leadership Development for the Group Member and for the Designated Leader"; A. Curriculum should contribute to development of leadeiæhip skills, function and knowledge of the learning group.B. It should be planned in each segment to support continuing growth on the part of the designated leader.G. It should support the designated leader to be aware of potential leadeiship among members of the group and to accept respon­sibility for development.D, The supporting dynamics of the church administration and super­vision should be planned to facilitate the teaching-learning function of the church.3 Important elements of 02.a and 02.b are implicit in G in particular; the integrity of the whole congregational organization (an aspect of C?) is reflected in D. (C5.a, 0? and 07,b) Leadership development of the participants themselves may at first appear to be most closely related to the Christian education aspect of the church's life; however, the preparation for meaningful participation in worship is clearly very ^Supra, pp. 293, 318, 326f, 332, 339, 345, 347. 2Roberts, p. 159; Snyder, Young People and Their Culture, p. 39. ^Op. cit., p. 74. 36^ closely related and frequently could be regarded as preparation for leadership in worship.^ Koehler's basic principle that every person in the community of faith is a responsible participant, whatever age that person may be, is 2perhaps a simple and useful summary comment. The shared leadership concepts built into every part of the Telling My Story— Sharing My Faith program are a practical example of how this principle can be thoroughly integrated into the process.^ These shared leadership styles are implied by von Allmen and advocated by Taylor for worship, and detailed by Mitchell, Sutcliffe and Westerhoff for Christian education. It appears that a community of faith may indeed choose and implement such leadership concepts by promoting them among all persons in the congregation. These principles are quite basic to the promotion of faith development; they will also be fundamental to the form of organization that is chosen by a community of faith. B. A Possible Organizational Pattern for A Congregation This brief exploration of aspects of congregational organization is based on the assumption stated at the beginning of this chapter, that a minister and council of a community of faith wish to employ the criteria for faith development on an ongoing basis for the promotion of faith development and as working tools for the study and evaluation of worship and Christian education programs. The question asked at that point was: does such a process seem to be feasible?^ In an attempt to address the organizational aspects of that question, recognizing that some basic ^Supra, pp. 223, 230, 3l4f, 319 , 332, 3^ 5, 3^7. 2Supra, p. 266. ^Supra, p. 3^ 7. 4Supra, p. 355. 365 structure already exists in every congregation, I intend to employ a functional approach to council organization. There is no attempt in this chapter to discuss duties of the minister, council or any council or congregational committee beyond those duties that relate directly to the criteria for faith development or the discussion about those criteria. Basically, a functional approach to organization requires that the functions be identified and sorted and that the structure be employed, modified or developed to perform the functions. Since some structure already exists, and the organization (the council, which would include the minister) has decided to perform the functions (use the criteria for faith development), then I suggest that the following seven step approach could be regarded as one responsible way of examining the feasibility of a council employing these working hypotheses: 1. Identify the functions to be performed.2. Note the type of action apparently required for each function,3. Sort the functions into related categories (both topical areas and categories requiring similar action),4. Examine the existing structure,5. Assign tentatively those functions that seem to relate most readily to the existing structure,6. Identify and sort the balance of the unassigned functions (if any) and suggest appropriate structural modifications (if necessary) to handle these additional functions,7. Survey the total configuration, repeat any necessary steps and make adjustments as required,^ 1. In the given situation, there are thirty-one functions to be performed; the thirty-one working hypotheses need to be employed by a council for the purposes of promoting faith development and studying and evaluating worship and Christian education paradigms or programs. Although this seven step procedure is primarily my own, developed here to meet the particular situation, it is based on evaluation and organizational principles similar to those discussed in such sources as: Wycfcoff, How to Evaluate Your Christian Education Program, pp. 9, 18,23ff, White, Christian Worship In Transition, p-p. lOf. I34ff; Amitai Etzioni, Modem Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, 1964), pp. 8ff; Laing, "Scouting in the United Church," pp. 97-102, l43ff. 366 2. Some functions appear to require more than one type of action by a council. Proceeding in order of the list, I suggest that the following appear to be the primary actions necessary for each function; Cl, Cl.a, Cl.b, 01.c and Gl.d, policy and overview; Cl.e, research; 02 series, overview and program support; G3 series, program support; C3.c specifically, research; C4 series, program support; C4,b specifically, research; G5, policy, overview and program support; G5.a, G5.b and G5.c, program support; C6, G6.b and C6.c, program support; C6.a, C6.d and C6,e, research; 07, G7.a and G7.c, policy and overview; G7.b, research. The four types of actions identified above include: policy, overview, research, and program support. 3. The criteria for faith development, in their present form, are already divided into seven topical areas: persons, faith development, worship, education, process, content and integration. While this con­ figuration may have been useful for scholarly research purposes, the various actions that seem to be required in a community of faith setting, according to step two above, suggest that they should also be sorted into action categories. These would be: policy. Cl, Cl.a, Gl.b, 01.c, Gl.d, 05, 07, 07.a and 07.c; overview Cl, 01.a, Cl.b, Gl.c, 01,d, 02 series, 05, 07, 07.a and 07.c; research, Cl.e, 03.c, 04.b, 06.a, 06.d, C6.e and 07.b; program support, 02 series, 03 series, 04 series, 05 series, 06, 06.b and 06.c. 4. The existing structure would include a council consisting of the minister and other men and women elected or appointed as congre­ gational leaders. In the congregation described, there would also be a congregational Christian education committee which would be accountable to the council. Included in its membership would be congregational leaders, other interested persons from the congregation and official representatives from the Sunday church school (normally the 367 superintendent), and official representatives from all other Christian education groups in the community of faith (youth groups, adult study groups, women's groups, men's groups and mid-week groups) 5. The council would he responsible for the decision making and for the oversight of all worship and Christian education concerns of the congregation. It appears that the functions identified in step three as belonging to policy and overview action should be reserved primarily for the action of the council as a whole. Some of the functions identified under step three’s program support are directly related to the Christian education area. It appears that the following functions should be assigned to the Christian education committee: C2 series, C4 series, G5, C5.b, G5.C, C6, C6.b and C6.c. Since worship is such a major concern in the criteria for faith development, and there are so many functions in that area to be performed, it would appear that a council should consider the appointment of a worship committee. If a committee were appointed, the functions that would seem to belong to this committee would be: 02 series, G3 series, G5, G5.a, G5.c, C6, C6,b and G6,c. Several of the functions assigned to the worship and Ghrlstian education committees are repeated, but that is implicit in the nature of the criteria for faith development. 6. All of the functions sorted in step three have been temporarily assigned to the existing or modified structure in step five except for the seven functions identified as requiring research action. The areas of research are as follows; Cl.e, periodic examination of the potential needs for both peer group and intergenerational experiences; C3.0, determine if special worship provisions seem to be required for persons in a searching faith style; C4.b, review all paradigms in an attempt to 1For a proposed membership list and explanation of duties for such a Christian education committee, see United Church of Canada, The Manual, pp. 65ff, sections 127 and 128. 368 assess their apparent ability to meet the theological questioning and critical inquiring needs of the participants; C6.a, periodic examination of the theological perspectives that inform worship services and Christian education programs; C6.d, consider undertaJcing a study of the use and effects of electronic media (and presumably instigate the study if approved); C6,e, consider undertaking a study of the potential values and limitations of conflict being introduced into worship and education (and presumably instigate the study if approved); C?.b, consider employing some educational experiences to help persons participate more meaning­ fully in worship services. These research areas appear to fall into at least two categories: continuing action or periodic study, Cl.e, C3.c, C4.b, C6,a and C7.b; special study, C6,d and C6,e, The criteria for faith development imply that the latter two special study areas are more "optional" as opposed to the more fundamental need for the other five areas of research. Perhaps these seven or five research actions could be handled by the council as a whole or by its committees or by individual congregational leaders or groups of them; however, they appear to require a process that is beyond what one would normally associate with the terms of reference of a large policy and overview structure like the council or the program support and operational structures like a worship committee and a Christian education committee. Possibly the council could con­ sider appointing a small research committee to handle these seven or five functions. Wyckoff recommends that congregations establish such a committee for a dual purpose: to research the needs of persons, church and community and to suggest objectives, ideas and "dreams" to the council.^ He calls such a specialized group a "planning committee," and recommends that it be a small committee of perhaps five persons including ^Campbell Wyckoff, unpublished lecture notes, graduate studies in Christian education, Vancouver School of Theology, I968. 369 the minister and other persons with special skills or thorough knowledge of the congregation and community. The first purpose of such a committee would appear to he quite congruent with the type of research suggested by the seven or five identified functions. Wyckoffs second purpose for this type of committee would also seem to provide useful input for a council's consideration. Recognizing then that these seven or five research functions appear to require some specialized skills and special handling, I believe it would be desirable for a council to consider appointing a few persons to be a research or planning committee to deal with these identified functions; I will call the group a planning committee in further discussion, 7. This total hypothetical configuration now consists of the council and three committees: worship, Christian education and planning. In repeating steps two and three, it becomes clear that there is con­ siderable overlap among several functions, and some functions that I have assigned tentatively for policy or overview action could also be regarded as program support concerns. However, I believe that the primary action for each function has been identified in those steps. Upon reviewing the entire proposed structure in the light of the thirty-one working hypotheses, two modifications appear to be desirable, a. Although the 02 series has been tentatively assigned to the council, worship committee and Christian education committee, it seems that this C2 series should also be among the primary terms of reference for the planning committee since the primary concerns of that committee's work (as identified here) are about faith development, b. Accepting the tentative designation of primary functions made in steps five and six, and adding the C2 series to the planning committee in step seven (a.), it appears to be important to emphasize also that all the other faith development criteria may be regarded as useful to the council and each committee as "further points 370 of reference" for their work. Using this hypothetical structure developed through that seven step process, I will highlight very briefly a few further ramifications for each part of the structure. Any functions that appear to be beyond the criteria for faith development are identified because they arise firom previous discussion in the thesis. The worship committee should likely examine in some detail ways of involving all persons more meaningfully in services of worship (C5.a);^ this has been accented in the leadership considerations in the first section of this chapter. From discussion by von Allmen, Michael Taylor, Weatherhead, Sutcliffe and Westerhoff and further study about children and communion in some of the paradigms examined, perhaps a worship committee should consider the question of children being admitted to the Lord’s supper; any decisions of course 2would be made by the council or perhaps by a congregational meeting. Although the council might well decide to handle this topic with the full council, it appears that a worship committee could bring an important liturgical perspective to such a discussion. Related to this area is another important concern that could be studied by a worship committee: if children are to be included in part of the community of faith's worship service, how can this participation be made most meaningful for all concerned? The Manual of the United Church of Canada, Cully and Koehler emphasize the importance of having on the Christian education committee, not only elected congregational leaders but representatives of all the Christian education groups in the congregation, so that all can participate ^Supra, pp. 65f; infra, pp. 384f, 389f, 391, 396f, 402f, ^Süpra, pp. 63f, 186, 222f, 2?2, 276; infra, pp. 384f, 397f. ^Supra, pp. If, 116, 117f, 211f, 223, 238. 371 together in making the decisions that affect them (C5).^ This principle would also seem to provide a significant step towards bringing closer the criteria for faith development to some of the designated leaders who are most closely involved with the learning and worshiping and action groups of the community of faith, • All of these groups are accountable to the Christian education committee, and the two-way communication between the committee and the group (provided primarily through their representative) is very important (C7). Two additional significant functions for the Christian education committee will be the periodic examination of the actual curriculum materials being used by the Sunday church school and all other Christian education groups, and the provision or supervision of leadership development opportunities such as those described in section A of this chapter.^ Besides the seven or five research functions that could be handled by a planning committee, Koehler and Cully speak of specialized concerns in a community of faith that appear to be consistent with the outline terms of reference suggested by Wyckoff, Koehler describes a planning committee (using that name) and suggests that it could work out some details of proposed programs before these are presented to the decision-making body (in this case, the council) as a whole. If a planning committee were to follow the details of the rationale he provides, this process could potentially save a council a good deal of time in some ^The Manual, pp. 67f; Gully, New Life for Your Sunday School, p. 53; Koehler, p. 24; supra, p. 227, ^Supra, pp. 22?f, 321, 334f. %upra, p. 362. 372 areas of its responsibility.^ Gully's unnamed group, responsible for the general process of determining congregational objectives, could well be regarded as a planning committee which would later report to the council for action; such a function is also consistent with Wyckoffs 2outline terms of reference. Then, beyond the research responsibilities for Cl.e, perhaps a planning committee could help keep the council very much aware of potential worship and Christian education opportunities through the numbers of already existing intergenerational experiences in 3a community of faith, such as those identified by Koehler, These three committees have vital program support or research responsibilities. Their terms of reference will be determined in part by the council and in part by the realities of the functions that will be assigned to them. However, the major policy and decision-making in the community of faith will be the responsibility of the council itself. Koehler points out at the same time that the minister and the council ("administrative body") have an important support role for the committees and for the designated leaders of the congregation.^ One major type of support that the council ought to provide, for the sake of the consistent and responsible use of the criteria for faith development, is that the council will need to bring together the concerns of the worship, Christian education and planning committees so that their work will complement one another's (O?).^ In various settings, I have identified an ongoing Koehler, p, 27; his specific example involves a special planning committee set up for a specific function, but the principle could be applied generally. ^Supra, pp. lOOf, 226. 3Koehler, p. 9; supra, pp. 255f, ^Op. cit., p. 68 -^ E.g., supra, p. 284. 373 problem that affects worship and education paradigms: there needs to be a better integrated hermeneutical, theological and developmental under­ standing in the community of faith,^ Perhaps some of the ramifications of this will escape the notice of some of the congregational leaders, but the concern appears to deserve the attention of the council as a whole rather than being handled in a smaller committee. The variety of programs that appear to be required by a community of faith (C7.c) may be recommended by the committees themselves, but the decision to institute 2new ongoing programs would seaa to be the prerogative of the council; this principle is especially critical when some programs require such a great investment of time by the minister and other key leaders. It is also the council which is responsible for promoting a sense of belonging among all persons in the congregation, particularly when there may be different worship paradigms and some persons may be inclined to view their 4membership in terms of only one part of congregational life. Since the council and the three committees have several other duties beyond those suggested by the criteria for faith development, perhaps it would be desirable for a congregation to consider the establish­ ment of a small "steering committee," composed probably of at least five persons: the minister, council secretary, and one congregational leader representing each committee, in order to keep all thirty-one criteria _ in mind. Possibly such a steering committee could meet from time to time to assure that all concerns were being met adequately; its members could ^Supra, pp. 145, 247f, 306f. 2See supra, pp. 251f, 269. %upra, pp. 270, 285. 4Supra, pp. I87, 243; Berry, p. 27. 374 report to the council or to the committees when the need arises. This organizational discussion is not offered as some "ideal" structure which should he considered by a community of faith. It is provided simply as one detailed illustration of how a congregation which has decided to use the criteria for faith development, could employ the structure of its council in ways that would make possible the congre­ gational use of these working hypotheses. It appears from this organizational examination of the criteria for faith development and from the study of the leadership and organizational principles of this thesis, that it would be feasible for a community of faith to employ these working hypotheses to promote faith development, and as working tools for the study or evaluation of worship and Christian education programs in a congregation. 373 CONCLUSION There is a very real sense in which chapter five's summary and particularly its criteria for faith development represent a number of interim conclusions about the theoretical material studied in the thesis. Then in chapter eight there are further tentative conclusions about the role of leadership and organization in promoting faith development through worship and education in a community of faith; these are based on a combination of the working hypotheses and some of the practical application of those hypotheses in the four paradigms and four programs examined in chapters six and seven. Now this brief concluding section attempts to identify and highlight a few prominent elements from the thesis generally. The fiist questions in the introduction asked how adults, who did not have any identifiable contact with Christian education, could develop an ever-maturing faith, and how children, who had little or no involvement with the liturgical life of a community of faith, could experience the potential challenge and inspimtion of corporate worship. Chapter five's discussion about what each one seems to provide that the other perhaps misses, during each faith style, highlights the importance of keeping those questions always before all persons in a community of faith. Then Koehler has identified so many intergenerational situations that already exist in almost any community of faith; clearly a congregation needs to be increasingly aware of opportunities in these situations to provide worship or Christian education elements so that adults and children can share with one another in both experiences. Almost all the scholars, the paradigms and the programs emphasize that children and adults can share in some worship and educational experiences; such sharing may indeed promote development towards more complex styles of faith. Ministers and other designated leaders are required both to provide some leadership 376 and to develop leadership among persons of all ages, so that they can participate more meaningfully in setting objectives, making decisions and developing programs of worship and Christian education. I have described worship primarily in terms of volition, response and celebration, and Christian education as development, volition and understanding. Perhaps those elements, together with Westerhoffs simple affirmation that woi^hip is the actions and Christian education the reflections of the community of faith, add further emphasis to the need for both experiences during each faith style. Four of the Christian education scholars studied in the thesis speak of worship being one context of Christian education; all four worship scholars acknowledge important educational elements in worship. Perhaps the time has arrived to challenge writers like James Weatherhead, Geddes MacGregor and others, who deplore "using" the liturgy for any educational purposes, to explain more precisely the liturgical, theological, historical and practical reasons for their stances, including an explanation of how they understand 1Christian education, I suggest that the promotion of the types of Christian education definitions generally advanced by the scholars who were studied in this thesis, and reflected in C4, should reduce the necessity for scholars like Westerhoff to offer a veiled apology to worship scholars by insisting that "learning through liturgy" does not mean "teaching" during the liturgy. These two acts renain quite distinct in teims of my definitions, but at the same time it must be acknowledged that there are valuable educational dimensions in worship services that should be recognized and enriched, in the same way that there are important worship elements in Christian education paradigms (C7.a). The first chapter demonstrated how there did not appear to be tWeatherhead, pp. 4f; MacGregor, pp. 22, 38, 40, 57f, 377 such sharp distinctions between worship and education in the synagogues and early Christian communities during the biblical period. It seems that there were "faith" concerns that were met by actions in biblical times that combined elements of what we separate today into worship and educational exercises. Almost all of the scholars studied in the thesis call for a more integrated view of life today in the community of faith. Their emphasis upon seeing the community pf faith whole by integrating more closely worship, education and action (and some add evangelism and administration) is not only an organizational and theological principle but appears to be essential for promoting faith development among persons in each faith style. Imaginative attempts at a closer integration of these areas such as that described by Abemethy seem to deserve serious consideration by a community of faith. Underlying much of the theory in this thesis is Westerhoff’s description of faith development through four identified styles. It is interesting to note how closely these styles correspond with the descriptions of faith developuent explicit or implicit in the four programs outlined in chapter seven. However, any theory of faith development will remain tentative for some time to come, awaiting some years of clinical research. In the meantime, I believe the thesis has demonstrated that this four style theory is a responsible and useful tool for thinking. Perhaps one of the most significant aspects of the theory is its high­ lighting the special characteristics and needs of persons in a searching faith style in worship, Christian education and action. Another important element is its emphasis upon mature faith itself always expanding. I contend that this whole concept of faith development, together with the thirty-one criteria for faith development, could be very useful to a community of faith in ordering many central aspects of congregational life. The actual exercise of my using these working hypotheses in 378 chapter six and seven to examine paradigms and programs has demonstmted a potential value for a congregation. Chapter eight has indicated how it appears to be feasible for a community of faith to employ these criteria on an ongoing basis to evaluate existing paradigms or to examine potential worship and Christian education programs with an eye to pro­ moting faith development. The faith development concept and the criteria for faith develop­ ment unite two vitally important aspects of life in a community of faith: personal development and the "giveness" of Christian faith. As Wester­ hoff suggests, faith is God’s gift through grace, but we can grow personally by making responsible use of the gift. In chapter one I noted how so many current scholars speak of various crises including a crisis of faith. The fundamental question behind the thesis and asked in the introduction is; Will there be people of faith? On the basis of my research, I would reply; There may well be, in God’s wisdom, but if the churches are to be partners with God in the promotion of a growing faith, then there is much work to be done. Providing the necessary environment and encouragement to promote faith development is an immense task! Perhaps Mark Gibbs' and Ralph Morton’s advice to "God’s frozen people" needs to be heard in this situation, that such a task will require "a great deal more hard work" including work on some committees that may at times lack in excitement.^ From the examinations of the paradigms and programs, it becomes evident that a church staff, the congregational leadere and the members of the congregation at large (children, young people, adults and elderly) all need to be involved in this very time-consuming task of promoting ^Mark Gibbs and T, Ralph Morton, God* s Frozen People (London, 1964), p. 184. 379 faith development through woiship and education. However, if it is believed that persons would expand their faith in the process, and I maintain they would, then surely it is worth the effort. 380 APPENDIX A FOUR APPROACHES TO WORSHIP This appendix outlines in very brief form some of the most salient aspects of Christian worship as seen through the writings of four scholars. Comparisons among their positions are found in chapter two, A. Jean-Jacques von Allmen; Recapitulation of Saving History (All references in this section are from von Allmen’s book: Worship:Its Theology And Practice,) Von Allmen contends that the whole life of Jesus can be viewed as a liturgical process with the first part, the Galilean ministry, being centered on Jesus’ preaching, and the second phase of ministry in Jerusalem centering on Christ’s death, resurrection and commission to the apostles. Using*this structure, he divides the community’s service of worship into two parts; the mass of the catechumens and the mass of the faithful, (p. 23) The church can be assured that its worship is "true and real because Jesus Christ is freely present therein as Lord, abiding with those who are gathered together in his name." (p. 32) ’’Recapitulation" is von Allmen's chosen term to describe the essence of worship. He explains; "In this meaning it is not Christian worship but Jesus Christ who recapitulates, i.e. who fulfils and justifies the process of saving history, imparting to it its true purpose." (p. 33)He makes the connection to worship as follows;the cult sums up and confirms ever afresh the process of saving history which has reached its culminating point in the intervention of Christ in human history, and through this summing-up and ever- repeated confirmation Christ pursues his saving work by the operation of the Holy Spirit, (p. 33)Using this concept of worship as a "recapitulation of the history of salvation," von Allmen maintains further that worship recapitulates the process of salvation in a chronological sense. This operates like a watershed of human history, before and after Christ; "it is a dramaticexploitation of Christ’s victory up to the day when it will shine forthtriumphantly before the whole world, on the day of the parousia of the Lord." (p. 33) It is the function of worship to sum up "the drama of salvation from a chronological point of view." (p. 37) Both the service of the word and the Lord’s, supper are required to complete von Allmen’s chronology and his theological perspective;The cult, in which the word of God is proclaimed, sums up all thatGod has taught us of his will for the world. The cult in which theeucharist is celebrated sums up all that God has done to reconcile the world to himself, (p. 38)While he contends that "the history of salvation is completed in Jesus Christ," (p. 39) he maintains further that "in a very special way, the history of salvation continues" through the church's worship, (p. 41; cf. also pp. 80f) The use of the scriptures themselves in both parts of the cult (word and Supper) must be central in this continuing salvation history to assure that worship is a "living-effective encounter between God and his people," a response, rather than a blind groping, longing and despair." (p. I30) 3&1 In another setting, when speaking about the place for worship (church building), von Allmen offers what appears to be his most concise definition of his concept of Christian worship;worship is a recapitulation of the history of salvation, a self­manifestation of the church and an action which implies both the end and the future of the world, (p. 234)That quotation appears to be a useful summary of the outline to this point. Von Allmen faces the question of direction in worship with the question; "For to whom is the cult addressed? to God or to the world?"(p. 77) While he answers that worship is addressed to God in the first instance, he also points out that the church has a twofold orientation, and he uses the medical heart terminology of "diastole" and systole" to express this two-way relationship. He maintains that the two direc­tions should neither be confused nor separated, (p. 77) Writing further, he says;The church, the body of Christ, the sacerdotal people, fulfils in the world a mediatorial function. This is why worship must not be confused with evangelization or with service, and why, in consequence, any ulterior motives of evangelism have nothing directly to do with the celebration of worship, (p. 77. This quotation is used here only to demonstrate further von Allmen’s perspective on direction in worship. The quotation raises, however, another large issue of the function of the church in the world. Von Allmen also calls worship "the epiphany of the church," that which enables the church to discover and become itself. He goes on to maintain that the church’s worship is important to the world even though the world does not know or care about worship, because worship proclaims the world’s impermanence and offers the world the possibility of transformation through joining in the new covenant. For details, see pp. 42 — 79.)While von Allmen does however later acknowledge that there is a vital link between evangelism and worship, even allowing that "the cult may have a phase in which evangelism is a conscious concern," (p. 79) he maintains that worship' s "primary concern throughout is to enable the church to find its orientation towards God and to live it out." (p. 79) Von Allmen presents a somewhat confusing distinction between the church and the world, secular and sacred. In one instance he writes;"The Church’s worship . . . is the most splendid proof of love for the world. Those who do not love the cult do not know how to love the world " (p. 37) while in another setting he says; "The cult brings about a rupture between the church and the world, , . the worship of the church is not public; those who take part in it are those who have passed through baptism, who have renounced the devil and his works, the world and its pomp, the flesh and its desires," (p. 45) He pursues this sometimes puzzling line of thinking about the worship of the church which "is marked off from the world,"or "transfigures the world," or, "remains threatened by the world." (p. 45, See further discussion and clarifi­cation of von Allmen’s church and world distinction and unity on pp. 209f.) While von Allmen acknowledges the paradox of this line of thinking,(p. 46) his theology of the church’s worship and the world is complemented by an interesting distinction "between the sacred and the profane."(p. 57) He argues that, "The very fact that there is a baptism, a church and a Sunday shows that it is still necessary to distinguish the sacred 382 from the profane," (p. 58, He suggests that these symbols supersede circum­cision, the temple and the Sabbath of the Old Testament.) He further contends that when God's eternal kingdom comes, these two terms will be interchangeable. He accuses those people who refuse to distinguish between the sacred and secular of "thinking on the human and temporal level" or of questioning "the very principle of the incarnation." (p. 58) He clarifies somewhat and summarizes his position with this challenge to his potential critics;In other words, the distrust of this distinction between the sacred and the profane - where it does not stem from a docetism which refuses to believe that the sacred can truly disclose its presence in earthly life - springs from a lowering of eschatological tension.I mention this to remind the reader that impatience with this distinction is not merely a theological fault, but shows an evident lack of capacity to read the signs of the times, (p. 60)It is important to note from this quotation that von Allmen's distinction is not a docetism but rather an eschatological perspective that he maintains consistently through his arguments. It is necessary to outline in some detail von Allmen's contention that any upbaptized persons must be separated from the baptized for the second part of Christian worship (the Lord's supper). He claims that "the cult as such cannot be public in the full sense of the word without perversion." (p. 61) His eschatology plays,an important role in this reasoning also;the very fact that there has been . . . an exclusion of the non-baptized and the excommunicate at the moment when the eucharistie celebration was about to begin, is the sign that the cult forms a prelude to the last judgment, that it suggests the latter and foreshadows its unfolding, that it indicates that salvation is intimated by permission to remain for the second part of the cult. (p. 67)Von Allmen refers to those who are excluded from the "Jeinisalemite" phase of the worship service as "peripheral worshipers." (p. 200) He even suggests that these "peripheral" participants who may take part only in the "Galilean" phase of the cult may have been separated because Jesus "was anxious that holy things should not be given to the dogs, nor pearls cast before swine" (Matt. 7:6). (p. 201) Von Allmen contends that these peripheral worshipers' only participation in worship is to listen to the proclamation of the word;To pray - especially the Lord's Prayer - to confess the faith, to communicate in the Lord's body and blood, they must cross the threshold, or rather they must pass through the burial implied by baptism, for it is in Christ alone that these elements of the liturgy are delivered from vanity to become authentic, (p. 203.See also pp. 185, 292f, 296f. He adds that "the 'Galilean* phase should not be liturgical." p. 293.)In order to effect this separation of the "peripheral" from the "faithful" von Allmen suggests that there should be a clear break in the transition from the "Galilean" to the "Jerusalemite" phase of the service. He considers that there are two acceptable and practical forms that could be employed; 1. give a general blessing to everyone concluding with words like, ". . .be with those who leave and those who stay," or, 2. to ask those who were to leave to stand up and receive a traditional blessing.(pp. 306f) Von Allmen discusses this break and the separation of the people at some length in several contexts without dealing with questions of what effect this break could have on the "community" aspect of the 383 church; clearly this is not an issue for him. Turning now to the content of the two parts of the service, the proclamation of the word in preaching is central to the first part of worship for von Allmen. He notes two distinct features about a sermon; Firstly, in the hands of God, the sermon is a basic means by which there takes place a direct prophetic intervention in the life of the faithful and of the church, with the object of consoling, setting to rights, reforming, questioning, . . The second difference is that preaching . . , manifests man's freedom, since it is that phase of worship in which preacher can bear witness to the truth and reality of what has been proclaimed by the reader of scripture, (p. 143)The word is not a culminating point, but it is "necessary to the eucharist to prevent it from becoming self-centered and magical"; the sermon is "integral to the structure of the liturgy as a whole." (p. 144) The sermon should be "proclaimed" ; it is "not simply a meditation on the word of God," (p, 144; Von Allmen only regards preaching as "necessary in worship because the kingdom of God has not yet come with power." (p.145. This eschatological tone has been noted above and is consistent with von Allmen's position generally.) He describes the relationship of preaching and the Lord's supper in these terms;One might say perhaps that the liturgy of the eucharist bears witness to the church's participation in the process of salvation, whereas the sermon reflects the fact that this process brings the church into intimate contact with the world. Or again; the eucharist attests to the presence of heavenly joy, it nourishes and fulfils hope, while the sermon attests to the continuance of the present aeon, it calls for faith and nourishes faith, (p, 146)Preaching roots the church firmly in the present and therefore is essential to the church's worship, (p, 147; From many perspectives, von Allmen insists that the Lord's supper is an essential element each Sunday in the worshiping community.Biblically and historically, Christ initiated a eucharistie cult; "the Lord's supper is the normal culmination of Christian worship." (p. 112) Theologically, the cult is an "agent" in the historical process of salvation; God "acts in the cult, by the word and sacrament," (pp. ll^f) From biblical sources (e.g. Acts 2:42; 20:7; 1 Cor. 1;20), von Allmen notes; "All these indications and others suggest that the supper is an integral part of each Sunday assembly." (p. 149) He asks the question;"Is the Lord's supper necessary for worship to be truly Christian?"(p. 152) For three reasons, von Allmen gives a positive reply to the question; 1. Christ instituted the supper, 2. Worship without the supper is like "the ministry of Jesus without Good Friday." 3* The supper enables the church to mark objectively the difference between the church and the world, (pp. 154f) He sums up his points in the strongest possible terms; "Hence it is no exaggeration to say that not only is the eucharist necessary to the cult, but that the abandonment of it is an abandonment of the very substance of the cult." (p. 155 ) This insistence upon the necessity for communion as a constant integral aspect of worship leads von Allmen to answer what he acknowledges is an "embarrassing question" about what "more" is given in communion beyond the ministry of the word.His reply is thatwhen the eucharist is celebrated, something different takes place from that which takes place when the word is preached. What takes place is this; namely, that those who accept the invitation can 384 show that they accept it. There takes place, in action, a proof of the welcome given to divine grace. In this sense there does take place more than is implied in the preaching of the word; the existential communion for which God waits can he manifested, and to God's self-giving, there can correspond, visibly and in a way which commits the communicant, the self-giving of the faithful, (p. 156)He does acknowledge that a worshiper "can and should be equally" com­mitted by the hearing of the gospel, but goes on to appeal to the importance of a "sacrificial element" that is present in the communion.(p; 156) He re-emphasizes this part of his argument in the strongest possible terms: "the word does not suffice to render the cult fully Christian, that it needs also . . . the holy communion." (p. 157) At the same time, however, von Allmen insists that the "Jerusalemite" phase of worship can never be celebrated alone; it must not be separated from the "Galilean" phase; the baptized never outgrow the necessity for the word together with the sacrament, (p. 203) Throughout his book he continues to insist on weekly communion through theological, historical and practical arguments: it is the only way to restore proper Reformed worship; it is essential to make Sunday valid; communion is a measure of faithfulness or "correctness of church life"; we have no right to reform Protestant worship apart from the supper as a basic norm; the first task of the church is to restore the weekly eucharist, (pp. 204,225, 227, 260, 285-289, 3Î3) Von Allmen holds that the ordained minister has a very important role in worship, but makes it clear that "the minister who presides over the cult cannot shape it as he pleases but must conduct it as the church . , . understands it." (p. 98) He outlines briefly a doctrine of ministry with the "pastor" being first, "the commissioned represent­ative of the Lord," secondly, one who "ensures the valid Christian character of the worship," and, thirdly, the person who makes certain "that all is done which ought to be done and is done in order and effec­tively," (pp. 192f. Von Allmen contends that women are ineligible for service as ordained ministers, p. 189.) After recognizing the "divine institution" of the ordained ministry and detailing some of the minister's important responsibilities in worship, von Allmen insists, however, that the church must move more and more to "declericalize the cult." (pp. I95f) His doctrine of ministry is accompanied by a complementary doctrine of the laity, the people of God, "The liturgy of the people is essential to worship, and must not be entrusted vicariously to others, for example, to the pastor or the choir." (p. 193; of. also p. I96) In one paragraph, von Allmen summarizes the most prominent participation in the liturgy by lay people:the respectful hearing of the word of God, the eucharistie com­munion, association with the prayers by the utterance of the Amens, the recitation of the creed, the offertory, the singing of the hymns, and the participation in what we have called the liturgical attestations of Christian fellowship (antiphons, sursum corda, the greeting, the confiteor). (p. 194; cf. also p. 29ÏÏ)If the minister engages in free prayer, von Allmen insists that the lay people should also be invited to offer their prayers publicly in worship, (pp. 105, 310) He further maintains that all the baptized, including all the children, must be given free access to the whole liturgy, (p. 186) He deplores on theological grounds the "practice of some American churches which welcome children for part of the service only . . , 385 We must restore to children the right to communicate, and we must insist on it so much the more because children are unable to claim for them­selves a right which is theirs," (p, 18?) Under a sub-heading of, "the usefulness of the cult," von Allmen notes some important secondary values of the liturgy. The most prominent of these is the educational potential of worship, "In worship, we learn to be Christian, to encounter God, the world and our neighbour. We learn faith, hope and love. It is pre-eminently the school of Christianity."(p. 119) In another setting he suggests "that the cult is perhaps the best starting point or training ground for catechesis." (p. lOO) While the cult must not be reduced to catechesis (nor to communion), the two are integral; he thus sees the "Galilean" phase of worship partially in educational terms, (p. 113, While von Allmen does not define precisely what he means by education or "catechesis," he clearly would not shrink from using indoctrination himself as a means to an end; he writes, "a good educator does not easily submit to the limits of progress imposed by those whom he wishes to.educate." This phrase is the conclusion of an argument insisting that pastors must constantly educate congregations about the necessity of weekly communion whether or not the lay people express strong opposition to the idea. p. 313») In addition to education, he also notes a sociological and psychological value in worship. Worship brings people together in personal integration and stability; it offers a refuge of peace and joy, (pp. llÇff) Von Allmen also speaks of the celebration of the cult being "a basically political action," He frequently uses the word "political" in a theological sense, where he notes the limited and provisional power of the state over against the kingdom that belongs to God alone.(p. 64) He does, however, acknowledge that worship "inspires political and social life," and in this case he points out that, "It is the point of reference for order and freedom, for justice and peace," (p. 11O)He sees the cult as vital to the preservation of peace, freedom and justice in the world, (p. IIO) Always when speaking of aspects of worship such as educational, sociological, political, evangelical, social and service, von Allmen calls the reader back to "the dual orientation of the church" towards the world and towards God "in the inflowing of grace." (p. Ill) There are a number of other practical worship concerns upon which von Allmen expresses his opinion; I have selected just a few for brief mention in order to understand his overall perspective more clearly. He offers several arguments in favour of the observance of the church year, but points out that it need not monopolize the fifty-two weeks of the year. There should also be the possibility of the minister using the lectio continua during parts of the church year. (p. 235. He clearly would not suggest abandoning the use of the church year in favour of "topical" sermons; the only option suggested is a series of sermons based on a particular book of the Bible.) He rejects the inclusion of secular holidays and events in the church year; again he tries to avoid being accused of docetism by arguing; "Hot that Christ did not become Lord of the cosmos; not that the cosmos ought not to be brought into the church's worship, so as to regain its true orientation." (p. 233) He proceeds to explain this position with the same kind of difficult reasoning that he employs to justify the separation of sacred and profane, church and world; "the cosmos has no need to be celebrated," he contends; "Moreover 386 the cosmos and its power are implied in the celebration of the ascension," (p. 233) His musical tastes are very narrow, suggesting indeed that the best church "music for Christian singing would be as near as possible to the Gregorian chant," (p. 9I) He contends that revivalist hymns in general "are a betrayal of the cultural responsibilities of Christian worship," (p. 91) This somewhat solemn and conservative tone is expressed in reference to the readings of the scripture passages during worship; he proposes that the importance of the gospel reading be marked by "additional solemnity," (p. 135) He proposes that elders do the readings, "and in the tone of a solemn public proclamation," (p. I36) It seems most appropriate to conclude this brief outline of some of von Allmen's worship concepts with a statement of how he sees the cult in relation to the whole life and work of the worshiping community. The church in its worship becomes conscious of itself "as a diaconal community," It is a living body of Christ's people cooperating with him in service "in the work of salvation," (p, 50; Then, worship empowers people "as a missionary community," sending them out into the world, "to illuminate the world," (pp. 51^) Von Allmen regards the cult as the norm by which all the other work and acts of the church are to be measured; the cult is in some sense the criterion of parochial life, , , A catechesis which,had not the intention of supporting "worshipers whom the Father seeks" (John 4:23) would be faulty, A parochial organization which was indifferent to rooting itself first of all in the cult would be patristic, A diaconate which did not clearly emerge as an answer to the church's intercession would be profane, (p. 55) B. John Gordon Davies; Celebrate Life in God's One World (The references in this section are to two of Davies' books; Every Day God (identified here as "73”) and New Perspectives on Worship Today (identified in this section as "78, A major part of Davies' work is devoted to providing a positive alternative to Rudolf Otto's understanding of the holy, (73 pp. vii, l4ff) Davies endorses the position of Teilhard de Chardin that nothing is profane "for those who know how to see it." (73 P* 61) He contends that because the history of Jesus is an episode in secular history,"the holy is now encountered in and through the secular." (73 p. 252)He differentiates between the Testaments by suggesting: "Holiness in the Old Testament is closely associated with the idea of ritual or cultic cleanliness centered upon the Jerusalem temple; holiness in the New Testament . . . is associated with the person of Christ in relation to life in the world." (73 p. 325; cf. also p. 241) The holy, for Davies, "is not an a priori category . . . it is not something separate. . . . It is always encountered in, with and under ordinary human experience." (73 pp. 86f; cf. also p. I9I) Integrated Christian faith requires our recognizing "the essential unity of the sacred and secular," (73 p. 87) While he will not accept a separation of sacred and secular, he does acknowledge a distinction; "Sacred and secular are not opposites but twin aspects of reality." (73 p, 88) Davies does not approve of the use of the term "profane" as an acceptable term for Christian thought.In another setting he maintains that although there is a distinction, he only knows the sacred and secular "in their unity, since the one 387 mediates the other." (73 P- 277) If traditional spirituality emphasizes the rejection of the world, it has the effect of isolating Christianity and "confining it within a narrow religious enclave." (73 p. 215) He proposes that Christians adopt a "worldly holiness" that "is achieved by responding to the summons of the holy to serve in the world." (73 p. 217) For Davies, any concept of the holy that emphasizes the numinous is no longer helpful or meaningful. (73 pp. 245, 251) He shows how Isaiah's vision with its numinous character has influenced some liturgies of the church. (73 p. 247) He rejects the concept of worship acting as a bridge between the sacred and secular world. "The Old and New Testaments know only of one world. They know nothing of the division of reality into a sacred and a secular one, not into a divine world and the world of man. To them there is only one world which is God's." (73 P« 251) From Davies' standpoint, the major cause of the "crisis of worship" which was identified by the Fourth Assembly of the World Council of Churches in 1968, is "the result of the passage from the sacral to the secular universe." (73 P* 243) Since he maintains that Christians understand worship as an encounter with the holy, he wishes to put forward "a model of the holy in and through the secular universe" that will apply to worship, (73 pp. 243f) Worship must be "world-invoIvement instead of world rejection." The potential effect of the application of this basic principle would enable Christians to see life, "including worship, as one whole, and the encounter with the holy in the secular world would be understood to comprise worship." (73 p. 244) Davies quotes examples from liturgies of the patristic period, the 1662 Book of Common Prayer and the I966 liturgy of the Lord's supper from the Pro testant Episcopal Church of the United States to demonstrate that worship is sometimes portrayed as a period when persons "retire for a time from the secular world and . . . penetrate into another, sacred, world." (73 p. 244) After some historical explorations he concludes that many "traditional religious rituals have both a negative aspect, which serves to safeguard the holy, and a positive, which allows participation in the holy." (73 p. 266) While acknowledging that these rituals may "constitute a bridge and a synthesis which enables the human to the holy," they may also tend to intensify a dichotomy or could border on magic. (73 P* 266) It is important to note that Davies does not identify ritual fully with worship but argues that ritual can become worship under the right conditions. "Ritual becomes worship, as it were, when it brings the holy to our awareness . . . man's ritual activities attain the level of worship only when they are a focusing mechanism to sharpen the perception of the holy," (73 P. 272) In a summary type of statement he says;In effect I am saying that worship should not be interpreted asthat which facilitates contact with the holy, but should ratherbe comprehended as that which assists us to find the holy ineveryday life. (73 p. 274)Worship is required as a cultural form to enable humanity "to perceive the holy in and through cultural activity." (73 P. 275) Pursuing this line of thinking he notes further that there is no such thing as a "specifically religious" activity (such as worship). "Worship is as much a secular event, with a dimension of the holy, as is political activity." (73 P» 276) The distinctiveness of worship is however still recognized in this way: 388 Thus conceived ritual does not involve a rupture in man's being; it is not the celebration of a sacred schizophrenia. It is the celebration of the secular, in and through which the meeting with the holy takes place. It is not an interruption in secular living, . but part and parcel of it, making explicit that meaning which is to be discovered in the whole of life. (73 P* 276)In another setting Davies points out the great importance of Christian worship's making explicit the holy; this emphasis is not characteristic of secular rituals. (73 p. 308) However, after recognizing a number of positive characteristics of secular rituals or celebrations, Davies believes that with the added perspective of Christian worship, worship could become a cultural bridge capable of overcoming any dichotomy between sacred and secular. (73 p. 318) With this very important background, it now becomes possible to outline how Davies would probably define worship. Rather than providing one comprehensive definition, he offers a number of partial definitions, each offered in the context of some specific aspect of his discussion. Probably his most inclusive is:Worship is then celebration of life in the one world; it is a coming to awareness of the response to the holy in and through that which is human and secular. (73 p. 252)In the same vein, he writes in another setting: "Worship . . . is the joyful celebration of life in the world; it is the response of man to what God has done and is doing in history." (73 P. 322; The last phrase of this definition is of particular importance; the strong theological emphasis here on worship as a response to God at work in the world is completely consistent with all that has been said above but it is a vital additional concept. At another place Davies points out worship's recalling Christ's work and the importance of the gospel; "So Christian worship recalls the action of Christ and affirms the gospel as the basis of reality." (73 p. 269) He ties this together (past and present aspects) in this statement;Worship is not, therefore, just historical commemoration, in the sense of the thankful remembrance of what God has done and, in particular of what God has done in Christ in Palestine two thousand years ago; it is also the celebration of what God is doing in contemporary history. (73 p. 323. See further descriptive definitions, pp. 306f, and p, 101.)He also refers to worship as actualizing fellowship (community), the celebration of hope and change, a means to promote future-consciousness, and a celebration of everyday life (not a series of isolated acts).(73 pp. 316, 332, 335, 337) In New Perspectives on Worship Today. Davies summarizes various partial definitions of worship in six phrases;1. Worship is a response to God and a communion with him;2. Worship is a sensitizing medium that sharpens our perception of God and so assists us to recognize him in and through the world;3. Worship makes explicit the unity of the sacred and secular, by showing that the holy is a dimension of the whole of life;4. Worship gives coherence and meaning to social experience;5. Worship involves face-to-face encounters, with interaction, participation, mutuality, reciprocity and corporateness;6. Worship fosters inter-personal relations and functions in terms of personalization and community identity. (73 pp. 32 - 35)With each phrase, Davies offers further explanatory material that is consistent with the discussion to this point. The most prominent elements in Davies' "definitions" of worship appear to be; celebrating 389 life joyfully in God's one world; becoming aware and responding to theholy through the human and secular; recalling Christ's work and affirmingthe gospel as the basis of reality; responding to what God has done and is doing in the world; gathering with other persons in community.Through all these important components of Davies' definitions of worship, the concept of worship as "a joyful celebration of life in God's one world" is clearly his most prominent feature. Davies outlines some special features of the Lord's supper as onepart of worship. The communion unites the believer with Christ in hisdeath and resurrection and incorporates the believer into the worshiping community. (73 p.. 266) The communion has the potential for enabling participants who have conflicts to accept one another again and to act together, (73 P» 276) Since the consumption of food is a secular act, the Lord's supper "has a dual character, since in it sacred and secular are united," {73 p. 278) "Co-diners" are bound closer together "with oneanother and with the holy," (73 p, 338) He suggests that the eucharist is a means whereby we are enabled regularly to sacrifice ourselves:to reproduce in our daily lives that paschal pattern.- As a cultic act it does not constitute an interval in daily living; it is co­extensive with the whole of our existence. It helps to conform the Christian to the model of the holy and so involve himself in human society and service. (73 p. 3^0; cf. also p. 3^1)The eucharist also can be considered a "celebration of freedom because it is the feast of redemption and of the resurrection of Christ." (.78 p. 8) In this way the Lord's supper's profound liberating effect is based on the historical aspects of Christh life, death and resurrection, and comes today with "a political dimension and a religious meaning." (78 p. 86) The worshiping community is an important focus for Davies. He notes some confusion about the ways in which people understand the term "community" today. (73 P» 283) The former village model no longer pertains and this fact must be understood if the church is to develop a relevant "ecclesiastical strategy." (73 p. 285) In effect we live in many communities centering around work, shopping, education, entertain­ment, worship and other concerns. (73 p. 285; Urban dwellers may worship in a church apart from the designated "parish" church. (73 p. 287) Meaningful "I-Thou" encounters may be difficult to find in large urban worship assemblies. (73 p. 288) Using his contention that the "primary locus of encounter with the holy is in and through I-Thou relations,"Davies maintains that I-Thou encounters are difficult to find apart from small groups; (73PP. 294f) at the same time Davies recognizes some potential strong points in the large urban congregation. (73 pp 295f) However, he then outlines a strong case for making the ideal congregation "a community of communities," (73 p. 296) These smaller communities must also recognize the sociological fact that diversity is a way of life; people tend to divide still today on the basis of age, class and interest.To recognize this and to encourage liturgical creativity within this diversity is not necessarily to produce disunity, since these many groups would come together - once a month, once a quarter - to confess and declare their unity in Christ. This is one way of relating to a pluriform society. (73 p. 297)Worship is not a private communion with God; it is individuals in com­munity sharing together. (73 p. 305) Davies contends that a task-oriented, affective group where individuals have decision-making participation in worship, is the best model of a worshiping community for today's church.(73 pp 304ff) 390 In the service of worship Itself, Davies maintains that all people must share in meaningful participation. He claims that the term "audience participation" is in itself a contradiction in terms and he suggests that attempts to promote involvement of a congregation while maintaining an "audience-actor" relationship are seldom effective.(78 p. 112; He points out how early Christians were "actors in their worship and not members of an audience." (78 p. 114) The change in the Middle Ages to the priest doing something on behalf of the congregation changed worship into the actor-audience format. He maintains it is possible today for all persons to participate and to contribute to what is happening. Using Paul's principles as outlined in 1 Cor. 14:26,Davies suggests it is possible for everyone to contribute something to worship that is conducted in a small face-to-face group: a hymn, a lesson, a revelation, a tongue or an interpretation. (78 p. 115) Hot everyone has to do everything. "Thus we do not have to say every prayer ourselves; if we hear a prayer uttered by someone else, we may join in (participate) and make it our own by saying Amen," and thus express our assent. (78 p.115) It is possible for the liturgy to be so constructed that variouspeople can make a contribution as "co-creators with the Creator they are honouring. Worship begins with human beings and not with books, not even with prayer books." (78 p. 126) Davies recognizes that this participation is not easy to achieve, indeed it is full of risks also.Yet he challenges churches to be creative and says that "it is to this that Christ summons us and not to security, to dull routine, to repetitiveprayers, to worship by rote," (78 p. 128) Davies also recognizes that worship can serve to be a pioneer of change among the participants; rather than being regarded as a support for the status quo, it may indeed be a disturbing experience, helping people move to the realization of hope, (73 P« 332) Since conflict is a natural part of everyday life, required for movement and progression, then conflict could become an important aspect of worship. "Conflict can be a sign of health and provide the context for the inbreaking of newness," (73 P» 333) While conflict does indeed have negative aspects that cannot be overlooked, to avoid conflict at any price is usually forfear of the basis of a relationship, (78 p. 58) Davies quotes wordsattributed to Jesus, "Do you think that I am come to give peace on earth? No, I tell you, but rather division" (Luke 12:51), and suggests that Jesus was a controversial figure who did not avoid conflict. He notes that conflict need not always involve aggression, hostility or hatred,(78 p. 58) but can indeed be a positive agent for change and for the promotion of new and more satisfying relationships and structures.(78 p. 60) Davies suggests that worship itself is based upon a conflict; "It is so because it recalls the victory of Christ in his struggle with the forces of evil and death," (78 p. 64) From several biblical passages he concludes that the eucharist can be regarded as a triumphal feast celebrating Christ's victory and sharing in its fruits. (78 pp. 64f; cf. also p. 68) This conflict is essential to the struggle for justice and liberty. "Indeed to identify with the poor, in the steps of Jesus, is to choose some people rather than others and thus inevitably and properly to introduce conflict into the life of the church," (78 p. 67)At the same time, Davies recognizes that human beings do not have aninfinite capacity to respond to change and to absorb conflict, anxiety and other human stresses. People require a balance between stability and conflict or change, and Davies contends that worship could also be instrumental in providing "stability zones" for people, (73 P» 334)A stability zone in a primary group would help the participants to manage 391 change and conflict rather than resist it. Davies notes how eschatological promises in the Bible are related to freedom, peace, justice and reconciliation. These are social concerns and therefore the Christian must be concerned about his world. (73 PP- 218ff) "Indeed, if the holy is to be encountered in and through the world, one cannot have a split allegiance. Service of the holy is in and through the secular; it is vain to reject the political realm and withdraw into some so-called spiritual sphere." (73 P- 238) Worship is seen by Davies as a revolutionary event "and is the means .whereby the hoped-for future is brought into practical contact with the present." (73 P- 281) He calls worship also, "the liturgical expression of the love of neighbour," and suggests "its point of reference is always beyond itself in the world of human need." (73 P- 282) Related to this, Davies contends that the eschatological promises of Christ inevitably involve politics. He continues: "To suppose thatworship has nothing to do with politics, when politics covers so much of our daily life, is to declare that worship is largely irrelevant to every­day living." (78 p. 78) He notes how Old Testament prophets such as Isaiah and Amos attacked contemporary worship on political grounds, demanding first a life of justice for God's people, (78 pp. 80f) He outlines how these political elements can be handled in worship through confession, Bible readings, sermon, prayer, offertory, communion and dialogue. (78 pp. 91ff. Davies suggests here and elsewhere that dialogue could be used regularly in the liturgy, and notes how it is especially useful when dealing with political subjects, Davies here is proposing an educational technique for worship.) In order to avoid the service of worship becoming a manipulation of people, Davies proposes that some politically sensitive services should be prepared in advance by members of the worshiping group itself. Eîveryone's freedom needs to be respected,(78 pp. 88f) He says that prayer in worship is to assume responsibility for taking our part in the things for which we pray; it is a commitment of ourselves to action. (Davies, Christians, Politics and Violent Revolution, pp. 4lf; further references to this book are identified as "76.") He contends: "To pray for a just state or for lawful authority is to assume responsibility for its preservation, if it exists, or for its creation if it does not exist," l y 6 p. 69) He notes historically how the emperor Diocletian made all Christian worship illegal, Christians deliberately disobeyed these laws of state in order to worship. (76 p. 73) Jesus himself identified with the poor and the outcasts on the margin of society. (76 p. 186) We celebrate Christ's life as Liberator. We give thanks to "the God of hope so that the longed-for future impinges on the present act of worship to spur us on in renewed hope to assault the fetters of unfreedom,"(78 p. 86) Davies also looks at worship through some less familiar terms of reference, (78 p, viii) including dance, sexuality, play and laughter.His joyful celebration of life is a constantly recurring theme. This also includes bringing our laughter before God. "If worship be the offering of the total self to God, how can we forget the comic?" (?8 p. 108) He proposes that the most appropriate places in worship where laughter could be deliberately planned in a fixed liturgy would be the sermon, announcements and possibly in biddings to extempore prayers. In less fixed liturgies there are many more possibilities. (78 p. I08) At the conclusion of a detailed argument where he attempts to show parallels between play and worship, he concludes that full worship like full play 392 must engage our whole being, mind, body and emotions , (78 p. 15)Dancing, he notes, is not concerned with conveying information but is an art form appropriate to worship, (78 p. 20) Davies suggests that liturgical dance could be regarded as an elaboration of hymn singing and organ music which are already common features in weekly worship, (78 p. 39. Although Davies speaks frequently about dancing in worship, most of his examples of interpretive dance imply trained person(s) dancing for the congregation as an audience. His proposal is lacking many practical details if dancing is to involve full participation.) It is pipbably appropriate to conclude this brief summary of Davies' most salient worship concepts with a brief outline of his views on worship and mission. He notes that in the few Old Testament places where Israel recognized a missionary vocation, it was interpreted centripetally: "Israel is not sent to the nations ; instead they are to come to it, attracted by its life of worship and devotion," (73 P* 320)In contrast, the New Testament has a centrifugal concept, "The Church's vocation is to go out; it is to participate in the divine mission,"(73 p. 320) In similar fashion, the church's worship cannot be centered in a single place; "anywhere is the place of encounter with God in the context of everyday life, and in so far as any temple continues to exist, this is not a building of stone but a community living in the world,"(73 p. 320) The problem today, suggests Davies, is that Christians tend to understand the church's vocation centrifugally, but still persist in seeing worship activities centripetally. Christians try to combine the New Testament vocation of outgoing mission with the Old Testament concept of worship as ingathering. (73 p. 321) He contends: "Church services must then not be conceived as halting places m via nor as iron rations on the way; they are an essential part of being on the way." (73 P» 322) Salvation itself, rather than being a highly individualistic matter is essentially a restoration of wholeness concerning people in the totality of their worldly existence. Worship needs to be concerned with the redemption of the world at large. (73 p. 324) The church is indeed a special and a holy people (1 Peter), but "Christ's life was one of service to others unto death; ours must be likewise, i.e., it must consist in service." (73 p. 325) He concludes the main part of this argument:We must not, therefore, divorce mission, which is a sharing in the divine activity on behalf and in the service of man, from worship, as if the latter were something apart directed to God alone.Worship is the celebration of a relationship which is always two- way; it is a relationship with the holy and man - with the holy because it is with man and with man because it is with the holy,(73 p. 326) G. Michael Taylor: Tell The Story (All references in this section are from Taylor's book; Variations on A Theme.) Taylor begins his book with the affirmation that "the whole of life can be regarded as an act of worship," and then sets out to indicate the particular concern of his book which is dealing with organized services of worship, (p. l) He prefers the term "liturgy" to describe the usual Sunday service containing the preaching of the word, and the Lord's supper. He acknowledges the present value of many 393 other different services (morning and evening prayer, daily office, evangelistic services and others) hut concludes, "There are many services hut one liturgy." (p. 3) Taylor explains why he begins with historical considerations before criticizing, reforming or maintaining a particular feature of the luturgy: "If we realize, for example, that a certain aspect of worship is the result of an historical accident and does not include any great matter of principle it can take the steam out of the argument." (p. 44)He also takes into account theological and tempermental factors, however, the historical framework is clearly the most prominent. On the basis of historical precedent he outlines very early in his book a proposed "order which should be regarded as the norm"; he calls this "the bare bones" of the liturgy, (p. 4) It includes scriptures, sermon, prayers, offering and the Lord’s supper. After outlining more potential content for the service he acknowledges that "for a number of reasons a certain way of doing things developed in practice without anyone first working it out very carefully in theory on the basis of a correct theology or a biblical pattern." (p. 9) He contends that no pattern is beyond criticism or change, but calls for respon­sible study and clear understanding as prerequisites of experimentation and change, (p. 9) Taylor outlines the historical institution of the Lord's supper and notes the subsequent practice of the early church. He contends that based on our understanding of life in that early church:The dominant mood would have been very gay indeed and a far cry from the atmosphere which usually descends on our communion services, where one gets the impression that to be serious you have to be solemn and that anything remotely cheerful is out of place. This was not a memorial service for a dead friend. . , They had much to be grateful for and good reason to celebrate, which does not mean they indulged in cheap gaiety which knows nothing of the darker side of life. (p. 11)Acknowledging "that God can be encountered in any and every meal" and in other familiar things of life, he maintains the special need for the church to celebrate the Lord's supper with the traditional elements in the liturgy, (p. 25) The nature of the church is historical, he argues, and "the story which is rehearsed in the liturgy, in readings, proclamation, grateful recollection and actions," is a given element which provides both our bondage and our basis of true freedom to appreciate the fulness of Christian worship, (p. 26) Having begun where Taylor begins by looking briefly at some of the essential components of worship, it is important to discover what he regards as the basic nature of worship. He comes at this through his examination of the actual historical content of the liturgy:A glance at the "bare bones" referred to in the previous section reveals that its most prominent features are not the hymns, prayers, litanies and creeds we so often associate with services, but the word, which includes the lessons, psalms and sermon, and the sacrament with its four familiar actions. In different ways they all attract our attention to what we shall refer to as the Story, (p. 17)In this same vein, he comes closest to a definition of worship in another setting by stating that worship's "central concern" is "to tell the Story." (p. 19. Taylor always capitalizes the "S" in "the Story," 394 as I have shown in this and the previous quotation. While I have 'shown this in these two quotations to indicate the special emphasis that he uses, I will write it always in the lower case from this point, to he consistent with my general use of capitalization.) Consistent with this theme, he says of the minister; "The preacher’s task is to help men to see Jesus. He is primarily a storyteller." (p. 19) He makes it clear that the story is not totally historical hut involves interpretation;"The story itself is not a realist's reproduction of the facts. It is an interpretive account of events and is often impressionist in character." (p. 23) The story is told week by week through the outline of the liturgy.Taylor quotes the full Isaiah 6 passage about the prophet's vision in the temple and suggests that this picture "has a universal appeal as a paradigm of what worship is all about." (p. 20) The three central elements for worship demonstrated in this story are: "Encounter with God, the renewal of our lives for mission, and the offering of ourselves." (p. 21)Taylor adds these three elements to "telling the story," as part of the description of the nature of worship. Then he makes an important qualifi­cation about the whole experience of the liturgy, noting that encounter with God is not automatic:The liturgy may or may not be understood as an encounter with God but it remains an encounter hot merely with the projection of our own ideas but with events that are independent and not part of us, adding to the sum total of our experience, offering us gifts and making demands, (p. 23)Still consistent with "telling the story," he speaks of the distinctive nature of Christian worship in another setting: "By doing the liturgy and following the basic pattern of word and sacrament . . . Christians affirm that Jesus of Nazareth and the events concerning him have supreme worth or significance for their lives," (p. 27) Summarizing the various state­ments by Taylor about the liturgy, we have the following; Worship is telling the story and affirming the significance of Jesus; it is an experience of encounter, renewal and commitment. The educational element of "telling the story" is indeed a most central theme in Taylor's view of worship. Taylor makes some important statements about the relationship of worship to the rest of our daily living. He maintains: "The liturgy ought never to be an escape or a substitute for action, but it does have something to do with this need to stand back quite consciously from what we are doing, uncover the sources of our inspiration and regain a sense of perspective," (p. 94) He speaks further about the liturgy being useful by "persistently nourishing the life of the community," He recognizes and respects the importance of personal feelings of worshipers, but points out that "they are not always a sure guide to how things actually are." (p. 96) Calling for a sense of perspective he advises;We have every right to go to the liturgy fully expecting that it jwill meet our needs and we are equally right to grow uneasy if it |turns out not to be the case in every sense. What is mistaken is |to think those needs will be met by concentrating on them over 1much. (p. 96) jSome subjectivism is legitimate, he contends, but this should be counter- jbalanced with the central emphasis upon the story, "We need help from joutside. Our stories are renewed by the story." (p. 97; of, also p. 22) |Taylor notes how this subjective element is readily detected in hymns and Isermons : | 395 Many a hymn book gives itself away by the disproportionate amount of space allotted to hymns about ourselves rather than about the events concerning Jesus and the adoration of God; and many sermons betray a similar subjectivism by having much more to say about what we must do for God than what God has done for us. (p. 97)He asks the traditional question related to this question of direction in worship; "is not God to be worshiped as an end in himself and not as a means to an end, and is not iiie chief end of man to glorify God and enjoy him for ever?" (p. 99) He points out in partial reply that; "We do not discredit the liturgy by regarding it as a source of well-being.We honour it." (p. 99) Still he is careful to return to the first and "central concern" of the liturgy, which is "to tell the story" of Jesus and to acknowledge that the events concerning him "have supreme worth or significance for our lives." (p. lOO) Before moving on from Taylor's definition and purpose of worship, it must be reiterated' that the educational element in worship is bound to be prominent where the purpose is described as, "to tell the story."He himself is critical of worship where the educational element is too much in evidence. In describing the period of the Reformation he notes: "The minister cast himself very much in the role of a teacher and even put on an academic gown to emphasize the point. Worship services became excellent opportunities for instruction, but instruction was carried almost to excess." (p. 64; cf. also p. 91. Taylor says that Luther "tended to turn the liturgy into an educational exercise," and that Calvin's prayers "became extremely long and didactic in tone. It was easy to gain the impression that they were composed more for the benefit of the congregation than for the ears of God." p. 91.) In another setting, Taylor recognizes education as a valuable and expected by-product of the liturgy;Neither preaching nor worship are primarily concerned with teaching, although sharing in the life of the Christian community, focused in the liturgy, will be a significant educational experience as the child and the man are formed by a living tradition, (p. 82) Taylor emphasizes over and again the essential unity of the sacred and the secular and the corollary that Christian worship and the rest of life must be one, "We encounter God in many ways, most of them outside of organized services altogether." (p. 21) He affirms that the material world is fundamentally good, (p. 88) From the doctrine of creation and of the incarnation, we know that everything owes its existence to God and that God is most clearly revealed in the human person, Jesus, (p, 89) He describes the relationship of the two terms: "To talk in terms of material things'and spiritual things is sometimes a way of making useful distinctions although the line between them is by no means as clear as is often supposed and in the end it is probably non-existent." (pp. 88f) Taylor sees the liturgy as having great value in maintaining this essential unity: "It is unsurpassed as an interpretive tool and a source for understanding what is going on in the world within and around us."(p. 101) At the same time he brings a balance by noting that "the other-worldly" approach "is a constant reminder that however much we value the world as God's responsibility and therefore as fundamentally good, it still leaves much to be desired and requires of us a large measure of critical detachment." (p. 102) Having made that point, he returns to the important interplay between the story and the rest of our life: "Unless we tell the story and do the liturgy somewhere in the midst of our life and not in isolation from it, it is impossible to insist on 396 its significance or to discover what conclusions should be reached in the light of it." (p. 102) Taylor rejects pantheism but suggests rather that, "God is in every­thing." (p. 104. This theological stance is also advocated by John MacQuarrie; he calls it "panentheism," John MacQuarrie, Man, Christ And God, personal notes of lectures.) Pointing out that it is impossible for us to move apart from God's domain, he states: "All is sacred in the sense that he is active everywhere and all the time struggling with men towards the humane goals we have glimpsed in Christ." (p. 104) He makes another important distinction about a potential for "withdrawal" in worship, in the sense that we withdraw in sleep, on the day off, for enjoyment of art or for periods of quiet; he clarifies the nature of this withdrawal:The mistake is made when we go on to say that we need that kind of withdrawal and forgetfulness in order to be with God, so that detachment becomes something more than a necessary counterbalance to involvement, as sleep is to working and relaxation is to effort. It implies that God is to be found elsewhere than in our everyday world and, according to our way of thinking, that is not the case.(p. 105)In view of God's presence everywhere in life, Taylor proposes: " invade the liturgy." (p. 108) In further support for this he continues: "We believe that the God of whom the story tells is a God who reveals himself as Christlike from the inside of the world and who is encountered not by turning away from our worldly affairs but by dealing with them very seriously indeed," (pp. I08f) Our prayers (especially thanksgivings and intercessions) ought to be obvious places for life to invade the liturgy and places where lay people could make a significant contribution to the liturgy, (pp. 109f) Although there are too many "special" Sundays suggested by various agencies, the secular calendar and the liturgical calendar should complement one another, "to provide yet another juxta­position of the story and secular life," (p. Il4) Taylor describes the role of the minister in worship as an "enabler." He writes :He is to be a minister and to take the form of a servant in all things, or, as current jargon would have it, he is to be an "enabler." He is not to do jobs instead of the church, or to do a job which the rest of the church is not called to do. He enables the church to do its job, (p. 69)Taylor sees the minister as a key resource person constantly calling the people's attention to the one they confess as Lord. He makes an inter­esting note about the minister's participation in the liturgy:If by virtue of his gifts the minister is given certain tasks in the liturgy itself, it is wise to remember that it is for the sake of those gifts rather than by virtue of any rights bestowed on him at his ordination, (pp. 70f)Noting the practice of the pre-Nicene church, Taylor sees value in referring- to the minister as the president at worship, (p. 67) But he sums up the responsibilities of presiding with these sentences:The minister therefore may preside, represent, keep things in good order, link the local church with the great church, care for apostolic tradition, see to it that the church is properly nourished; but in worship as in mission, as little as possible will be left to him when it comes to the actual*task. . , He is ordained to enable the people to do it all, (p. 71) 397 In concert with this statement, Taylor advocates "all-join-in" as a highly desirable form of congregational worship. Appealing again to history he contends: "Descriptions of worship in the early days are fewand far between and we must not make too much of them, but what evidence we have suggests that all joined it." (p. 57) He contrasts the liturgy of the primitive church with that of the Middle Ages: "In one case, all joined in, and in the other the majority were left out." (p. 62) He goes on to describe the present situation in Free Churches, "at which the minister says all the prayers, including the 'Amen,' preaches the sermon, reads the lessons and even makes the announcements." (p. 64) Continuing with that same concern, he states: "This relatively passive role of the congregation is so familiar that it has become the norm.Any departure from-it is initially regarded with some misgivings," (p. 64) At this point he praises some of the insights of the Liturgical Movement, particularly its emphasis upon congregational participation, (p. 65)The liturgy is the worship of the whole people of God and the baptized other than the minister must not be "denoted to the role of bystanders."(p. 66) Emphasizing again that while education is "an incidental benefit," he says that "'all-join-in' is not only a sound liturgical principle, it is a sound educational one as well," (p. 66) Specifically in relation to the liturgy, Taylor proposes that some prayers and the announcements are especially appropriate parts where lay people can give leadership. Bible readings should probably be done by one lay person, or better yet, broken up into parts for reading by several voices or sections of the congregation; all people should have a Bible to follow or participate in the readings. The ancient traditional "kiss of peace" could, with a little imagination, become an opportunity for people to speak to one another, and possibly even have a break in the service where drinks could be served and conversation encouraged. The choir, where there is one, should lead the community singing rather than have them performing too much from the front. Group discussion for the preparation of the sermon would best be done before the service begins, but question, conversation and other comments or reactions to the sermon could be incorporated into the liturgy, (pp. 72 - 76) Taylor recognizes that while worship must be seen as central to life, and the responsibility of the whole congregation, "it would be wrong to encourage people to spend a disproportionate amount of time preparing services when they ought to be doing other things," (pp. 78f)But he proposes that different people be encouraged to come at different times to help in the preparation of the liturgy, (p. 79) Group discussion would be more useful in preparing the sermon than in replacing it. (p, 77) Taylor also recognizes the potential value on occasion of features from "multi-media" for worship, such as dance, film, art, drama, banners, and people clapping or showing their obvious enjoyment. The two values he sees through the inclusion of such methods are increased participation and fuller communication, (p. 83) He cautions at the same time that multi-media worship may be a passing cultural phenomenon and we ought not spend an inordinate amount of time moving in that direction, (p. 87)He issues a real warning at this point, that the church needs to make sure that the media does not replace the message, (pp. 92f) As part of the whole congregation's participation in the liturgy, Taylor contends that children should be invited to take a "full and responsible" part in worship, (p. 80) He notes that the lack of "tidiness" in life has left the church with at least three well-defined 398 groups: one completely unattached to the church's worship in any shape or form; a second group of the committed; and a third group, adults and children, who could be regarded as the catechumenate, "They are on their way to faith," (pp, 80f) He acknowledges problems in relation toincluding members of the third group, but feels that the children ofparents in the second group "are on the inside and ought therefore to take part in the community's most characteristic activity," (p. 81) He suggests that practical objections to children's participation probably loom larger than theological ones; children get bored.Perhaps they are bored for much of the same reasons as many adults are bored. . , Busy children are not usually bored children. . .Turn the children into responsible participants and they will usually rise to the occasion, (p. 81) I will conclude this brief summary outline of Taylor's mostsignificant positions with the special perspective that he brings to theuse of a lectionary. ' He advocates an Old Testament, epistle and gospel reading for each Sunday's service and proposes that a lectionary is the best source for telling the story in "a carefully worked out scheme,"(p. 18) Liturgical preaching, following the lectionary is concerned "to tell the story and proclaim the good news"; for this reason "it is probably a mistake to allow group discussions to replace the sermon in the liturgy," (p. 77) However, consistent with what Taylor said about participation by the congregation, he adds, "but it is equally mistaken not to use some form of group discussion to prepare the sermon for the liturgy," (p. 77) The lectionary widens our perspective:It is natural to turn to passages in the Bible that seem to speak to our particular concerns and meet our needs, but the end result could easily be a somewhat narrow selection of readings, making Jesus too much in the image of our immediate problems, (p, 98)He acknowledges that a note of irrelevance may be detected here; our attention may be distracted from the issues that press upon us most directly. But Taylor maintains:Such irrelevance reminds us of the giveness of the faith. It is not merely the product of our own reflections on our own exper­iences, , , Its extraordinary character is set alongside our present condition. The two are not easily related nor the tension between them resolved, but the imagination may be stimulated to see visions and dream dreams of new men and new worlds, (p. 98) D. James Floyd White; Expectation. Insight And Response (The references in this section are from the following books by White; each one is identified in the text by the numbers indicated:Christian Worship in Transition "76";Introduction to Christian Worship "80";New Forms Of Worship "71";Protestant Worship and Church Architecture "64";The Worldliness Of Worship "67";What do we Mean by Christian Worship? "78a";Worship in Time And Space "78b"; White constantly develops a theological-historical-psychological- sociological basis for worship that constitutes a very relevant back­ground and that challenges liturgists, ministers and worship committees to make their own sound practical liturgical decisions based upon solid 399 foundations. In laying out this foundation he also suggests many practical methodologies, but maintains in the end:What I do want is for you to make up your mind what you understand Christian worship to be. I think this is your responsibility and you very well may come up with a definition far superior to any I have offered. , , Once you have a firm basis for making decisions, you are a lot more free than you ever were before, (?8a audio tape conclusion)White describes his own approach to worship, stating that he offers historical and theological information prior to dealing with "pastoral" considerations. He explains how his "broad norms" could be useful in helping those who will make the local decisions:When pastoral norms for action are stated, it is always in terms of what Christians have practiced and how they have reflected on these practices. Christian worship, like Christian ethics, is both a descriptive and a normative subject. Specific decisions have to be made locally in terns of people and places but I have tried to outline broad norms within which pastoral decisions can be made. (80 p. 11) White contends that although worship has a great deal of continuity with all of life, it also involves an element of discontinuity, "It means a stepping aside from normal life in order to perceive it in a deeper and more significant way." (6? p. 20) He regularly speaks of worship as "approaching reality at its deepest level." (?1 p. 42; cf. also 67 pp. 21, 75, 90) Rather than seeing this temporary stepping aside to gain depth perception as a break with our total life exper­ience, he maintains: "Worship makes us more worldly by helping us encounter the world at a deeper level." (67 p, 181; He speaks of two special benefits from this temporary stepping aside: one is reconsideration or rediscovery of what we already know but repeatedly forget, and the other is response. We recover and commemorate meaningful past events in worship, (67 pp. 21, 41, 50) "Worship, then, provides the orderly rehearsal of the events of the past and the structures of the present in which the action of God is made known to us. Because of this constant recital, these events become my events and part of my life," (67 p. 103» cf. pp. 22, 48, 75) This rediscovery or reconsideration leads naturally to our response. "One responds to that which he has found to be true and significant in the nature of being," (67. p. 23) This response is basically praise and thanksgiving, based on God's prior love for us; receiving forgiveness and offering ourselves for Christian service are also vital elements of response in worship. (7I pp. 42f) The special past events which we rediscover or reconsider in worship are those described in the Bible. White maintains that these events were "one piece with the rest of history"; "They were secular events first of all and not religious events at all." (67 p. 50) He cites the example of the Exodus as an "economic and military event, not a religious one. It was a walk-out strike, and history is full of such occasions," (67 p. 51) In the same way the crucifixion "was a purely secular event" for most of the contemporaries. (67 p. 52) What transforms these events for Christians is "the eye of faith that the biblical writers reflect so constantly." Through faith they were able to interpret God's work in these secular events. (67 pp. 52f, 76, I07) In the churches today as we worship, these past events have the potential of becoming, 400 "in effect, our contemporary, for all that it signifies to us of God's love is recovered by us in the act of worship." (6? p. 55» cf. pp. 56,6l) It becomes possible for people, through worship, to "relive for themselves the whole history of salvation," (?6 p. 13) White insists further that worship is not just an idle performance "under our actions»" rather, "God is acting. , , It is unfortunate that we speak of the presence of God in worship. We would do better to speak of the action of God. God is acting in giving himself to us in our worship." (67 p. 60) He goes on to say that "the biblical account tells us what God does, not what he is. The same ought to apply in worship as well." (67 p. 62} It is not just individuals who are enabled or renewed by God, but the whole church is challenged "to try to understand what God is doing in the world and to join him in his work." (67 p. 65) Since God acts here and now in the world, then worship needs to be more wordly, "The enemy of the church is not secularity but idolatry, the worship of the wrong god." (67 p. 77) In view of this, he says that it is a false mystique for the church to approach worship as if it involved cultivating an otherworldly atmosphere. (67 p. 79) Clearly White is constantly clarifying that his concept of worship as a temporary stepping aside does not in any way involve a break with our ongoing life. He calls for a "worldly spirituality" that maintains the essential unity of worship and life. "It is one segment of the Christian life, a very vital one, but never the exclusive one." (67 p. I09) In a practical application of this, he suggests that there are three areas of life where it is possible to see worldly spirituality at work;1. Intercessory prayer; "Prayer widens our concerns and thereby directly affects our day by day living." 2, Doxological living; "It has its beginning in worship but becomes a means of continuing one's worship through daily living. It is worship become life." 3. Minding persons: "Minding persons in God means relating to others by being constantly mindful that in this relationship one stands in the presence of God."(67 pp. 119» Î26, These are selected sentences to demonstrate the essence of White's argument. His details are more practical, e.g,, in doxological living he discusses the use of possessions, structures of society and attitudes to sex, pp, 122ff. He suggests generally: "Life becomes a form of living praise, far more important than the brief moments of worship," p, 121.) When clarifying his use of the term,"holy worldliness," he writes: "To be truly spiritual is to be truly worldly. This does not mean worldly in the crass sense, but in the sense of perceiving the true nature of being and responding to it appropriately," (67 p. 82) When reaching out to our culture and acting with this worldly spirituality, White warns against our getting lost in it or merely mirroring our culture. (76 pp. 76f.) There must always be a tension in worship that will both affirm and criticize the culture in which we live,(76 p. 86) Before stating his actual definition of worship, White reiterates the importance of regarding worship first of all as a response to what has happened and what is still happening to us. "We respond to God, and worship is the most obvious and natural form of such response." (67 p. 15; cf. also p. 14) In saying that we respond to God’s actions, he also clarifies that he means we are responding to "our interpretation of such actions," (67 p. 15) With that background. White offers the following definition of worship;We come together, deliberately seeking to approach reality at its 4oi deepest level by becoming aware of God in and through Jesus Christ and by responding to this awareness. (?6 p. 87. Gf. also, 71 p. 40; 67 p. 20 for an earlier definition; ?8a audio tape. White has maintained this definition for a number of years, adding more recently the first phrase about coming together; he places special emphasis on this coming together dimension of worship. Of, also80 p. 22.)White summarizes his own definition in three words by suggesting that the three key elements of the nature of Christian worship are "expectation, insight and response." (78a audio tape) He uses this definition as the norm for evaluating all forms of worship and goes as far as to maintain, "I would not deem it Christian worship unless the deliberate seeking, awareness and response were present." ( ?6 p. 87. In a footnote to this quotation he notes that "these concepts are developed in full detail in chapter 2 and 3 of my New Forms Of Worship.") White notes that the usual Sunday service lacks a consistent name; this service is derived either from the divine office or from the first part of the eucharist. (67 p. 155) He clearly sees this service as the norm for Sunday worship; the other three basic ingredients of Christian worship since the sixth century are identified as the eucharist, baptism and the usage of the Christian year. (67 p. 154) The "service of the woird," as he frequently calls the first service, characteristically has the following basic contents; the recital of a portion of salvation history, praise to God for his works, the contemporary word through sermon and intercession for God’s present action. Other elements such as hymns, psalms, and creeds are frequently added to the "bare bones."71 p. 73) He criticizes the tendency of some Reformation liturgies for their "sheer wordiness." (7I p. I03) As the basic norm for this service of the word, White calls attention to the words of 1 Corinthians 11:23 and rephrases them to say: "We received from scripture as the community's corporate memories what we also pass on by the most appropriate forms available in our time and place." (76 p. I5) He notes that there are several media that could be effective in passing on this word; reading, drama, preaching or singing. He does insist, however, that this freedom to use various media does not include a freedom "to substitute something else in-place of the memories upon which the community's life together is based." Nothing can replace the scriptures. (?6 p. 15; of, also 80 pp. I37f; 71 p. 175) White contends that the Lord's supper "is a constant means of recovering the climactic events of salvation history," (67 p. 57. He adds importantly: "It should be remembered, however, that what is cele­brated in the eucharist comprehends the whole history of God's work and not simply those chronicled in the passion narrative.") Attempting to state the most significant elements of this sacrament in contemporary language, he says in another setting; "In modern terms, we might say that the Lord’s supper is an act in which Christ gives himself again to us enabling us to give ourselves to others." (7I p. 55; cf. also 80 pp. l66f) He describes the basic four action of the supper as taking (offertory), blessing (giving thanks), breaking and giving, all based on the verbs of the New Testament accounts; all actions are common to virtually all liturgies. (7I p. 74) The sacraments of the church provide an element of action and involvement which at one time or another stimulate all our senses. (71 pp. 149, 154) The sacraments are social acts where the two-way relationship between God and his people and between the community members relating to one another are of great 402 importance, (?6 p, 44) White outlines four central sacramental principles under these headings;1. Communal events involving relationships of love;2. Sign acts that make love visible in the community of faith;3. A direct and personal self-giving of God to us;4. God gives himself to us in the sacraments through establishing and maintaining relationships of love, (76 pp. 45 ~ 47; of, 80 p. 169)He speaks specifically of God's self-giving through the Lord's supper:In the Lord's supper, God gives himself to us in the most direct and personal way. Just as Jesus Christ gave his body and blood for us in "historical visibility," so here he continues to give himself for us in the breaking of bread and drinking of wine. . .They are no longer mere bread and wine, for they have acquired a new significance and embody Christ's-giving of himself. (76 p. 58)He adds an important qualification about the supper, maintaining that "God's self-giving is by no means confined to sacraments." (80 p. I67)The Bible is a chronicle of various ways God has given himself to humans in the past, "God is given to us in creation, in law and prophecy, and in the life together of a chosen people, God is given to us in the human Jesus who 'made himself nothing, assuming the nature of a slave' (Phil. 2:7)." (80 p. I67) White also notes how difficult it has been for Western churches to achieve and maintain an adequate balance between a "basically biblical service" and "eucharistie worship," (80 p. 125) Speaking about direction in worship. White notes that, "It is very common to hear people speak of.'getting something' out of worship, . « Strangely enough, the nature of this 'something' is not very clear."(64 p. 3; of. 67 p. 12) Quite frequently it appears that the extra "something" that is sought has to do with our feelings: "Our emotional responses become, to a large extent, our means of judging what we call the 'worship experience.'" (64 p. 4; cf. 76 p. 14) Although worship is directed to God, there are also benefits for those who worship. Probably White points up this question of direction in worship most starkly in his comments on the statement that worship functions "both for the glorification of God and for the sanctification of man." He points out how "neither of these functions is isolated from the other but they do form two poles of emphasis in discussion of worship." (7I p. 52) The worshiper benefits by recovering for himself the experiences of Israel and the early church ; "escape from slavery, conquest, captivity, hope for a Messiah, incarnation, crucifixion, resurrection and mission,"71 p. 53) God is glorified in many ways: "Almost inevitably therecital of God's benefits produces responses of praise and thanks­giving." (71 p. 55) White concludes this discussion with the affirmation: Ultimately, of course, sanctification and glorification of God are one. Worship builds us up to live effective Christian lives of concern for all God's creatures, (7I p. 56)After all, nothing glorifies God more than a human being made holy and nothing is more likely, to make a person holy than his desire to glorify God. (78a audio tape; of. 80 p, 20) Turning now to the people who worship, White maintains that the authority of the preacher rests ultimately upon his ability "to know first-hand what he is talking about." (71 p. I83) This is not a false authority propped up by "high pulpits, robes, distance or other forms of security." It is an authority based on "God's two books - scripture and humanity." (7I p. I83) He appears to favour a style of preaching that is "unauthoritarian in format, low definition in style, and dialogic 403 in character." (?1 p. 18?) He finds appealing the direction of some congregations where groups meet to discuss in advance texts to be used for worship or to help prepare the sermon. "The minister functions as a coordinator and delivers the final product," (?1 p, 190; cf. 67 p. I69) White makes a very strong appeal for congregations to involve more people in planning for worship by contending: in the past, "We provided what we thought was good for people, and they liked it or they left. Many left," (76 p, 132, In another setting he suggests that where a congregation's emphasis is upon receiving that which has been provided by others, it adds to people's believing that worship "is a matter of feeling," "a private and passive reception of the emotive factors of the service,"64 p, 6,) He is very concerned about the situation where lay people have been passive and where worship tends to become a "spectator sport," He gives the following suggestions to remedy this in part;Many actions belong to the layman; offering his praise through singing and reciting psalms, making his offering of money, and reciting prayer and the creed. There is no reason why a layman should not read the lessons. (67 p, 45)To these he adds that lay people should be involved in the distribution of communion. Free pastoral prayers (by the minister) should arise out of the life and experience of the congregation, (67 p. 162) Congregational singing can be improved with proper encouragement, (67.p. 164) Meaningful actions or movements during worship could enhance the service; White recommends specifically the practice of moving somewhere from the pew for receiving communion, (67 p. I67) His major plea is for the church to recover the "amateur status of worship," which he sees as part of "recov­ering a proper doctrine of the church consisting of the laity as much as the clergy," (67 p. 172) Christian education is connected to worship in White's view, because both have a significant part to play in Christian formation,"There is a difference between the classroom and the chapel. Both are vital in Christian formation, but they function differently." (67 p. 103; of. p. 10) In worship, through the representation of the acts of God in history, these become "our events"; yet worship is primarily concerned with representing stories we already know. (67 pp. 26, I03) White suggests that one function of Christian education is to provide new material.He sees the two activities as being complementary in Christian formation. (67 p. 26) He says;The dispassionate objectifying of God and the theologial questioning present in the best of Christian education need the acts of recon­sideration and response present in worship, , , Both belong together and suffer when separated. (67 p. 28)He suggests that when classrooms use the same texts that are used in worship for reading and sermon, people can participate more readily in the worship experience. (71 p, I87) To this could be added a discussion period in the sermon after the service has concluded. (7I p. I89) While White acknowledges the essential importance of Christian education and its vital relationship to worship, he maintains that for him, worship is at the centre of all areas of the church's life, "Evangelism, social action, nurture, education, all grow out of worship like the petals from the centre of a flower." (7I p. 51) White's books cover such a wide variety of worship concerns that few areas are left untouched. Yet an overall reading leaves one with the impression that he takes his own advice and deals far more with the substance of worship than with its structures. He notes how most 404 scholarship tends to concentrate on forms. "But this is only to touch upon the husk of worship and to miss its kernel" (6? p. 19) From his perspective, forms of worship "should be always evaluated with respect to their ability to express the substance of worship,"(67 p. 21) He does not believe that there is any "final" or "correct" structure for worship, "Christian worship is not a particularly tidy affair. Its strength has been in adequately reflecting the nature of God and the experiences of men, and these are matters hardly contained within neat formulas." (67 p. 33) White indeed would encourage some experimentation in worship structures providing that it is theologically and historically informed. (7I p. 59) However, in this connection, he makes it very clear that he personally is "deliberately and unapologetically conservative."(71 p. 8) The value of observing the Christian year is important from White's perspective. He suggests that "it is rather embarrassing to compare how the early church kept'time through staunch testimony to God's activities and how the modem church keeps time with heavy concentration on its own programs and efforts." (78b audio tape) The main significance of the church year for White is "to show forth Jesus Christ until he comes again and. to testify to God the Holy Spirit indwelling the church in the mean­time, The church year is both proclamation and thanksgiving." (78b audio tape; of. 80 pp. 66 - 70) One of its chief assets is that its systematic coverage of the great themes of the Christian faith provides a wealth of variety for the church, (76 p. 135. James White served as a key resource person for the preparation of the book, Word And Table. "A basic pattern of Sunday worship for United Methodists," This book outlines the theory and contents for United Methodists on an adaptation of the new ecumenical lectionary. Cf. also 80 pp, 50 - 64.) It is God's gift to us which is never exhausted. (78b audio tape) The main strength of the church year lies not in attempts by various groups to systematize it according to various interesting formulae, but in its faithful representation of God's actions that have rung true to human experience over the generations. (67 p. 34) I will conclude this brief outline of some of White's perspectives on worship by identifying a few comments he makes about various liturgical subjects. On the one hand he dislikes "sentimental hymn music" that could be symptomatic of worship being "simply an escape mechanism from the world as we know it," (67 p. 79) and on the other hand he deplores an "aesthetic snobbery" in church music that implies certain people know what is good for everyone, (71 p, 128) He contends; "In worship, music ought to be judged in terms of people, not people in terms of music,"(71 p. 129; cf. 80 p. l4o) In another setting he describes a choir laughing and talking together before the service begins, and then suddenly entering the church in procession with faces displaying a grim seriousness. He asks, "How have we forgotten that worship is joyful?" (67 p. 80) In response to the needs and tastes of our pluralistic society he proposes three different models for worship. One he calls "eclectic," which is a "polyglot" service containing some elements for a variety of tastes.The second is an "occasional service," perhaps once a month, aiming at a particular group in the congregation. The third is a "multiple-service" route where people attend the type of service that is most meaningful to them. (76 pp. 1331; cf. 80 pp. 3^f, 65f) His statements about children in worship need to be heard. Pointing out how peer groups are the norm for almost every other area of life, he asks if it is not a bit unnatural to expect children to be with adults in worship, "Why should we demand 405 that little children 'sit still during church' when everyone knows that nowhere else do little children sit still?" (71 p, 34) He contends that we can no longer "afford to offer a menu with only one dinner on it." We probably need different styles of worship to serve different people, (71 p. 34) White is concerned about the quiet stability of many congregations where nothing unexpected ever happens in worship. Architects and engineers have kept everyone "comfortable with cushioned pews, air conditioning and indirect lighting." (71 p, 48) Worship should display a greater sense of social responsibility, "When the shreds of respect­ability were ripped away, worship was seen to be not just a cozy way of affirming our comfort and security but a means of rejoicing and suffering with all humanity." (76 p. 142) He continues, pointing out the signs of the times as he perceives them:The late 1960s and early 1970s taught us that worship and social concern went hand in hand. Sacraments and politics were closer than we had ever expected. (76 p. 142) 406 APPENDIX B SOME APPROACHES TO CHRISTIAN EDUCATION This appendix outlines in very brief form some of the most prominent aspects of Christian education (strictly within the context of a teaching-learning community of faith) as expressed in the writings of five.scholars and two committee documents. Comparisons among these positions are found in chapter three. A. DeWitte Gamnbell Wyckoff (The references in this section are to three of Wyckoff’s books and three major articles in other edited works; they are identified here by the numbers indicated;How to Eîvaluate Your Christian Education Program " 62" ;The Task of Christian Education "55';Theory and Design of Christian Education Curriculum "61";Curriculum Theory And Practice, in, Taylor, Foundations for Christian Education in an Era Of ChangeReligious Education as A Discipline, in, Westerhoff, Who Are We?"67" ;The Curriculum and the Church School, in Taylor, Religious Education "60. " ) Wyckoff maintains that the most basic categories for Christian education as a discipline are "objective, scope, context, process, personnel and timing." He sees all of these as theological questions requiring also the use of biblical studies, history, theology and ethics. He points out that this means "that the Christian educator, responsible for an enterprise of the living church, constructs his theory and practice in relation to the most penetrating inquiry possible into the nature and meaning of the church." (67 p. 179) From his perspective, he suggests the following summary statements about most of those basic concepts:The context of Christian education is seen as the worshiping, witnessing, working community of persons in Christ. The scope of Christian education is the whole field of relationships in the light of the gospel. The purpose of Christian education is aware­ness of the revelation and the gospel, and response in faith and love. The process of Christian education is participation in the life and work of the community of persons in Christ. The design of Christian education consists of sequences of activities and experiences by which the learning tasks mav be effectively under­taken by individuals and groups. (61 p. 79)Underlying all these basic concepts for Wyckoff is the church's imperative: "the communication of the Christian faith, the gospel."(61 p. 18) He describes the church in these terms; "The church is that company of persons which has been called by God and drawn into a fellowship, in order to worship, witness and work in Christ's name and by the power of the Holy Spirit," (6l p. 18) Outlining the nature of the church's three tasks, he suggests:The church's first task is worship, a service that relates the Christian community to its Creator, Judge, Loving Father, Saviour and Source of strength and guidance, . , The church's second task, that of witness, is a matter of making its experience of recon­ciliation and redemption clear and compelling to its contemporaries. 407 in order that this experience may he theirs also. The church’s third task, that of work, means the active furthering of its missionand ministering in a variety of ways that are appropriate to itssituation. (6l p. 18)All of these tasks are related to Christian education and all are for"the nurture of the Christian life." (6l p. 17) In order for the churchto perform its educational task, it has the following eight requirements: Christian education requires:1. a clear idea of the reason for Christian teaching and learning;2. a true community of faith;3. a Christian home;4. a church school that is a real school;5. sound instructional materials:6. concern in and for the (wider) community;7. adequate building and equipment; and,8. intelligent, skilled and dedicated administration. (61, pp. 25ff; these are headings only from Wyckoffs detailed comments on each,)Christian education is related to the whole church's task as "one of the ministries by which the church seeks to fulfil its nature and perform its mission." (6l p,2l) He then comments on the place of Christian education in the whoIde scheme of the church's life:It is to be regarded not as merely a segment, but as an integralpart of the total work of the church, which includes many aspects,such as worship, 1±te sacraments and ordinances, preaching, pastoral counselling, parish administration, evangelism, missions, steward­ship, social action, and teaching. Each aspect ultimately involves all others, each utilizes educational procedures, and each helps to achieve the aims of the church. (61 p. 21)Always Wyckoff would emphasize that at the heart of the whole mission and ministry of the church is "the imperative to communicate the gospel,"(6l p. 19) That is the clue to our human situation, the basis for the community of faith, the guidance of personal and corporate experience and the call to Christians to be Christ’s disciples, "meeting the world's needs together." (61 p. I9) Speaking of the wider context of Christian education, Wyckoff suggests that "Christian education takes place where the Bible is taught, where instruction in Christian doctrine takes place, where the Christian life is lived and shared, where the good society exists and educates or where the church lives its life and does its work." (61 p. 114) Even more simply, he further ventures that "Christian education takes place where the community of persons in Christ worships, witnesses and works," (61 p. 115) The church at the same time is involved in the life of the world, and there is "no hard and fast line that separates the church from the world," Christian education in the church cannot therefore speak of persons on the "outside" or the "inside"; the church is a servant to the world and has an imperative of mission in the world. (61, p, 116) Especially throu^ worship, the church remembers and reflects upon the word of God. Through sermon, the preacher tries to help the people hear the word; in the sacraments and festivals, the fellowship experiences special times of reflection. "Then in the midst of its remembrance and reflection, the church acts in mission and ministry." (6l p. 116) An important part of this mission and ministry for Wyckoff is in social and political education and action, (Cf. especially, 61, pp. I8f, 29f, 55» 132, 136 and 174.) In 1955, Wyckoff offered the following statement as his definition of Christian education: 408 the guided process of helping growing persons to achieve at each stage of their growth such habits, skills, attitudes, appreciations, knowledges, ideas, ideals, and intentions as will enable them at each stage to achieve an ever more integrated personality, competent and satisfying living in their social environment, and increasing co-operativeness with God and man in the reconstruction of society into a fellowship of persons, (55 p. 18)Over a number of years he was instrumental in the development of the theories behind the Cooperative Curriculum Project of the National Council of Churches (U.S.A.); by I96I he suggested a summary of the joint statement of the National Council as his definition:Christian education is a lifelong process by which persons are led to commitment to Jesus Christ through helping them to understand and accept the Christian faith and its implications for time and eternity and to an increasing understanding and more effective expression of Christian faith in relation to God and in all human relationships, (61 p. 21)More simply yet, in another statement, he suggests that ihie ministry of Christian education "may be symbolized by saying that it is to assist in enabling men to meet, know, love and serve Jesus Christ." (61 p. 88) Much more recently, Wyckoff has highlighted Westerhoff's definition of Christian education and comments on it as follows:John H, Westerhoff IH, the editor of Colloquy, in a key position piece, defined Christian education as "deliberate, systematic and sustained efforts which enable persons and groups to evolve Christian life styles," The shift of focus in planning is sig­nificant, from a curriculum that is a plan for the transmission of a life style (or even more specific and limited) to a curriculum that is a planned process from which various appropriate life styles may emerge. (?6 p, 128)Wyckoff* s comments on this definition here seem to suggest that he favours a shift to a curriculum where the potential levels of indoc­trination are reduced. His subsequent positive comments on other scholars who are following the same trend and then his wide reaching suggestions about curriculum options lend weight to this view, (Cf. 76 pp, 128ff) From Wyckoff s definitions of Christian education, I turn now to his objectives (aims, goals or purposes). (These four terms are generally used interchangeably in North American Christian education literature.Cf, Little, The Objectives of Protestant Religious Education, in,Taylor, Religious Education, p. é6.) He asks a number of importantquestions about the nature of objectives:What type of objectives do we need in Christian education? Shall the objectives be functional? That is, shall it stress some aspect or aspects of the service that Christian education should perform, such as mission? Shall it be psychological? That is, shall it stress what it should accomplish with the people Christian education serves: conversion or commitment, perhaps? Shall it be operational? That is, shall it stress some aspect or aspects of the techiques involved in carrying out Christian education, such as study and worship? Shall it be theological? That is, shall it stress its doctrinal orientation and aim? Shall it be otherwise content-centered? That is, shall it point up the teaching of the Bible, history, morality, or some other body of knowledge or infor­mation? Or shall the objective of Christian education be a combination of these? They all appear to be more or less legitimate and important. (6l p, 59) 409 In order to make intelligent choices about objectives, he contends we need to turn to theology, philosophy, history, psychology, sociology and communications. Understandings from these disciplines are founda­tional, (6l p. 87) Whatever objectives are articulated, however, should be "mutually understood and accepted by pupil, church, parent and teacher alike. The achievement of such shared aims is a prime responsibility of the curriculum." (6l p. 60) There is a difference between the objec­tives of the congregation and the objectives of the congregation's Christian education program. The church will probably stress mission and ministry, whereas Christian education will likely speak of awareness and response; it will stress ways by which persons and groups are "fundamentally introduced to and inducted into that mission and ministry," (61 p, 62) Wyckoff’ s own preference for a statement of objectives is that articulated by the Cooperative Curriculum Development, a statement which strongly reflects his own input;The objective of Christian education is that all persons be aware of God through his self-disclosure, especially his redeeming love in Jesus Christ, and they respond in faith and love - to the end that they may know who they are and what their human situation means, grow as sons of God rooted in the Christian community, live in the Spirit of God in every relationship, fulfil their common discipleship in the world, and abide in the Christian hope,(76 pp, 129f, Cf, also a slightly earlier version of this objective,60 pp. 28, 46f, I69f, 174ff.) A comprehensive objective such as the above does not eliminate the need for other more specific program or curriculum objectives, says Wyckoff, (61 p. 62) When actually developing a curriculum based on objectives, he warns that we must "try to be clear about what we want to teach. . . and to sort out these learnings in terms of what may be learned through perception, through practice, through problem solving, or through identification, and to pick our methods and procedures accordingly."(61 p. 104) His use of the word curriculum is important; he explains it as follows;A careful distinction needs to be made. . , between curriculum and curriculum materials. The curriculum of Christian education is the church's educational plan. Curriculum materials are the resources and suggestions that are published or otherwise provided, from which that educational plan may be built in the local congregation and in the home. (60 p. 101 )He defines curriculum; "The curriculum of religious education is the plan by which religious groups propose to carry out their educational responsibilities," (76 p. 127) He notes how the Cooperative Curriculum Project and the Cooperative Curriculum Development, both related to the National Council of Churches in the United States, have become definitive for a number of denominations' curricula. He then comments on many other curricula approaches and materials and offers these as ideas to supplement a congregation's other resources. (76 pp. 128-133) Wyckoff maintains that all the people in the church have some responsibility for developing and sharing in the congregation's cur­riculum. He suggests that the responsibility for building the cur­riculum should be shared by the local congregation, the home, the com­munity and its agencies and the denominational and interdenominational bodies. (6l p, 200) Still, the final responsibility is up to each person in the community of faith;The individual himself has the ultimate responsibility for curriculum building. The curriculum is his or all the rest of the building is 410 in vain. The cnrrionlum is made or broken on the goals that the individual sets for himself and works toward in company with others or alone, (6l p. 204)Wyckoff contends that adults especially should be the focus of congre­gational Christian education programs. Children and young people should be educated primarily by Christian homes; however, the church has a linked evangelistic task with children from families wiili marginal Christian background. (66 p. 121) Every single Christian, as he becomes aware of the gospel and responds to it, is enabled to perform his own ministry. The curriculum developed by all people is central to this work, because Wyckoff sees the preparation for this ministry primarily in educational terms. "The conditions of this ministry, the ways by which the gift is received and used, are faithfulness in study, faith­fulness in communication, and faithfulness in community under the word." (61 p. 20) From the objectives, the curriculum and the people who develop the curriculum, the corgregation will need to determine the process or method for Christian education. Wyckoff defines process in these simple terms:"the deepest participation, engagement, involvement in the life and work of the Christian community." (6l pp. 131f) He spells out in considerable detail the process in terms of study, worship, witness, service, social action, fellowship and stewardship. (6l pp. 132f, 152, 1731*) In another book he summarizes the total process in this suscinct statement;The method of Christian education is participation (or involvement, or engagement) in the life the church lives and the work it does, through: study (of the Bible, history, Christian thought, and contemporary afjTairs), creative expression (through music, the spoken word, and other acts) action (witness, service, and social action), fellowship (group living and outreach), stewardship and worship. (62 p. 78; Whenever Wyckoff uses the term "church school," he means the total educational program of the congregation including the whole process outlined above. "At the centre will be worship, the direct service of God, search for his will, and dedication to it together." (6l p. 26)Some denominations such as the United Church of Canada also have adopted that "church school" terminology to include the concepts outlined by Wyckoff. He expands on the concept;The inclusive church school incorporates in one coordinated plan all the educational work of the congregation for all ages whenever it occurs. This it includes the Sunday church school, the weekday church school, the vacation church school, the youth fellowship and adult groups. (60 p. 101)This church school requires a "careful rethinking and redesigning"(always within his inclusive ideal) if it is to perform the church's educational ministry in a unified and integral way in the future, he maintains. (60 p. I09) He suggests an order of priorities for congregations to deal with the needs of the whole and the constituent parts of the community of faith;1. First priority should be given to those educational needs and activities that may be carried on by the congregation as a whole or by ungraded groups within the congregation. 2, Second priority should be given to those educational needs and activities that can be carried on by families. 3. Third priority should be given to those educational needs and activities that can be done in graded groups, but in this case, every effort must be maintained to see that there is congregational co-ordination of the work of these 411 groups, (61 p. 121)Two themes within my total paragraph here are vital to Wyckoff; the centrality of worship for all life in the congregation and the essen­tial unity of the congregation's educational endeavours. It is worth noting in closing this short outline of aspects of Wyckoff8 position, that recently he encourages Christian education scholars to do further study in the fields of human development, especially faith development. He writes; "The work of James W, Fowler III of the Harvard Divinity School on stages of faith development. , . is indicative of what is needed," (?6 p, 135) B. Lawrence Calvin Little (The references in this section are to Little's hook, Foundations for a Philosophy of Christian Education, identified here as "62," and an article by him, The Objective of Protestant Religious Education, in Taylor, Religious Education, identified here as "60.") Little'8 major work has been in the areas of philosophical, psychological and theoretical foundations for Christian education and in educational objectives. In speaking about the "minimum essentials" for developing an adequate philosophy of Christian education, he lists in this order; a study of "the needs and capacities of human beings, the ways of growth and learning, the nature of the Christian faith and its responsibility for Christian nurture, the goals of Christian education, and methods for guiding experiences so that the goals may be achieved." (62 p. 16) Using his order, I will outline aspects of those topics that have particular relevance for this thesis , Little commences his discussion by speaking about the persons in the community of faith; "Christian education must begin with people as they are and must deal with their problems and concerns in the world of today," He points out immediately that his emphasis upon people in their present situation does not for a moment minimize the importance of the Christian heritage, (62 p. 200) He contends that Jesus began with people, helping them grow as "persons toward the realization of their maximum potentialities as children of God"; in the same way, Christian education must be person centered. (62 p. 194) The primary concern for persons must be for "whole" people who are engaged in "complete living." This is much more ihan a concern for knowledge. (60 p. 69) He suggests; "The whole child, not just his mind as an isolated fragment of his total being, undergoes change in every successive experience," Our concepts of learning must be broad enough to include emotions, the development of motor skills, perceptive functions, conceptualization and comprehension, the ability to solve problems and an acquisition of attitudes and ideas. (62 pp. 381) In some societies, the group is supreme and in others the individual is central. Little contends: "Neither of these extreme positions with respect to the relative worth of the individual and the group is justified." The church must maintain a tension between indi­viduals and the group "so that the fullest possible good for the whole may be realized." (62 pp. I30f) Using insights from a number of psychological studies, he maintains that Christian education for children and young people ought to be related to their interests and to the needs and characteristics of their "developmental tasks." (62 p. 201) Persons of all ages will learn best 412 when they are personally involved and given responsibilities in the learning situation. It is especially important for Christian education, he says, that everyone is given an opportunity to make his own decisions and then be given the responsibility for acting upon those choices. (62 p. 201) Little uses many important insights from the behavioural sciences, such as those noted above, to strengthen his foundations for Christian education. However, he is very concerned that this vital emphasis does not result in any unfortunate dichotomy between theology and Christian education. He laments;Theologians typically have reacted to this situation by charging that Christian education has become "humanistic" or "naturalistic" and that therefore it is no longer a fitting instrument for ful- filing the mission of the church, . , This lack of communication between theologians and educators has resulted in the impoverish­ment of both fields of endeavour. (62 p. 26)He insists, rather: "The term Christian education implies a theology.There are certain convictions at the heart of the Christian faith which must be taken into account in any valid attempt to state a philosophy of Christian education." (62 p. 144) Little provides a brief outline for each of Protestant orthodoxy, secular humanism, Protestant sectarianism, Roman Catholicism, fundamentalism, modernism, Neo-Orthodoxy and new Reformation theology; he comments on assets and liabilities of each position as he regards them, (62 pp. 159-16?) From his own perspective he suggests key areas upon which Christian education must find its theo­logical foundations (God, man, Bible, Jesus Christ, the church), and concludes that "while Christian education must have a theology, it must ever keep open to the possibilities of a better one." (6? p. 155) What­ever theology is developed, he maintains, it must combine both biblical insights and the life of Christians in the world today. "No present system of theology meets these tests adequately. But we can build one out of resources already available if we will work humbly and sincerely together." (64 p. 169) Normative to any theology for Christian education, will be a "central emphasis upon the personality, life and teachings of Jesus."(62 p. 194) The context for Christian education for Little is chiefly within the framework of the Christian community and the families that constitute the church's membership, "Although Jesus did not establish a church nor set forth any plan of organization, mode of worship, program of service or credal statement, all of these seem to be implied in his teachings and actions." (62 p. 194) We can never look at Christian education in a vacuum. It is always concerned "with given individuals, members of specific groups who live in the midst of their own peculiar curcumstances within a particular period of time. (62 p, I99) The whole culture of which the Christian community is a part is neither wholly evil nor is it to be regarded as a satisfactory expression of the best of human aspirations, (62 p. 200; cf. p. 28) Therefore, he contends that Christian education should help both to transmit those cultural values which appear to be foundational for living and to help in social reconstruction where cultural improvement is required. (62 pp, 40f) Little quotes 1 Corinthians 3:9: "For we are fellow workmen for God," and suggests that in our work, is an inseparable relationship between our faith and the major social problems of our world. He contends that Christian growth implies that persons will take a responsible part in the wider contest of life "in such areas as economic life, race relations, health and public welfare, 413 housing and slum clearance, human rights, inter-group education, inter­church co-operation and world peace," (62 pp. 139f) Little offers a complicated definition of Christian education that employs considerable terminology from the behavioural sciences:Christian education is the process thirugh which the church seeks to enable persons to understand, accept and exemplify the Christian faith and way of life. It is the effort to enable them to com­prehend the full meaning and latent possibilities of human nature as revealed in Jesus Christ and in the light of modern knowledge, to help them establish and maintain the relationships with God and with other persons that will lead toward the actralization of their highest potentialities, and to engage and sustain them in the continuing endeavour to bring closer the realization and will and purpose of God for themselves and for all mankind. (62 p. 193)The definition begins in terms of "process"; in another setting he explains that, "The Christian way of life is learned - it is not automatic nor is it achieved without effort." (62 p, i38) Much of the rest of the definition speaks about the growth or development that may occur as a result of this process, (Cf. 62 p. 39) In other settings, Little discusses some of the "goals" towards which this process may be directed. Temporary rebellion: may be a.prerequisite on the road to maturity, but our processes should be diverted toward restoring "health." (62 p. 143) Little speaks much more about objectives than about his definition of Christian education. He notes how in recent years, various groups have applied a wide variety of concepts to the study of educational objectives. Columbia University based its objectives on "persistent life situations," and -üie University of Chicago on "developmental tasks," Little contends that it is now too difficult for any individual to undertake the task of formulating a vital statement of educational objectives. Even a group would be unlikely to produce an adequate statement of objectives unless the group was composed of individuals with a "wide range of experience and competence," (60 p. 68) He quotes a very detailed comprehensive objective that was developed over a period of years by the Commission on General Christian Education of the National Council of Churches. This was produced in 1958:The supreme purpose of Christian education is to enable persons to become aware of the seeking love of God as revealed in Jesus Christ and to respond in faith to this love in ways that will help them to grow as children of God, live in accordance with the will of God, and sustain a vital relationship to the Christian community.To achieve this purpose Christian education, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, endeavours:To assist persons, at each stage of development, to realize the highest potentialities of the self as divinely created, to commit themselves to Christ, and to grow toward maturity as Christian persons;To help persons establish and maintain Christian relationships with their families, their churches, and with other individuals and groups, taking responsible roles in society, and seeking in every human being an object of the love of God;To aid persons in gaining a better understanding and awareness of the natural world as God's creation and accepting the responsibility for conserving its values and using them in ihe service of God and of mankind;To lead persons to an increasing understanding and appreciation of 414 the Bible, whereby they may hear and obey the Word of God; and to help them appreciate and use effectively other elements in the historic Christian heritage;to enable persons to discover and fulfil responsible roles in the Christian fellowship through faithful participation in the local and world mission of the church. (60 pp. y4f)Much of the language in this objective is similar to the phrases in Little's earlier definition. There were twenty-one professional Christian education leaders and scholars from a wide variety of denom­inations involved in the production of that statement of objectives. Little encourages congregations to develop their own statements of objectives. He offers seven criteria by which any group could evaluate its own statement. In outline, they are:1. Are the objectives Christian?2. Are they psychologically valid?3. Are they relevant to all levels of development?4. Are they dynamic enough to inspire and motivate definite actionin real life situations?5. Are they such that progress toward their achievement is measurable and subject to evaluation?6. Are the objectives comprehensive in scope?7. Are the statements clear and understandable to those who willuse them? (62 pp. 197f)He contends that due to the swiftly moving scene in modem education, we cannot expect any statement of objectives to last forever. (60 p. 73)The task of formulating objectives will never be regarded as complete. Changing educational and theological concepts and new understandings of human nature will require alternatives in statements of objectives so they will be brought into accord with current realities, (60 p. 76) In closing this brief outline of Little’s concepts, it should be noted that he regards Christian education as a process through which the church can evaluate its work and reshape itself through enlarged under­standings, He also believes that Christian education could be instrumen­tal in enlisting and challenging persons in this ongoing task of renewal. (62 p. I96) C. Two Committee Documents The cooperative Curriculum Project of the National Council of Churches in the United States involved scholars from some sixteen denominations (including the United Church of Canada) in joint Christian education studies for a number of years. Their stated objective has been quoted under the outline on Campbell Wyckoff,(Supra, p. 409; of. also, A Design for Teaching-Learning, p. 8)The project speaks of scope as being broader than context; scope provides a standard of comprehensiveness for the curriculum of Christian education. They define scope;Scope may be said to describe the field over which the church has legitimate purview for its educational ministry and from which the church may appropriately draw the context for its curriculum, (p. 12) They suggest that the context of Christian education is the whole life of the Christian community,.Within the church, education is carried on as one of the church's ministries, a ministry that is integrally related to the church's 415 entire life and work expressed in such varied ways as social action, evangelism and other forms of outreach, the missionary enterprise, Christian service, healing, and worship, (p. 23) It is especially in the area of worship that I wish to outline some of their comments in the context of this thesis. Acknowledging that worship may include elements of ’’instruction,” they hasten to point out that, "Worship is an end in itself; it is not to be used for the purpose of achieving certain personal benefits or to turn persons in upon them­selves." (p. 233) For every Christian, worship has a central and inalienable place, (p. 233/ There is both a sense of wholeness in community and an intensely personal element in worahip; "The encounter which man has with God takes place within the very essence of his personal being, , , To be in Christ is to be in Christ's body, which is the church," (pp. 233f) They go on to describe God’s action and humanity's response:In the word of God coming through preaching, the reading of the Bible and the ministry of the sacraments, God confronts man and offers himself to man in grace and love. In all this, God has acted and acts. He has taken the initiative. But worship also involves the response of man. (p. 235)In particular they speak of "service" as being one of the most logical human responses in worship. "If the church is to be saved from being irrelevant, it must activate the relationship between liturgy and life."(p. 236) In spite of maintaining that worship is an end in itself, the Project, along with many Christian education scholars, constantly reiterates that worship is part of the context of Christian education. The Division of Mission of the United Church of Canada, two years after participating in the cooperative Curriculum Project, in an important position piece entitled. Education in Your Church in The 70"s , defined Christian education:Education in the church is a continuing process which:1. helps us live the life of love as we know it in Jesus Christ;2. helps us celebrate God's presence and commit ourselves to his purpose, and,3. helps us serve one another in the world joyfully because of God's acceptance of us. (part 1)The document describes learning as a process of change and growth. It states: "Every person has a right to continuous learning. The educational institutions of society (including the church) must be able to serve this," (part 4) Christians respond to God's gifts and rejoice in them in worship. "Together and as individuals Christians celebrate God's love in many ways including worship." (part 4) Worship in this statement and implied in the above definition of education is seen as a major context for education in the church. Total involvement and resultant Christian action are seen as the most important educatonal contexts:The most significant forms of learning are those that call for fullest participation by the learner. Learning becomes concrete and specific when it is acknowledged and expressed in appropriate commitment and action. Community outreach is an expression of evangelism, (part 4)The document concludes by noting that the church once operated according to a well-formed objective; "now we seem to be responding to a challenge," (part 4) The nature of the response to that challenge is described in 416 open-ended terms about sensing God's activity, testing new ways of learning and living and having "the courage to act with freedom and responsibility as people who know love, have hope and keep faith in him." (part 4) D. Iris Virginia Gully (ihe references in this section are to three of Gully's books and one major article in an edited work; they are identified here by the numbers indicated:Christian Child Development "79";New Life for Your Sunday School "76".;The Dynamics of Christian Education "58";Christian Education: Instruction Or Nurture, in Westeriioff,Who Are We? "67.") Generally, Cully.prefers to speak of the church's educational task in terms of nurture. In a word study on instruction, education and nurture, she differentiates among them in this way:Instruction deals with facts and meanings in order to give the learner information and understanding.Education is a more inclusive process than instruction. It would seem to include the whole person. . , Let us keep in mind that education, like instruction is intellectually oriented.Nurture goes beyond the meaning of development, because it intro­duces a factor apart from the natural tendency of the organism itself to mature. It implies a person through whom this process can be implemented. The image of a nursing mother is there. A person could be self-educated but he could not be self-nurtured.(6? pp. 151. 154f, 159; of. 58 p. 29; 79 pp. 49ff)She notes how each broadening context of life helps in the nurturing process. The church school, worship services, teachers and minister and a joyful congregation all share in nurturing the individual. (67 p. 161; 79 p. 57f) Of special importance for her is the conviction that God also participates in the nurture of humans. "God the Holy Spirit is at work wherever growth, development and transformation are taking place, whether or not he is recognized and invoked." (67 p. 163; cf. 79 p. 98) This is an important concept, she says, because it points out the impossibility of our determining or predicting any commitment from a learner. "The God-given freedom of each person enables him to make a choice among responses." (67 p. 64; cf. 79 pp. 48f) A number of years ago, Cully described the objective of Christian education in these terms:The purpose of Christian nurture is to help people through their growing relationship to God in Christ so to live that they may glorify him and effectively serve others, in the assurance that they partake of eternal life now and forever, (58 pp. 29f)More recently, she strongly encourages local congregations to determine their own "goals" and offers a number of broad guidelines to assist them in this process. She suggests that goals could be in terms of knowing the Bible, commitment to Christ, the ability to articulate the faith, affirming loyalty to the church and living a Christian life. (76 pp. 3f)She offers three characteristics which should pertain to goals;1. A specific goal which all, including the minister agree.2. The goal must be one which is not being accomplished elsewhere. 417 3. A third characteristic of a useful goal is that it is stated in such a way that the results can he described and recognized.(76 pp. 3f)Virtually everybody in the congregation should have an opportunity to provide input to the group who will ultimately formulate the congregational Christian education objective. She suggests a potential side benefit of this exercise; "Think how much this would do for the Christian education of all adults!" (76 p. 10; see further discussion about the various people who may participate in this goal setting, pp. 4, 7ff, 11.) She summarizes her total proposed goal-setting process in these four terms:1. Gather small groups having specific responsibilities: the governing board, religious education committee, teachers, parents, young people, the congregation.2. With these varied answers in hand, work again with each group, then with an overall or representative group to achieve a concrete set of goals.3. Gather people.who know each age group in the Sunday School so that they can write a description of the goals in terms of each developmental stage.4. Choose some way of making the results widely known: letter, church bulletin, a special event. (76 p. I3)Clearly, from the way she describes the process and content of these goals, she is speaking both of a comprehensive objective and specific program objectives. The most central element in the teaching-leaming process for Cully is the personal enounter that takes place between individuals.One person may testify to what God has done in his life, and in this way he shares something significant with another. (58 p. 9^; 79 pp. 123f) "I-Thou" relationships should be at the heart of the church as a community. These relationships are vital, not only between peers, but also across the generations. "The church also teaches through the relationships that exist between the adults and the children of the church," She contends that some adult members merely tolerate children rather than making them feel accepted. (58 p. IO6; cf. 79 pp. 122ff) In speaking of the teacher- pupil relationship, she insists that teachers must not regard their position as one of authority. "How to do it" books for teachers are unacceptable: "Christian nurture is dynamic, and the gospel will not be reduced to five steps. (58 p. II7) An adult teacher is both a guide and a fellow learner with a child. (58 p. 133) The content of Christian education is also vital in Cully's estimation. The Bible is pivotal because "God is at the centre of the biblical record. The writers of the Bible saw his holy purposes in all events," (58 p. 26) The writers of the Bible were quite human, and those who have interpreted it throughout the generations have also been subject to human limitations, but she suggests that there is probably less dis­tortion when the Bible is studied within the context of a worshiping community. (58 p. 26) Because people of all ages can readily identify with some biblical characters, Cully contends that the Bible is a vital source of stories for children as well as adults. (58 pp. 27, 121; 79 pp. 148-152) Using the Bible properly should include a strong life- centered approach to nurture as well. A responsible life-centered approach "will include ways for participation in those historic events in the Bible and the church through which God's saving history is known. . .They will include ways by which the child may leam to communicate this fullness of life to others by word and deed." (58 pp. 1551’) She recommends 418 that specific biblical content should focus on God, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit at work in i h e world historically and in today's world, interpreted through the worshiping Christian community, (58 pp. 75f)The ideal pattern for including this content is through the observance of the church year, she suggests. (58 p. I06; 79 p. 15^) Cully speaks of several contexts for Christian education. The church community itself is the central context, although the church in turn is a part of the wider cultural community. However, the members, belonging to both communities, have a special loyalty, relationship and common purpose for nurture within the church. (58 p. I5) The church is no accidental fellowship, she contends: "It may be seen that the church, which forms the context of the educational process, is, and always has been, a living fellowship, aware of having been brought together by the gracious action of God." (58 pp. 41f) This church teaches through the participation of adults and children together in the total life of the Christian community: "This happens wherever all work together and plan together." (58 p. 108) She describes this ever widening context within the church as follows:With each broadening contact of life, the process of nurture is enlarged. The church school nourishes, the service of worship does also. Church school teachers and ministers nurture when they talk about God's love, tell about it in biblical stories, and show it in their relationships with other people, A congregation filled with the joy of the Lord nourishes all who come into the midst.(67 p. 161)Christian families also are an important context for Christian nurture. Cully believes that especially through the worship experiences the Holy Spirit enables families to teach more effectively. (58 p. 109; 76 pp. 15, 106; 79 p. 117) While she acknowledges great potential value in eadi of these contexts, for her, the Sunday church school is the church's primary nurturing agent, (58 p. I08) Cully asks what would happen if a congregation were to decide to disband its Sunday church school. She suggests: "Either you would find a means of education to replace it, or everyone would miss the Sunday School and begin to ask how to revive it." (76 p. I5) However, she acknowledges that the church maintained strength and grew for years by worship alone; education does take place through scripture, preaching, prayer and the offering. "There is surely no better way to deepen your love of God, strengthen commitment, and understand what it means to be a Christian," (76 p. I5) Having recognized that historical situation and accepted the vital potential of worship in Christian education, she outlines in considerable detail a plan for reviving and strengthening the Sunday school as the central context for nurture. She offers simple, practical suggestions for getting and keeping teachers and pupils and for enabling the members of a Christian education committee, (76 pp. 14-59) She maintains that parents also have a vital role in strengthening the Sunday school by their family nurture, their encouragement and support for church school teachers, their willingness to assure children's attend­ance and their following through on homework if required. (76 pp. 44f)She advocates that persons who are serious about reviving or strengthening a Sunday school should uncover and make use of the power structures of the congregation in order to achieve that aim. To assist their thinking, she proposes questions like:Where does religious education, specifically Sunday School, come in the thinking of your governing board? How much money is allocated? How does this fit proportionately to other sums 419 allocated in the budget? Is there anyone on this board who has amember of the religious education board? Is the minister interestedin the Sunday School? (?6 p. 50)Gully recommends that for money and "power," the church governing board, Christian education committee, women's groups and others should be approached to help support the Sunday school, (?6 pp. 52ff) She maintains especially that "adult education is a key to a totally strong program," and this is where a congregation ought to invest many of its resources to strengthen the total Sunday school. (76 p. 9^) The Sunday school and congregational worship are integrally bound together in the task of Christian nurture from Gully's perspective.Worship itself "has always been a way of Christian teaching. The book of Acts reports that the first Christians gathered together for prayer, fellowship and teaching." (76 p. 104) In another setting she contends that the very form of worship is expressive of communication. "Worship consists of something that God does and the way by which men respond. . . The component elements of the service become existential in so far as they are the response of the worshiping congregation to God's prior action and Christ's presence among his people," (58 p. 96) Through the remembrance of God's acts in worship, the congregation enters into some­thing much larger than " learning by doing" ,* it is here that " the self is engaged at its deepest levels." (38 p. 103; cf. pp. 128f) The Sunday school should help children understand and assist them to participate more meaningfully in the weekly worship services, "Hymns can be learned; a responsive reading can be practiced; questions can help them to under­stand scripture lessons," (76 p. 73; of. 79 pp. 121f) Cully speaks about the critical time of meeting for a Sunday school If it meets before congregational worship, there are special opportunities to prepare children for worship by reviewing elements such as those suggested above. If it meets at the same time as worship, it is desirable to have the children stay for a major part or all of the service monthy or at least occasionally. Adult study groups would do well to meet in advance of worship to study the scriptures that will be used in the service.(76 pp. 73, 106f) Although Cully does not speak about teaching through the liturgy, she certainly details a number of ways that worship teaches. "New Christians and children growing up in the household of faith learn about their faith through listening to and taking part in hymns, scripture, sermon and prayer." (76 p. IO3) The sacraments, as visible experiences, have very special teaching potential. "They 'say' what words cannot say. That is why they can be a unique medium for communication between God and man." (38 p. 102) The participation element in the Lord's supper, for her, enables the believers to have a special experience of the Christian gospel. "Through this activity the worshiping community relives the historical situation now two thousand years removed, and makes it contemporaneous by the re-presentation and personal appropriation through which, again, his body is broken and his blood shed for them." (38 pp. 48f; cf. also p. 128) Meaningful congregational participation in worship is essential if worship is to involve whole people; Cully dislikes an "audience" mentality that may characterize some worship services. (38 p. 139; cf. also 76 p. 105; 79 pp. H7f) She feels that it is unfortunate that many Protestant churches gear the worship services to the -adult level to the point where children are excluded. "Children belong here. . .This does not mean that they should be expected to be present every week and attend -üie full service; their participation may vary 420 according to their age and individual needs," (79 p. 117; o f , 58 p. 159) She says in another context; "The child who worships with the whole congregation is learning. Much of the content will escape the very- young, but the most important part - absorbing -the meaning of what itmeans to pray, praise, listen and feel part of a worshiping community -is there," {?6 p. 106; cf, 79 PP. 117-122) In concluding this brief outline of some of Iris Gully's thoughts,it should be noted that some of her other books are specifically in the area of children's education. She has also written two books with her husband, Kendig Brubaker Gully, another Christian education scholar. E. John M. Sutcliffe (All references in this section are to Sutcliffe's book. Learning Community.) Sutcliffe's book, Learning Community, is both a summary of an international consul-bation of the World Council of Churches and the World Lutheran Federation on -the contribution of idie Sunday School to Christian education in Europe today, and also a further development of that consultation's theme. Central to the book is the concept of the whole congregation being a "learning community" in which everyone participates in a mutual learning process, (p. 8) Central -to that unified learning community theme is the place of children in the -to-tal community. Sutcliffe maintains that adults will have -to develop a new frame of mind if we are to listen to children and recognize their role as contributers as well as recipients in education and worship, (p. 17) The church's nature is to be inclusive, rather than exclusive, he says, and for -that reason: "It is inconsistent with the proclamation of -the love of God for all people to erect barriers which exclude some on -the grounds of age, education or their ability -to express their commitment in the formal language of the church." (p. 18) Children must not be "excluded or kept to the periphery of the worship­ing and serving community" which is engaged in Christ's ministry in the world." (p. 18) It is of major impor-tance for adults to regard children as "people rather than a category." Children need to be given oppor­tunities to leam and engage in acti-vities alongside adults, (pp. I9f)He summarizes some of the important aspects of this s-tance as follows:In short, the church should give children -the opportunity to gzow in the Christian community which is continually learning through action in and reflection upon the life of the times; praising God, not apart from the secular world, but in its midst; meeting and lo-ving, accepting and learning from one another - children and adults - and is a part of a tradition, yet continually seeks to be liberated from any repression that such a tradition may impose, (p. 20)Although he sees this concept applying to all learning, action and womhiping activities of -the congregation, he cautions against any uncritical enthusiasm over having children participate fully in communion, On psychological and educational grounds (not theological) he raises important questions about liturgical words and concrete thinking, the nature of the community fellowship that could be experienced and the types of oblique and indirect messages that may be communicated to children through the Lord’s supper, (pp. 27f) The overall message of 421 his hook, however, is that children have their own appropriate and legitimate faith, "Within the grasp of their age their faith is no less real or coherent than that of an adult," (p. 49) Adults and children need each other in an all age community of faith, (p. 19) While the world Consultation was extremely concerned about the present health and direction of Sunday schools on the whole, it con­cluded that the Sunday school still had "an important and concrete contribution to make to the ministry of the church," (p. 3?) Likely the future shape of the Sunday school will differ radically from the present. Its central task must not be forgotten: "What is clear is that with the readiness to experiment with new methods, and the insis­tence that the whole congregation must be the place in which the child grows, there is also a realization that we must not lose sight of the essential task, the communication of the gospel." (pp. 37f) In this task, the Sunday school must not remain as a separate institution, but must be an integral part of the church community. "As this shift takes place the decisive question facing the church will be: how can the church become a worshiping, learning and teaching community in which all are teachers and all are learners; how can we see the church whole?" (p. 40; cf. also p. 33 for questions about the nature of the Sunday school today.) While this Sunday school may be seen primarily as inter- generational in the proposed reconstruction, that does not necessarily remove all need for specific support and activities that may be provided also by peer groups, Sutcliffe cites especially the peer group needs of children under five and those between twelve and fifteen years of age. Still, he returns to his basic principle: "The use of peer groups need not mean complete separation from the adult community or other peer groups," (p. 22; cf, pp. 29, 38) Sutcliffe maintains that the church should also assist parents with the Christian education of their children. He notes especially parents’ need for help with such matters as answering children's questions or teaching children how to pray. "Perhaps the most creative way to help parents is to enable them to share in a community exerience with their children." (p. II3) He warns against the church’s adding pressures to children whose parents are not active participants in the life of the congregation. "The church has yet to find ways of showing its concern for the whole family without being unnecessarily intrusive and without being divisive." (p. II5) Generally the Consultation did not favour the community of faith using family terminology like "family service." This term has some negative connotations for some young people, unmarried adults or one person coming alone from a family. Terms like "worship for all ages" could prove more suitable. (Cf, comments by Dr. David Merritt, quoted by Sutcliffe, p. 65.) Sutcliffe offers a definition of nurture and education, and suggests a Christian education objective for congregations. He describes nurture : By nurture we mean the support of the individual by the loving, caring relationship of the community of the church and the com­munication, through the individual's participation in the church's life, of its aims, it vision of personal and social life and its priorities. Nurture is closely linked with what is implicit in the community's life and conversation, (p. 50)Education is differentiated from nurture in this definition:By education we mean a conscious involvement in a sharing and discovery process which at different times will appeal to and 422 involve the whole person - his critical faculty, emotions, aesthetic sense, ability to weigh evidence and make decisions, (p. 50)Having made this careful distinction between his use of the two terms, he contends that the church must always maintain a balance between nurture and education; he focuses the primary reason for upholding the difference in these terms: "the church must both live its life in Christ and yet enable some who belong to it to reject Christ." (p. 51) The objective that he suggests for Christian education is:a, to help a person to respond to Jesus and to life in his/her own way and to work out with others the meaning of that response for herself/himself and for society and to tease out some of the issues that are raised and,b. in the broadest terms to prepare for and help to enable participation in worship, (p. 23) To provide content for those definitions and the Christian education objective, Sutcliffe speaks of the Bible and other content suggestions: While the Bible is decisive in Christian education, so also are other aspects of what may be called the living Christian tra­dition of which the Bible is a part. Christian history since Bible times, an experience of the contemporary Christian com­munity, a sense of the world church, experience of worship, reflection of Christian life and meaning and ecumenical encounter are all part of the contemporary living tradition, (p. 99)Biblical insights should illuninate such contemporary media and activities as pop and folk songs, films, community action and developmental projects and social action movements and protests. These may be understood as instances of God’s Spirit at work in the world. "So it is that Christ­ianity is a way of seeing, hearing, looking and responding." (p. lOO)He insists that"education (and the faith)" must be about living. There­fore, God’s message in the Bible will be communicated best by the learning community’s "being alive in the world of human encounter and decision making." (p. 102) Sutcliffe suggests that many Christians regard the focus of their commitment to Christ in terms of weekly attendance at worship. It is up to the church to help them to enlarge this individualistic view with a vision of "involvement in a community life and in the life of the world." (p. 44) Education should both assist persons in self-determination and also facilitate persons' making a contribution to society as a whole.(p. 50) He sees a danger that state schools may simply aim at maintaining the status quo. The church, however, needs to guard against manipulation and against biasing its educational programs toward the elite and the middle class, (p. 89) There are social and political issues that must be addressed by the church; he notes in particular such problems as work, housing, land reform and the concept of equality, (p. 91) He says that we can leam from Christians such as those in Latin America whose "conscientization" process has enabled all sorts of people to become involved in decision making process towards the building of a better future, (p. 91) It is important for children to be involved in these decision making processes within an all age learning community, so they will be "helped to make their own decision about the life of faith." (p. 21)In every human activity, however, it is possible to detect an element of indoctrination, says Sutcliffe. "Education is concerned with human 423 growth; indoctrination is concerned with human captivity," (p. 23)Even when the church is being most assertively evangelical, it must not consciously indoctrinate, although it can hardly help doing so by its very existence, "Its task is rather, through a subtle combination of education and a sense of security created by the loving, understanding relationships experienced within the community which points to the love of God, to set people free." (p. 24) The community must be acutely aware, he suggests, of hidden elements of indoctrination in the liturgy and in unspoken assumptions and expectations, "The church's educational program will not always win the child’s allegiance to Jesus; it should always equip the child to make his own decisions and to think creatively about living and to use the Christian insights and clues in the process," (p. 24) Through shared activities of adults and children, Sutcliffe’s goal is to see how each can contribute to the other in setting each other free. (p. 41) The process of education must involve much more than intellectual methods. The Consultation maintains that Sunday school methods in Protestant churches tend to emphasize an intellectual apprehension of the Christian faith; the Sunday schools are "concerned to teach in order that children and young people might understand (know the facts)."(p. 52) Sutcliffe suggests that if children can be involved with adults in the teaching-leaming enterprise, there could be a profound expansion in the process used and the results achieved. "In such activities as free drama, mime, painting, conversation, music making, social protest, research, film making, spontaneous worship, children will be teachers of adults as well as fellow learners." (pp. 52f) He contends that an emphasis on experiencing, doing, conversing and discovering could benefit the whole church and would provide a significantly different feeling from day schools, (p. I9) All activities in the life of the church need to be integrated, in Sutcliffe’s view. "Seeing the church whole means holding in one integrated view the worship, service, political, mission, social and fellowship life together with other diverse activities in an all-age range of personnel." (p. 40) The separation of children or the separation of educational processes can not adequately serve the present and the future. New patterns and resource materials in congregational life that may evolve should take a total church approach, he contends, (p. 59) Where congre­gations desire to find new life with a minimum of disturbance of present peer group patterns, they should at least look for additional ways of engaging everyone in activities that have meaning for all ages. (p. 60)Some congregations will probably develop a flexible pattern where programs will grow out of the requirements of the theme at hand. "The dynamics of the community will probably determine the extent to which peer groups,’family’ groups or all age groups will be used." (p. 60) Some churches may hold full length liturgical services only occasionally, with other weeks being devoted to types of activities that are suitable for home or community programs. Still others may adopt a "fixed basic pattern" with a variety of components: education, social, worship, community dis­cussion and possible action, (pp. 60f) Throughout Sutcliffe's book, there is a great sense of urgency for an all age community of faith to see its worship, education and action life as one piece. 424 F, John H. Westerhoff H I (The references in this section are to seven of Westerhoffs books; they are identified here by the numbers indicated:A Colloquy on Christian Education "72";Generation To Generation "74";Inner Growth/Outer Change "79";Learning Through Liturgy "78a";Tomorrow's Church "76a";Who Are We? ^^ T^ b";Will Our Children Have Faith? "76b.") Westerhoff takes the general position that his books are not meant to be difinitive works, but rather books to provide stimulation for ministers, lay people and scholars, requiring their reactions and actions, (76a p. lo) While he is very critical of much that is happening in the Christian education field as a whole, he also holds out many words of encouragement for those engaged in church educational tasks.Generally, he contends that Christian education in most North American churches is in a very serious state. Althou^ there may be a few shining success stories, "in many more places anxiety, confusion, frustration, despair and even failure exist." (76b p. 1) Commenting further on the seriousness of the malady that threatens Christian education in congregations, he says that "it appears that many church educators are sure that we are dealing with a surface infection, while I am convinced that we face a very serious disease." He continues:No longer can we assume that the educational understandings that have informed us, or the theological foundations that have under­girded our efforts, are adequate for the future. A continuing myopic concern for nurture, understood primarily as schooling and instruction and undergirded by increasingly vague pluralistic theologies, will not be adequate for framing the future of religious education. (76b p. 2)Advocating a more radical approach to the whole question, he criticizes many attempts at repair: "A host of panaceas in the form of raethologolgies or new variations on the church school, such as family clusters, flourish for a time and denominations still strive to produce better curriculum resources." (76b p. 5) His basic argument is with the church's focusing upon a schooling-instruction paradigm with "school as the context and some form of instruction as the means." (76b p. 6) He calls for a much broader understanding of Christian education that goes far beyond the Sunday church school and that will encompass every person in the "learning and witnessing community of faith," to the end that everyone will be introduced to a significant place in the life and mission of the church. (72 pp. 248f) He contends that this community education paradigm is not at all new but was the method of Plato's education."As far as Plato was concerned, it is the community that educates, by which he meant the multiplicity of formal and informal forces which influence persons," (76b pp. 7f) Westerhoff suggests a number of basic questions that need to be addressed if the church is to get at the heart of its Christian education task; a sample includes ;What does it mean to be Christian together?The question parents need to ask is not, how can I make my child into a Christian, but rather how can I be a Christian with my child? How can we live our individual and corporate lives under the 425 judgment and inspiration of the gospel to the end that God'scommunity is come and God's will is done?What can I bring to share with another as a believer in Christ and a member of his church?How can we be open to one another so that as faithing selves in community we might all expand our faith? (76b pp. 20, 80, 102f;78b pp. 270f; 74 p. 82; 72 pp. 69f)All of these sample questions contain concerns for the whole communityof faith, Westerhoff maintains that education is part of a process thathelps a community pass on its culture; religion is a central aspect of every culture, helping persons make sense of the world and their •relationship to it, (72 pp. 6lf) In his earlier books he called the process or method of education in such a setting, "religious socializat­ion," (For definition and purpose see 74 pp. 41, 47 , 82f) Ihe more complex but descriptive term he uses in Will Our Children Have Faith? is "a community of faith-enculturation paradigm." (76b p. 50I He descirbes some basic principles of such a paradigmsFirst, while maintaining a necessary particularity for education - deliberate, systematic, and sustained efforts - our new paradigm must broaden the context of Christian education to include every aspect of our individual and corporate lives within an intentional, covenanting, pilgrim, radical, counter-cultural, tradition-bearing faith community.Second, while the context or place of Christian education is best understood as a community of faith, the means of Christian education is best understood as the actions between and among faithful persons in an environment that supports the expansion of faith and equips persons for radical life in the world as followers of Jesus Christ.(76b pp. 49f)The three major contexts for learning in this paradigm are; "Ritual - meaningful celebration of memory and hope, Experience - reflected upon experience in community. Action - planned for action around social issues," (72 p, 84) Such a model does not require a school, "although it does not rule one out." Westerhoff maintains about his paradigm; "I offer it not as the answer or panacea for the future, but only as a basis for creating an alternative for Christian education in the churches."(72 p. 90) The emphasis needs to be shifted, he says, from "schools, teachers, pupils, curricula, classrooms, equipment and supplies" to a focus upon the "radical nature and character of the church as a faith community." (76b p. 5I; cf. 79 p. 59) If such a community of faith is to develop, Westerhoff says it "must be small enough to maintain meaningful, purposeful interactions among its members," Failure in this regard would tend to make the church just another institution in society, (76b pp. 52f) In all his books he contends that the intergenerational nature of the community must be recognized as a strength rather than a liability. In worship and education, "we cannot afford to accept the separation of children, youth and adults;. . . We do not need special rites of community for children or youth, but we do need a place within our regular community rituals that speaks to children, youth and adults." (78a pp. i03f) In the same way, he maintains the important place of the older people: "Remember that the third generation is the generation of memory, and without its presence the other two generations are locked into the existential present."(76b p. 53; for children and all generations, see also pp. 5^ , 64, 77,8lf, lOOf) This all age community of faith needs to support members who bring a great diversity of gifts. (76b pp. 5 J f ) In this type of 426 community, everyone has something significant to contribute: "We need to bring our experiences and offer them to others in our church under the judgment and inspiration of the gospel. To engage in such reforming activity is to engage in Christian education," (?6b p, 6l) In this faith-sharing "enculturation" paradigm, "one person is not understood as the actor and another the acted upon, but rather both act, both initiate action, both react. It is the nature, character and quality of these interactive experiences among people of all ages within a community of faith that best describes the means of Christian education.(76b p. 80) Westerhoff says that the focus needs to be upon all the interactions among persons in such a community. "What is important is not what we strive to give another, but what we share and the various ways we try to be Christian together within a community of faith." (76b p. 81 ; cf. p. 64) In further detail, Westerhoff describes some of the process of the enculturation paradi^;Shared experience, story telling, celebration, action, and reflection between and among equal "faithing" selves within a community of faith best helps us understand how faith is trans­mitted, expanded and sustained. (76b p. 88)In order to facilitate this sharing process, Westerhoff offers his enculturation paradigm, as "the best way to understand educational method in a faith community,". (78a p. 88; cf. 79 p. 21) In describing Wester­hoff' s general position, it has been necessary to begin with his concept of the community of faith, and hence to deal first with the method or process which is integral to that community's life. Within that context, it now becomes possible to sketch his content and explore his theological perspective; an outline of both of these appears to be in order before considering his actual definition of Christian education. For Westerhoff, at the heart of the Christian faith is "a story," and this same story must be at the heart of Christian education to inform and judge the life of the community of faith.Unless the story is know, understood, owned and lived, we and our children will not have Christian faith. Only when the story of Cod' 5 actions in history becomes the focus of our educational ministry will that ministry be Christian. (76b pp. 34f; cf. 79 pp. 134f)Both worship and education are concerned with sharing that same story in different ways in the community, he says. (78a p. 96) He leaves no doubt about the content of the story, and outlines some salient high­lights of the scriptures from the creation, through the exodus and the exile, to Jesus’ life, death, resurrection, and call to action, con­cluding his outline with the statement;And each week the community of faith gathers to retell its story, to celebrate its hope, to point to the signs of God's coming community, to announce that we are liberated from the principal­ities and powers, and to stimulate us to act with God for "her" vision. (78a p. 98. Westerhoff alternates between the male and female pronouns in reference to God in this section and uses quotation marks with both promouns. This practice is becoming common among several North American scholars towards the end of the 1970s.)The church is the bearer of this special story, he says. "Liturgy is concerned that the story be known and lived. Gatechesis is concerned that the story be understood and applied." (78a pp. 98f) From the 427 Christian education standpoint, our efforts need to be directed towards storytelling as opposed to an emphasis on doctrine or sacred literature to be learned about. (78a p. 120) Teaching history about the faith should be avoided in favour of dramatically retelling the story of God's mighty acts in atmospheres as informal as the dinner table or the fireside. "We need once again to be a storytelling people who use all the senses to recount our history of the living presence of God among us." (76a p. 63) The story must be made very personal for each member of the com­munity, he contends:No longer can we explain how some Israelites were once in bondage in Egypt and God saved them. (Who cares?) Instead we need to explain how we were once oppressed in Egypt and how God liberated us. We must again become a history-bearing community of faith and a storytelling people who seek to communicate God's story as our story. (76b p. 75)Westeihoff maintains that we have a responsibility to deal with the "vrtiole" story, not just the parts that we have carefully edited to maintain the comforts of the status quo. (76b p. 71) He points out how some of the scriptures only contain "revelation" for people when they perceive personally the significance of its message. The Bible needs to be seen as part of our story in the Christian community. In order to achieve this;We need to provide experiences where persons can be involved in the historical and critical interpretation of the biblical story; we need to provide experiences where persons can be engaged in reflection on personal and social issues in the light of the biblical story.(78b p. 275)In this historical and critical study, he says that we should discover that myth can be understood by modem persons and that myth is essential to our Christian life. "The scriptures contain the sacred myths of Christian community. They ought not to be reduced to rational discourse. The Bible is poetry plus, not science minus." (78a pp. 127ff; cf. 79 p. 48) In order to tell this whole story adequately and hence to relate it to the individual lives of persons in the community of faith, Westerfioff outlines in some detail the salient themes of the Bible throughout the church year in terms of God's vision for his people. (76a pp. 40-6o) Westerhoff notes how every Christian education paradigm is dependent upon the "theological underpinnings" which judge and inspire its efforts." (76b p. 26) He describes assets and limitations of several current theological positions from his perspective and concludes:I contend that liberation theology provides the most helpful theological system for Christian education today. . .Theology is drawn from our human experience and our common search for the right questions as well as the right answers. This form of practical theology brings action and reflection together; it unites scripture, tradition and experience. (76b p. 3I)In describing his own North American adaptation of liberation theology, he suggests that Christians are liberated for action as partners with God consistent with the historical record. This is not an "individual piety related only to personal relations with God and neighbour. The gospel is a social gospel, a worldly gospel, or no gospel at all." (76b p. 37)The church is always a means to an end, not an end in itself. "Its mission, its end, is to be a community where Christian faith is proclaimed, experienced, understood, lived, and acted upon in history." (76b p. 42)God calls this church to be a unique community of faith, a "pilgrim people 428 living under the judgment and inspiration of the gospel to the end that God's will is done and God's community comes." (76h p. 44) There willalways he the risk of error when the church attempts to say what God isdoing, but he says the church must live with that tension. As a pilgrim,missionary people, we also live with hope:It is a hope which proclaims that persons and institutions can change, that people and üie public order can be transformed to more fully embody God's will for justice, harmony, liberation, community and peace, (76b p. 46)He has "no blind expectations of progress or belief in the capacity of human beings" to bring about God's will. This is a theology founded on a "more radical understanding of God's action in history and a renewed social consciousness consistent with the biblical narrative" that will help the church to equip members to engage in responsible social action. (76b p. 47) "Christian education must transmit this faith and hope. It must equip and stimulate us as individuals and churches to live for such ends." (76b p. 47; cf. pp. 64f) If the church is to take this role seriously, Westerhoff contends that it must become a countercultural community; "only if we motivate and enable the church to be a community of cultural change acting on behalf of the gospel, only then will we be a faith community worthy of Christ's name." (76b p. 66) In order to accomplish this, he suggests that Christian education needs to assist persons to secure facts, investi­gate various alternative actions and design political strategies so that any resulting social action will be responsible, (76b p. 67) Beyond visions and hopes, he contends that the church also needs "power - the wisdom, skills, know-how, and motivation - to act politically, socially, and economically in the world," (76b p. 77; cf. 79 PP. 32, 131, 140,143, 157ff) He further suggests that Christian education should have a key role to play in equipping and motivating the community of faith in this work. He does not hesitate to suggest in some detail the exact nature of this social and political responsibility. (76a pp. 79-104)However, after his own strong appeal for the church basing its Christian education on a theology of liberation, Westerhoff also acknowledges how the church needs to avoid polarizing various theological factions within most congregations; we need four balancing emphases he suggests:Conservatives remind us of the sacredness of the tradition, the wisdom of the past and the centrality of the biblical story.Liberals remind us of the progressive nature of God's revelation, the importance of an open future and the need for change. Evan­gelicals have wisely guarded and proclaimed God's transcendence, human sinfulness, our need for redemption and the radically personal nature of faith. Radicals have wisely reminded us of Christ's immanence, the radical nature of Christ's call to responsible social action in the world. (76a pp. 25f)While Westerhoff's own position appears to be closest to the "radicals," he does maintain a fairly significant balance of theological emphases from the other positions as well. (Cf, 79 pp. 51’) With the above outline of the community of faith (including process), content and theological outline, it is now possible to consider Wester­hoff' s actual definition of Christian education. Although he stresses in his community enculturation model the potential informality of some learning contexts, he constantly defines education in terms of "deliberate, systematic and sustained" efforts by the community of faith. He draws special attention to Ellis Nelson's call for "deliberate efforts to help 429 persons in the church develop a Christian mentality," (Nelson, Is Church Education Something Particular? in 78b p. 199. Westerhoff s comments on this aspect of Nelson are on p. 193; of. also 72 p. 65.) Westerhoff, in one setting defines education:Education is best understood as deliberate, systematic and sustained efforts to transmit, evoke or acquire knowledge, attitudes, values, skills or sensibilities as well as any outcomes of that effort.This definition stresses intentionality rather than context,(78b p. 266)He says its focus ought to be on helping persons live in and for Cod's kingdom, acting with others and finding fulfilment through exercising their wills in reflective action, (78a p. 118) His most recent and compact definition of Christian education is as follows: Christian educationis the process by which persons come to know (understand), internalize (live), and apply (do) God’s word in their individual and corporate lives, (78a p. 93; of. 74 p. 4l; 72 p. 63)Using Westerhoff’s enculturation model and acting consistently with his definitions and emphases, he reports the definition of Christian education developed by a United Church of Christ congregation in the southern United States :Christian education is all the deliberate, systematic, and sustained efforts we make in any aspect of our parish life which enables us as persons and as a community of faith to be more Christian in our individual and corporate lives, (76b p. I05)These three definitions are all comprehensive definitions. In Westeriioff's more recent book Who Are We?, he adds considerable detail to the basic comprehensive definitions. He does this using the word "catechesis." Approaching the word with caution, he asks;Is education a helpful category? Is instruction or nurture?Is catechesis or catechetics? Whatever words we use, they have connotations and meanings - can we give old words new meanings?(78b p, 12)Acknowledging that catechesis has a "somewhat unfortunate history for Roman Catholics which makes the word troublesome for many today," (78bp. 268) he proceeds to give the word new meaning and uses it to describethe nature of Christian education. Here are some of his statements:Gatechesis is a pastoral ministry which aims to help the faithful, individually and corporately, meet the twofold responsibilities which faith asks of them; community with God and community with one's fellow human beings.Catechesis aims to nurture an intimacy of life with God whichexpresses itself in social justice, liberation, and the politicalstruggle for whole community, peace and well-being of all persons. Catechesis is an endeavour which is never neutral in either content or process. Indeed, the content of faith must influence the means used to communicate it, just as it must honour the present experience of persons and the community.Catechesis aims to help the faith community to live under the judgment and inspiration of the gospel to the end that God's will is.done, and God's community-comes. Its content is not religion but faith in the conviction that Jesus is Lord. Its authority is not reason or experience, but the word of God,. Catechesis. . . includes all deliberate (intentional), systematic (related), sustained (over time) pastoral efforts with a community of faith which enables persons in a community to live under the judgment and inspiration of the gospel to the end that God's will is 430 done and God's community comes.Gatechesis is not the transmission of faith. Faith is a gift. Gatechesis can only enhance and enliven faith, awaken and nourish faith.Gatechesis can pass on a living tradition in the form of a story and vision; it can provide experiences and environments which aid in building community throu^ sharing of life under the Lordship of Jesus Christ,Gatechesis enables persons to live freely and humanly as followers of Jesus Christ, It is never a matter of pouring information into peoples' heads, nor is it indoctrinating persons into particular beliefs and doctrines.Catechesis is transmitting the story of God's living revelation; catechesis is judging individual and corporate life in the light of that revelation and catechesis is making decisions and acting in accordance with that revelation. Catechesis is concerned to help us know God, to love God, to obey God,Catechesis further endeavours to help us be aware of our Christian vocation to make moral decisions in the light of faith and bedisposed to act faithfully and responsibly in daily, individualand social life. (?8b pp. 269-276 selected; cf, 79 pp. 57-60)This total outline of catechesis by Westeiiioff serves in part as a summary of much of the community, process, method and theological discussion above. Very frequently, Westerhoff speaks of Christian education's potential for "conversion," and of the church's responsibility for evangelism. He is highly critical of "revivalism" and contends that its "support of the status quo took the place of evangelism's thrust into the future,"(76a p. 19) He suggests that historically, "Christian education has vacillated between a concern for conversion and a concern for nurture."He contends that "child nurture, in and of itself" never can or willhelp persons develop in faith. (76b p. 38; cf. 78a p. 148) The revolu­tionary character of the gospel calls for conversion, he maintains. He defines this: "Church education for conversion means helping persons to see that they are called not only to believe the church's affirmation that Jesus is the Christ, but to commit their lives to him and live as his apostles and disciples in the world." (76a p. 22) Evangelism, as Westerhoff uses the word, "refers to the process by which the Christian community of faith, through the proclamation of the gospel in word and deeds, leads persons inside and outside the church to a radicalreorientation of life - conversion," (78a p. 145) He goes on to affirm:"Evangelism is not indoctrination. It is testifying through transformed lives to the acts of God both within and without the community of faith." (78a p. 145; cf. 79 pp. 21f) He describes more precisely what he means by conversion: To be Christian is to be baptized into the community of the faithful, but to be a mature Christian is to be converted. . . Conversion, then, is best understood as a significant aspect of a long process in the growth and maturation of faith by Christians within the Christian family. , . The gift of faith is something we are always learning. Conversion understood as process and multiple conversions throughout a person's life are basic to living faith.(78a pp. 146, 147, 149)Generally Westerhoff speaks of conversion in terms of decision; we act upon that which is given by God. He describes its relationship to 431 Christian education in this way:Evangelism proclaims and explains the gospel so that faith might he aroused, Catechesis makes possible the growth and development of faith. The process is never-ending. Evangelism and catechesis, conversion and nurture, belong together. (?8a p. I50) Before outlining some of the specific methods that Westerhoff advocates for Christian education within the community of faith, it is important to emphasize his insistence that Christian education deals with whole persons, not just the intellect. He prefers the words "life style" which include for him a thinking, feeling, acting person. (?2 p. ?0) He criticizes both religious and secular education for the tendency to separate the intellectual and intuitive modes of consciousness. (?8a pp. lllf) He does not want the church, however, to allow any new aware­ness of the visual, artistic and associative activities of the brain "to dull or limit our concern for speech, logic, cognitive reasoning, analysis and linear activities." (?8a pp. Îl2f) Both modes must be united. Ways of learning in the church must help "persons to develop the receptive, intuitional, nonverbal and emotional modes of consciousness as well as the intellectual and volitional." (78a p. 135; of. 79 pp. 6lf) The educational process is a lifelong process; at certain times in our development, new learning becomes possible that was beyond an earlier capacity. (7^ pp. 67f) The "educator" is a "facilitator" setting a climate within which persons may do their own learning. (72 p. 66)Adults will play a significant role in the educational process, especially parents, and the church must help parents discover and strengthen their own faith, (74 pp 118f, 121) However, in turning away from a schooling- instruction paradigm, Westerhoff warns that adults must relearn their understanding of education so that they will not simply continue to exert power over children. He describes an aspect of the problem:It is difficult for us simply to be with the neophyte in song, worship, prayer, storytelling, service, reflection and fellow­ship. We always seem to want to do something to or for them so they will be like us or what we would like to be. (76b p. 20)He insists, rather, that "education grounded in Christian faith cannot be a vehicle of control; it must encourage an equal sharing of life in community, a cooperative opportunity for reflection on the meaning and significance of life." At this point, he adds an important qualifying statement: "Surely we must share our understandings and ways with children, but we also must remember that they have something to bring us and that what we bring to children is always under God’s judgment."(76b p. 20) More than instruction will be needed in an enculturation paradigm, he says. Instruction tends to focus our attention on what we want another person to know or feel or to behave. Westerhoff maintains that mutual sharing is the secret of the learning process. "What is truly mine that I have to share with others?" (76b p. 86) If we keep our own sharing and receiving in mind we will be less inclined to busy ourselves with determining another person's life, he contends. "We need to affirm the equality of all lives, and when we do, we shall berin to have an alternative understanding of the educational method." (76 p. 88)Simple educational prx)grams will not be adequate; we will need a variety in order to meet the needs of persons at different levels of development." (Cf. supra, p. 163 ) Some scholars and churches may propose that the church abandon the church school entirely while others believe it is 432 essential. Westerhoff contends that Sunday church schools are in great need of reform and revitalization, but there still exists an important place for the church school as one of those alternative paradigms,(78b p. 267. From the general arguments in 76b this is clearly a later, more moderate stance by Westerhoff,) Christian education and worship need to be more integrated in a community of faith, contends Westerhoff. He explains his rationale in these terms;Liturgy and learning have been linked since the birth of the Christian era, but of late they have become estranged. Regret­fully, religious educators and liturgists have gone their separate ways and attempts to reunite their various concerns have tended to confuse the issue and distort important distinctions between them.Some religious educators have made ihe serious mistake of teaching by or with the liturgy, thereby reducing the liturgy to a didactic act, (78a p. 91)From his perspective, he describes the difference between education and worship; "Perhaps idle best way to differentiate between them is this: Liturgy is the actions and catechesis the reflections of the community of faith." (78a p. 92) Worship is at the heart of the life of the community ojE* faith for Westerhoff. (76b p. 54) Ideally, the hour before the liturgy could be used as a special educational hour for the entire congregation. This would be a time for welcoming new persons, sharing fellowship and ministering to each other’s needs. (76b pp. 57^) The liturgy would be enhanced if the lectionary were used for Christian education also in providing content for intergenerational learning experiences. "By uniting learning and liturgy, Christian education could be enhanced; more important, our faith could be transmitted to our children," (76b p. 58) He speaks very highly of the special importance of the liturgy;"When we participate in a ritual, we experience community, we reconcile and identify ourselves with our foreparents from whom the ritual has descended, and we reestablish continuity with the past and vision for the future." (78a p. I32) This ritual life, combined with the experiences of people in community and the actions of persons serving individually and corporately in the world are all concerns of Christian education for Westerhoff. (76b p. 54) Still, worship will be at the heart of Christian education. For this reason, Westerhoff insists that our children must share in the community’s worship; "if our children are to have faith, they must worship with us." (76b p. 60) I will conclude this brief summary of Westerhoff’s salient concepts with statements of how he sees the relationship of Christian education to the total life of the community of faith. He believes that Christian education must unite concerns about persons, the word, tradition and society. However, for Christian education itself: "At the heart of all our educational efforts must be the scriptures." (76a p. I06) If education is to be Christian, it must equip persons and groups for social action.(76a p. 106) The community of faith should judge and evaluate its entire ministry by Christian education criteria. (78b p. 277) The whole work of the church can be seen in this statement by Westerhoff;Catechesis includes knowing, loving and obeying God's word; social service and action is the church addressing the individual and corporate needs of those denied the benefits of God's intentions; evangelism is the church witnessing in word and deed its faith in 433 God's good news; stewardship is the church expressing God’s will for the individual and corporate life in the world; pastoral care is the church ministering to the material and spiritual needs of all people; fellowship (church life) is the church providing a sign of God's kingdom; administration is the church ordering and orgainizing its common life of mission and ministry; worship is the church providing a context for confrontation with, commitment to, and empowerment by the "word of God." (?8a pp. 93f; cf. 78bp. 276)In the final analysis, for Westerhoff, catechesis is the means by which the community of faith understands God's revelation, and serves as the criterion to evaluate all other aspects of church life as outlined in the quotation above, (78a p. 94) APPENDIX G ERIK ERIKSON'S EPIGENETIC CHART OF THE EIGHT AGES OF MAN 434 ^ 90 ciJ • AS p > M l¥l 1.1 SagH A H 0 • ê . H > 8 M § a 5 CO 0 8 < 1.1 i - 00 VO cn CV] A g o IPA ^ H (Chart 1) s H sMMH § HM KA ^ 0U H A COA < < ^A K0 CO H HH 435 EKEK ERIKSON'S STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT AND CORRESPONDING CONTEXTS PsychosocialCrises Radius of Significant Relations Related Elements of the Social Order Rudiments of % o Strength Basic Trust vs, Basic Mistrust Maternal person Religion and the cosmic order Hope Autonomy vs. Shame, Doubt Paternal person Law and social order Will Initiative vs. Guilt Basic family Theatre and ideal prototypes Purpose ' Industry vs. Inferiority Neighbourhoodschool Technologicalelements Competence Identity vs. Role Confusion Peer groups, models of leadership Ideologicalperspectives Fidelity Intrmacy vs. Isolation Partners in friend­ship, sex, competi­tion, cooperation Patterns of coop­eration and com­petition Love Generativity vs. Stagnation Divided labour and shared household Currents of educa­tion and tradition Care Ego Integrity vs. Despair "Mankind" "My Icind" Collective wisdom Wisdom (Chart 2) Chart 1: Erikson, Childhood And Society, p. 273. Chart 2; Outlined by Loder, p. 59. 436 APPENDIX D LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S DEFINITION OF MORAL STAGES I. Preconventional Level At this level the child is responsive to cultural rules and labels of good and bad, right or wrong, but interprets these labels in terms of either the physical or the hedonistic consequences of action (punishment, reward, exchange of favoui^), or in terms of the physical power of those who enunciate the rules and labels. The level is divided into the following two stages: Stage 1 : The punishment and obedience orientation. The physical consequences of action determine its goodness or badness regardless of the human meaning or value of these consequences. Avoidance of punish­ment and unquestioning deference to power are valued in their own right, punishment and authority (the latter being stage 4), Stage 2: The instrumental relativist orientation. Right action consists of that which instrumentally satisfies one’s own needs and occasionally the needs of others. Human relations are viewed in terms like those of the market place. Elements of fairness, of reciprocity, and of equal sharing are present, but they are always interpreted in a physical pra^atic way. Reciprocity is a matter of "you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours," not of loyalty, gratitude, or justice. II. Conventional Level At this level, maintaining the expectations of the individual’s family, group, or nation is perceived as valuable in its own right, regardless of immediate and obvious consequences. The attitude is not only one of conformity to personal expectations and social order, but of loyalty to it, of actively maintaining. supporting and justifying the order, and of identifying with the persons or groups involved in it. At this level, there are the following two stages; Stage 3; The interpersonal concordance or "good boy-nice girl" orientation. Good behaviour is that which pleases or helps others and is approved by them. There is much conformity to stereotypical images of what is majority or "natural" behaviour. Behaviour is frequently judged by intention— "he means well" becomes important for the first time. One earns approval by being "nice." Stage 4 ; The "law and order" orientation. There is orientation toward authority, fixed rules, and the maintenance of the social order. Right behaviour consists of doing one's duty, showing respect for authority and maintaining the given social order for its own sake, III. Postconventional. Autonomous, or Prlnciuled Level At this level, there is a clear effort to define moral values and principles which have validity and application apart from the authority of the groups or persons holding these principles, and apart from the individual's own identification with these groups. This level again has two stages: 437 Stage 5 : The social-contract legalistic orientation,, generally with utilitarian overtones. Right action tends to he defined in terms of general individual rights and standards which have been critically examined and agreed upon by the whole society. There is a clear aware­ness of the relativism of pei^onal values and opinions and a correspon­ding emphasis upon procedural rules for reaching concensus. Aside from what is constitutionally and democratically agreed upon, the right is a matter of personal "values" and "opinion," The result is an emphasis upon the "legal point of view," but with an emphasis upon the possibility of changing law in terms of rational considerations of social utility (rather than freezing it in terms of stage 4 "law and order"). Outside the legal realm, free agreement and contract is the binding element of obligation. This is the "official" morality of the American government and constitution. Stage 6; The universal ethical -principle orientation. Right is defined by the decision of conscience is accord with self-chosen ethical princiules appealing to logical comprehensiveness, universality and consistency. These principles are abstract and ethical (the Golden Rule, the categorical imperative); they are not concrete moral rules like the Ten Commandments, At heart, these are universal principles of .justice, of the reciprocity and equality of human rights, and of respect for the dignity of human beings as individual persons, Lawrence Kohlberg, "From Is To Ought," in Cognitive Development And Epistemology. ed, Theodore Mischell (London, I97l), pp. l64f. 438 APPENDIX E JAMES FOWLER’S FAITH DEVELOPMENT CHARTS Chart 1 : Faith: Structural-Developmental Chart The letters under each stage represent the following categories:A, Form of Logic (modified Piaget)B, Form of World CoherenceC, Role-Taking (modified Selman)D, Locus of AuthorityE, Bounds of Social AwarenessF, Form of Moral Judgment (modified Kohlherg)G, Role of symbols STAGE 1; INTUITIVE-PROJECTIVE A, PreoperationalB, EpisodicG. Rudimentary empathyD. Located in and derivative of child's attachment/dependent relationships to parents or parent-like adults. Criteria of size, power, and visible signs of authority.E. Family, primal othersF. Punishment-rewardG. Magical-Numinous STAGE 2: MYTHIC-UTERAL A, Concrete operationalB, Narrative-dramaticC, Simple perspective-takingD, Located in incumbents of authority roles and made (more or less) salient by personal proximity and trust-inspiring qualities,E, "Those like us" (in familial, ethnic, racial, class and religious terms)F, Instrumental-HedonismG, One-dimensional, literal STAGE 3; SYNTHETIC-CONVENTIONAL A, Early fomal operationsB, Tacit system, symbolic mediationC, Mutual role-taking (inter-personal), "third person" perspectiveD, Located in traditional or consensual perspective of valued group and in persons authorized or recognized as personally worthy representatives,E, Conformity to class norms and interestsF, Interpersonal concord, Law and OrderG, Multidimensional, conventional ^39 The letters under each stage represent the following categories;A, Form of LogicB. Form of World CoherenceG, Role-TakingD. Locus of AuthorityE, Bounds of Social AwarenessF, Form of Moral JudgmentG. Role of Symbols STAGE 4;INDIVIDUATIVE-REFLEXIVE A, Formal operations (Dichotomizing)B. Explicit system, conceptual mediationG. Mutual, with self-selected group or classD, Located in personally appropriated pragmatic or ideologically established perspectives and in spokespersons or group procedures or outlooks consistent with such perspectivesE, Self-aware adherence to chosen class norms and interestsF, Reflective relativism or class-biased universalismG, Critical translation into ideas STAGE 5: CONJUNCTIVE (or, PARADOXICAL-CONSOLIDATIVE) A. Formal operations (Dialectical)B. Multisystemic, symbolic and conceptual mediationC. Mutual, with groups, classes, and traditions other than one's ownD. Located in the dialectic between critically self-chosen beliefs, norms, and values and those maintained in the reflective claims of other persons and groups and in various expressions of cumulative human wisdomE. Critical awareness of and transcendence of class norms and interestsF. Principles Higher Law (Universal-critical)G. Postcritical rejoining of symbolic nuance and ideational content STAGE 6: UNIVERSALIZING A. Formal operations (Synthetic)B. Unitive actuality, "One beyond the many"C. Mutual, with the commonwealth of BeingD. Building on all that went before, authority now located in the judgment purified of egotistic striving and attentive to the requirements of BeingE. Trans-class awareness and identificationF. Loyalty to BeingG. Transparency of symbols From, Fowler, "Life/Faith Patterns," pp 96-99; cf. Fowler, Stages Of Faith, pp. 244f. 440 Chart 2; Faith Development Interview Guide Part I; Life Review 1. Factual Data: Date and place of birth? Number and ages of siblings? Occupation of providing parent or parents? Ethnic, racial and religious identifications? Characterization of social class— family of origin and now?2, Divide life into chapters: (major) segments created by changes or • experiences— "turning points" or general circumstances.3. In order for me to understand the flow or movement of your life and your way of feeling and thinking about it, what other persons and experiences would be important for me to know about?4, Thinking about yourself at present: What gives your life meaning? What makes life worth living for you? Part II: Life-shaping Experiences and Relationships 1, At present, what relationships seem most important for your life? (E.g., intimate, familial or work relationships.)2, You did/did not mention your father in your mentioning of signifi­cant relationships. When you think of your father as he was during the time you were a child, what stands out? What was his work? What were his special interests? Was he a religious person? Explain. When you think of your mother. . . [same questions as previous]? Have your perceptions of your parents changed since you were a child? How?3, Are there other persons who at earlier times or in the present have been significant in the shaping of your outlook on life?4, Have you experienced losses, crises or suffering that have changed or "colored" your life in special ways?5, Have you had moments of joy, ecstasy, peak experience or break­through that have shaped or changed your life? (E.g., in nature, in sexual experience or in the presence of inspiring beauty or communication?)6, What were the taboos in your early life? How have you lived with or out of those taboos? Can you indicate how the taboos in your life have changed? What are the taboos now?7, What experiences have affirmed your sense of meaning in life?What experiences have shaken or disturbed your sense of mean­ing? Part III ; Present Values and Commitments 1, Can you describe the beliefs and values or attitudes that are most important in guiding your own life?2, What is the purpose of human life?3, Do you feel that some approaches to life are more "true" or right than others? Are there some beliefs or values that all or most people ought to hold and act on?4, Are there symbols or images or rituals that are important to you? 3. What relationships or groups are most important as support foryour values and beliefs?6, You have described some beliefs and values that have becomeimportant to you. How important are they? In what ways do these beliefs and values find expression in your life? Can you give some specific examples of how and when they have had effect? (E.g., 441 times of crisis, decisions, groups affiliated with, causes invested in, risks and costs of commitment.)7. When you have an important decision or choice to make regarding your life, how do you go about deciding? Example?8. Is there a "plan" for human lives? Are we— individually or as a species— determined or affected in our lives by power beyond human control?9. When life seems most discouraging and hopeless, what holds you up or renews your hope? Example?10. When you think about the future, what makes you feel most anxiousor uneasy (for yourself and those you love; for society orinstitutions; for the world)?11. What does death mean to you? What becomes of us when we die?12. Why do some persons and groups suffer more than others?13. Some people believe that we will always have poor people among us, and that in general life rewards people according to their efforts. What are your feelings about this?14. Do you feel that human life on this planet will go on indefinitely,or do you think it is about to end? Part IV; Religion 1. Do you have or have you had important religious experiences?2. What feelings do you have when you think about God?3. Do you consider yourself a religious person?4. If you pray, what do you feel is going on when you pray?5. Do you feel that your religious outlook is "true"? In what sense? Are religious traditions other than your own "true"?6. What is sin (or sins)? How have your feelings about this changed? How did you feel or think about sin as a child, an adolescent, and so on?7. Some people believe that without religion morality breaks down. What do you feel about this?8. Where do you feel that you are changing, growing, struggling or wrestling with doubt in your life at the present time? Where is your growing edge?9. What is your image (or idea) of mature faith? 442 APPENDIX F JOHN WESTEEHOFF’S FOUR STYLES OF FAITH CHART Experienced Faith (Early Childhood) Observe/copy (Acquiring role models and foundations for the integrity of belief and action) Act/react(Formation of trust) Explore/test (Roots of openness or closeness) Affiliative Faith (Childhood) Belonging partici­pation/ engagement in service for others, a sense of community Affection/religion of the heart dominates— a strong desire and need for significant religious experiences Authority/our story and way— a search for conviction; the establishment of a firm set of beliefs, attitudes, and values. Learning who and whose we are. Mature Faith (Adulthood) Personal belief/a clear sense of personal identity with openness to others Witness/religion of the will dominates Centeredness/integrity of belief and action. Searching Faith (Adoiescence) Commitment to ideology/engagement in related action Intellect/religion of the head dominates— the search for understanding and truth Critical judgment of the tradition nurtured in; questioning and growing doubt/ experimentation with alternatives, experi­ences the dark night of the soul. Note: Each style of faith has its own character, but builds on character­istics of earlier styles so that as growth occurs faith becomes more complex. The process is slow, gradual and related to the presence of environments which nurture development and growth. Westerhoff, Learning Through Liturgy, p. I63. 443 APPENDIX G INSTRUMENT FOR STUDY OF HOPE PARK SUNDAY SCHOOL The following is an instrument developed to study the operation of the Sunday school in Hope Park Church, Church of Scotland, St. Andrews, Fife, in the light of the criteria for faith development (pp. 214-1?).The study was undertaken in May, I98O. PART 1 A. General Information a. Approximately how many families are associated with Hope Park Church? h. How many members are there on the Hope Park Church roll as of 1st May,1980? c. How many children are on the roll of the Sunday church school? d. How many teachers assist with the Sunday school? e. What is the average weekly attendance at Sunday school (1979-80)? f. Approximately what percentage of children of all families associated with Hope Park Church (question a.) are enrolled in the Sunday school? g. What age range is served by the Sunday school? From_____ to _______. h. What educational provisions are made by Hope Park Church for young people and adults above the Sunday school age range? i. List all the committees, boards, groups or organizations that are associated with or sponsored by Hope Park Church; k. Does Hope Park Church welcome into its membership, its worship and educational programs, new members from other communities or nations including persons of various colours or denominational backgrounds? m. In what year was the foundation of Hope Park Church as a congregation of the Church of Scotland? n. For approximately how many years in the remembered past has Hope Park Sunday school been operating? o. When was the Christian education committee formed? p. How frequently does the Christian education committee meet? q. What are the approximate beginning and closing dates for the Sunday school each year? 444 r. What provisions are made for Sunday school children in the church life during the periods when the Sunday school is not meeting? s. What curriculum materials are used in the Sunday school? Under age 5 _______________________________________ Ages 6-8 _______________________________________ Ages 9-11 _______________________________________ Ages 12-14 Over age 1 4 _______________________________________ t. Does the administrative hoard of Hope Park Church provide adequate funds for the use of the Sunday school and Christian education committee? B. The Christian Education Committee 1. Is the Christian education committee membership broadly representative of various boaids or organizations in the congregation (e.g., kirk session, women’s guild, Sunday school, encounter group, youthpoint, youth fellowship, the congregation at large)?Please delete those listed which do not apply. 2. Does the membership of the Christian education committee includepersons with special skills or knowledge in the education field? 3. Is the Christian education committee accountable to the kirk session? If not, to what board, committee or person(s)? 4. Does the Sunday school superintendent or other representative reportregularly to the Christian education committee about the work of theSunday school? 5. Does the Christian education committee report regularly to the kirk session (or other appropriate group)? 6. Has the Christian education committee considered or begun a study of the needs of all persons of all ages in Hope Park Church, including the wider community it serves in St. Andrews, with a view to determining the types of Christian education programs that could be considered in future to meet such needs? 7. Has the Christian education committee developed or considered developing congregational aims for the Sunday school and for all other Christian education programs? 8. Has the Christian education committee conducted, or does it plan to conduct an evaluation of current Christian education programs in Hope Park Church? 9. Has the Christian education committee studied the current curriculum materials being used in the Sunday school? 445 10, Does the Christian education committee recruit or assist in the recruitment of teachers for the Sunday school? C. The Teachers and The Curriculum 11, Is preservice training for Sunday school teachers provided by Hope Park Church? 12, Is inservice training for Sunday school teachers provided by Hope Park Church? In 11 and 12, if so, of what type? 13. Does Hope Park Church have library resources (teachers’ training books, audio-visual resources, etc.) available to all Sunday school teachers? 14. Do teachers provide encouragement by word and example for children to participate in the worship services of Hope Park Church during periods when the Sunday school is not meeting? 15. Do teachers use program materials and methods for the Sunday school apart from those suggested in the curriculum guides? If yes, what materials and methods? 16. Have teachers on occasion obtained information from the minister about the content for a future Sunday's worship service in order to prepare children in advance for more meaningful participation in the first part of the congregational worship service (e.g., learning a hymn, looking for specifics in a prayer's content)? 446 PART 2 D. Hope Park Sunday School Teachers' Comments General Question; What is the age range of the children with whom you work? From ______ to , Please Note Instructions before Proceding Further; (a) Please do not begin to deal with the following questions until these first three notes have been explained verbally, (b) The section concerns your opinion on how things actually are; please answer the questions on that basis and not on your opinions of how things "ideally" should be, (c) Please rate your answers to all questions on a scale of 1 to 10by placing a clear mark "/" on the line provided, 1 is emphaticallyno, and 10 emphatically yes. Descending below 5 means "partially" but tending increasingly towards no; ascending above 6 means "partially" but tending increasingly towards yes. 17. Is each child greeted personally by name each week and generallymade to feel welcome and at home in Hope Park Sunday school?no _______________ yes1 23 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 18. Do children have regular opportunities to talk or play with oneanother and with the teacher(s) during each week's class?no _________ yes1 2^3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 19. Are children invited to suggest what they want to study or to suggestthe methods that the class might use? no yes1 23 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 20. Do your classes contain such things as drama, painting, sculpture and singing in addition to reading and discussion?no _____________ yes1 2 3 4 3 & 7 W"9 10 21. Do you use the Bible itself regularly in your Sunday school class and have the children read from it? no yes1^2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9“10 22. Are children encouraged to argue and disagree about moral decisions when these may be presented in a Sunday school lesson?no yes1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 23. Has your class studied about the mission or outreach of the Church of Scotland or of the world church? no yes1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 44? 24. Does your class participate in community or world service projects?no _____ yes1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 25. Do you believe that children benefit from their attendance at the first part of the congregation's worship service, prior to their move to Sunday school classes? no ______ yes1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 26. Do you believe that worship conducted in the Sunday school class or department helps children to worship with the whole congregation in the church with more understanding? no yes1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 iO 27. Do you believe that Hope Park Church Sunday school listens to and tries to deal with children's doubts? no ______ yes1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 28. Do you believe that children are encouraged in the Sunday school toexplore some depths of their faith and to make their own personaldecisions about it? no __________ yes1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 29. Do you believe that your Sunday school class helps children become more aware of God at work in the world? no __________ yes1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 30. Do you believe that your class assists children to develop a loyalty to Jesus and to his church? n o ______ yes1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 31. Do you believe that some type of program, other than or in additionto a Sunday school, would be more effective in helping children intheir Christian growth? no ______ yes1 2 3 4" 5 6” 7" 8 9 10 If so, please make any suggestions here: ______________________________ 32, Do you believe that a fuller exploration and discussion with other teachers of questions such as those raised in this study could be helpful to you as a Sunday school teacher?no yes1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 id 448 APPENDIX H BETHEL UNITED CHURCH COFFEE HOUSE DIAGRAMS Figure 1. Common Arrangement X ChairC Communion Table E Entrance/Exit N North Direction P Podium 8 Screen T Table X X' Figure 2. Audio-Visual Arrangement i — - 4 -E 7, T X X X X X T X X X x^ VT X XX X X X X X X T \x Figure 3* Communion Arrangement 449 APPENDIX I KOEHLER'S INTERGENERATIONAL LEARNING CHARTS Chart 1; Ste-ps in Planning an Intergenerational Unit Goals: l6. Create your own resources1. Set goals for the unit 17. Select biblical material2. State the theme 18. Secure supplies and3. List possible topics equipment4. State session goals Activities and Groupings:Model; 19, Select and sequence the5. Choose a model for learning learning activities20. Decide how people will beTime and Place: grouped.6. Finalize the schedule7. Secure a place Evaluation;8. Prepare the place 21. Decide who will evaluate22. Decide what information Leadership: is needed9. List the leaders needed 23. Decide how to evaluate10, Select persons to inviteas leaders Unit and Session Plans:11, Enlist persons to serve 24, Prepare a unit planas leaders 23. Prepare the session plans12, Prepare leaders13, Guide and support leaders Participants:26, Interpret and promote Resources; 27, Invite specific participants14, Secure resources for 28, Register the participantsplanners and leaders 29. Orient the participants15, Secure resources for participants * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Chart 2; Six Learning Models a. Experience-Reflection Model:Members, individually or as a group, are engaged directly as participants in some activity. Then they talk over their experience, b. Individualized Model:Each learner is helped to understand his or her own needs, to set goals for learning, and to use resources and methods best suited to these goals. c. Dialogue Model:Group members focus their attention on one another, listen with care and understanding, and reveal themselves in trust. d. Presentation-Reflection Model:Information and concepts are presented to the group in an organized way, followed by group or individual exploration and application. 450 e. Workshop Model;Members identify a problem, gather information about it, test possible "solutions," and decide on the best course of action. f. Action Model:The focus is on action in the church, community, or wider world. Learning is a by-product of action or a means to increase the effectiveness of action, (For each of the models described here in Chart 2, Koehler also lists a number of examples and gives values: e.g.; Example (a): Creative activities, interest groups, camping, environmental awareness, field trip, art festival, simulation game. Values (a): Learners are fully engaged with all their senses, not just their ears and minds. Learners have to think, feel, decide and act.) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Chart 3: Criteria for Choosing Activities And Groupings , Will the activities help persons reach the goals for the setting?. Will the activities work well in the model you have chosen?, Are the activities appropriate for the time and location of your IG setting?, Will your leadership be able to lead these activities well?. Will the activities meet the needs of all ages?, Will the activities be interesting and challenging to all ages?, Will the activities be appropriate in light of the abilities ofeach age group?(Consider where your members are in physical, intellectual, moral, and religious development.). Will there be sufficient variety of activity in each session? Will there be "something for everyone?", Will there be a good rhythm in each session between large and small group activities, active and quiet, physical and verbal, etc,? * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Chart 4: A Church School Class for Sixth Graders And Parents During the fall quarter at Chapel Hill United Methodist Church of Dallas, sixth graders and their parents met together as a single IG church school class, A team of three teachers led the group of about twenty-five learners. During the last month the unit focused on under­standing and celebrating Advent, Christmastide, and Epiphany, The group sat close together on a braided rug for most of the discussion periods and worked in smaller groups elsewhere in the room. The activities for the last five sessions: Session 1 , Opening discussion on seasons of the church year , Group listing of colours and symbols of the seasons . Planning for five week study. Discussion of significance and use of Advent wreath . Small groups finding and listing hymns for Advent, Christmastide, and Epiphany , Reading and discussion of Isaiah 11:1 , Planning for a class Jesse Tree 451 Session 2 , Each arrival given a page from The Jesse Tree, by Raymond and Georgene Andei^on . Making Jesse Tree symbols with shrink art . Preparing individual reports on meaning of Jesse Tree . Group Singing of Advent Carols. Discussion of Isaiah passage and Jesse Tree; hanging symbols , Listening to closing hymn Session 3 . Singing Advent hymns, Reading aloud portion of Christmas story from Luke . Discussion of Christmastide . Choosing and posting names of favorite carols , Assignment: Bring a family Christmas treasure Session 4 . Review of colours and symbols of Christmastide . Singing carols, with autoharp. Sharing family treasures, traditions, stories, poems . Reading aloud the shepherd story from Luke . Telling story: "Chris-hnas .in the Pueblo" Session S . Christmas party with refreshments , Discussion of origin and significance of Epiphany. Reading aloud the story of wise men from Matthew, asking each to close eyes and be aware of colours, textures, sounds, odors , Retelling story by persons as if participants in the events , Closing carols and prayers * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Chart 1: Koehler, p. 5^. Chart 2; Ibid., p. 56. Chart 3: Ibid., p. 64, Chart 4: Ibid,, pp, 87f, 452 APPENDIX J JED; PRIMARY CHURCH SCHOOL, SEPTEMBER 1979— FEBRUARY I98O Chart 1 ; Session Outline for Twenty-Six Weeks THE FIRST COVENANT WITH ABRAM AND SARAH (2 Sept., 1979) Genesis 12;1-9 Purpose; To enable learners to Theme: The family of God includes have a sense of belonging-to early Bible people, the church,God's family, a covenant family, us, and people around the world, COVENANT RENEWED WITH ABRAHAM AND SARAH (9 Sept.) Genesis 15:1-2; 17:1-8, 15-21; 18:9-15 Purpose: To enable learners to Theme ; God always keeps God's grow in understanding promises promises, between God and-people. BIRTH OF ISAAC (l6 Sept.) Genesis 21:1-3; 17:19Purpose: To help learners to Theme; God always keeps God'sdiscover that God keeps God's promises; God plans for a goodpromises. world. COVENANT RENEWED WITH ISAAC (23 Sept.) Genesis 26:>5Purpose; To help learners to Themes : I am part of God's family;understand that being part of .people, of God help each other,God's family means having some responsibility. ESAU AND JACOB (30 Sept.) Genesis 25:27:34; 27:42b-44; 28:10-22Purpose: To enable children to Themes : I am part of God's family;discover that although people are God loves me, different from one another, each person is important to God. THE COVENANT WITH JACOB (7 Oct.) Genesis 32:22-30; 33; 35:1-4, 9-14Purpose: To provide opportunities Themes : Thank you, God; I canfor children to express thanks forgive others,for God's cars which is expressed in many ways, and especially through restored ties among family and friends. JOSEPH KEEPS THE FAMILY TOGETHER (l4 Oct.) Genesis 37; 39; 41-45:8Purpose: To enable learners to Themes : God plans for the world;trace God's plan to care for people of God help each other,God's family in spite of wrongdoing and hardship. GOD WILL NOT FORGET GOD'S PROMISE (21 Oct.) Genesis 46:1-7; 50:22-26 Purpose : To enable learners to Theme; God always keeps God'sgrow in the assurance that God's promises,promises can be depended on. 453 GOD'S PROMISE TO US (28 Oct.) Genesis 12:1-9 & other passages above.Purpose: To help learners to see how they fit into God's plan for God's people. THE HEAVENS ARE TELLING (4 Nov.)Purpose: To enable learners to grow in appreciation of God's greatness. PRAISE FOR THE CREATED WORLD (ll Nov.) Purpose; to enable learners to discover that the orderly universe expresses God's love. GOD'S CARE FOR CREATION (18 Nov.) Purpose: To enable learners to express thanks for God's care. CREATION OF PEOPLE (25 Nov.)Purpose: To provide learners with a growing sense of responsibility as part of God's creation. TWO SPECIAL CHILDREN ARE PROMISED Purpose; Through the story of John's birth to enable learners to understand the fulfillment of one of God's promises. THE BIRTH OF JOHNPurpose; To enable learners to begin to understand the every­day life of the people who anticipated the birth of Jesus. THE BIRTH OF JESUSPurpose: To enable learners to begin to understand God's purpose in sending Jesus. THE VISIT OF THE SHEPHERDSPurpose: To enable learners to enter into the joy of Christmas with some appreciation of its true meaning. Themes ; I am part of God's family; God is always with me. Psalm 19:1-6 Theme: God makes everything. Psalm 148 Theme: God plans for a good world, Psalm 104Theme; Thank you, God, Genesis 1-2 Theme; God plans for a good world; I'll help you, God. Luke 1:5-38; Isaiah 7:l4 Theme; God always keeps God's promises. Luke 1:57-80 Theme: God always keeps God's promises. Luke 1:46-50, 54, 55; 2;1_7 Themes; God always keeps God's promises; God is good, Luke 2:8-20 Theme: God is good; God loves us JOHN BEGINS HIS WORK (30 Dec.) Luke 3;1-6; Isaiah 40;3-5Purpose: To introduce the learners Themes ; Doing wrong disappoints to John's role as the forerunner God; God forgives me when I'm of Christ. sorry. TEACHINGS OF JOHNPurpose: To enable learners to relate John's ethical teachings to their own behavior. Luke 3:10-18a Themes; What we do really does matter; doing wrong hurts others, 454 THE BAPTISM OF JESUS (I3 Jan.)Luke 3:21-22; Matthew 3:13-17; Mark 1:9-11; John 1:29-34 Purpose: To enable learners to Themes : God forgives me when-I’m have a better understanding of sorry; Jesus showed us what God Jesus' baptism and how it relates is like, to events in their own church life. JESUS WAS TESTED (20 Jan. )Purpose: To provide learners with opportunities to express their feelings about making wrong choices and being forgiven. THE CALLING OF MATTHEW (2? Jan.)Purpose: To enable learners to understand that one aspect of being Jesus' disciple is to show God's love to all people as exemplified by Jesus when he called the tax collector. JESUS TAUGHT IN THE SYNAGOGUE (3 Feb.) Purpose; To help learners apprec­iate the importance to Christians of worshiping together. JESUS TAUGHT ON THE MOUNTAIN (10 Feb.) Purpose; To help learners under­stand what it means to be "salt" and "light" today. Luke 4:1-13 Themes : It isn't always easy to be the person God wants me to be; God loves us; God forgives me when I'm sorry. Mark 2:13-17; Matthew 9:9-13 Themes : God loves us; I'll help you, God. Luke 4:14-19Thanes: God loves us; Jesus showed us what God is like. Matthew 5:1-2, I3-I6 Themes : I'll help you, God; I can love and serve others. JESUS TAUGHT THE DISCIPLES TO PRAY (l? Feb.) Luke 11:1-4; Matthew 6:9-13 Purpose: To enable learners to Themes : God is good; God lovesgrow in their ability to pray us; God forgives me when I"rabased on a greater understanding sorry, of the prayer J esus taught. JESUS TAUGHT ABOUT WORSHIP (24 Feb.) Purpose: To help learners under­stand Jesus' strong action in defense of worship. Mark 11:15-17 Themes : I can love and serve others; I'll help you, God. Chart 2; Muriel Lichtenwalner's Story: "Jesus Is Tested" After he was baptized, Jesus went away. He went to the desert.He was all alone. He had to think about his life.He dedicated his life to God. Now what would he do? How would he tell people about God? How would he bring them close to God?He stayed in the desert a long time. He didn't eat. He prayed to God, He needed God's help. He heard a voice. "Jesus," the voice said. "You could turn this stone to bread. You could give food to the people. They would thank you. They would follow you. You are God's Son, God would give you this power." Jesus thought about this. He was sure God wouldn't like it,"No," Jesus said, "I won't do this. People need more than food,I will find another way," k55 The voice spoke again, "You are a strong man. You could make people do what you want. Tell them they must follow you."Jesus thought about this. This wasn’t God’s way."No," said Jesus. "I won't make people follow me.""You could do a miracle," the voice said. "Go to a high place. Then jump off. God won't let you be hurt. People would see this.They would laiow you are God's Son, They will all follow you.""Don't try to tempt me," Jesus said. "This isn't what God wants."J esus thought some more. Then he knew what to do, He left thedesert. He went back to Galilee. He began to talk to people. He toldthem God loved them. He was kind to them. He helped the sick people.He was friendly to lonely people. He showed God's love in his life.This was how Jesus decided to work for God. Chart 1: From JED-Tl and JED-T2 (throughout books); Muriel E. Lichtenwalner, Discovering the Bible with Children, Teacher's Resource Book. Chart 2: From JED-P2, pp. 36f. Muriel E. Lichtenwalner, Discovering the Bible with Children. Opening The Bible. 456 APPENDIX K COMPARISON; GGIT STATEMENTS AND WESTERHOFF'S SEARCHING FAITH Westerhoff: ’’Commitment to ideology/engagement in related action," CGIT Handbook:1, Teenage girls want to make decisions, to act on these decisions (p. 6).2. Teenage girls respond best where there are adults who can help them identify the interests within their group, make decisions around those concerns that would be most favourable to the group, and translate these decisions into actions (p. 6), Westerhoff: "Intellect/religion of the head dominates— the search for understanding and truth," CGIT handbook:1. Teenage girls look for an atmosphere of trust where they can be frank and honest and try out ideas (p. 6),2, They see intense hypocrisy; the gap between what adults profess and how they act (p. I?),3* Hopefully CGIT will be for the group, growth in understanding (p. 6). Westerhoff: "Critical judgment of the tradition nurtured in; questioning and growing doubt/experimentation with alternatives, experiences the dark night of the soul." CGIT Handbook:1. Teenage girls question: Is God really at work in our world?They need to be with sensitive adults who are alert to what Godis doing and who expect Him to be active in our world (p. 6),2. They are not sure about believing in God, Their faith comes infits and starts, so that they can talk to God one minute andwonder if He's there the next (p. 18),3. They are looking for real values by which to live. They are living in a world of rapid change, and are being exposed to a variety of life styles. They are concerned about future values and the kind of world being shaped for them (p. I7).4. Teenage girls respond best where there is an informal, relaxed meeting without the frustrating feeling of being tied to a program (p. 6).5. They are capable with help of managing conflict. This means facing it, accepting it as real, and staying with it until something productive rather than destructive happens (p. 18). Westerhoff; See Appendix F. CGIT; See Israel, Handbook, pages noted in text above. 45? APPENDIX L VENTURER RELIGION IN LIFE PROGRAM OUTLINE Objectives; — To help Venturers/Rangers view the Bible as truthful in a non-literal way.— To relate Bible teaching to their lives today.--To see worship as a response to the God who supports them in their life struggle.— To encourage young people in their search for personal identity and worth.— To assist young people to explore and articulate their developing faith.— To increase understanding about the nature and work of the United Church of Canada.— To help young people find meaningful ways to care about their community. Guidelines: — Look at some different kinds of literature in the Bible and discuss the different ways of expressing truth: (e.g. parable, Lu. 10; 25-37; biography, Ruth 1; 1-18; drama, Song of S. 2; 8-17; historical, Acts 7: 54-60; letter, Phil. 2: 1-11; hymn, Psalm 100; prophetic, Amos 7î 1-9; saga, Gen. 3: 1-13; wisdom, Prov. 15: 1-7.) — Read the Beatitudes (Matt. 5: 1-12) and tell what various parts might say to our way of living. — Tell how you see/feel God at work in three current events in the world. — After a discussion of the meaning of worship, plan and present a worship service at Venturer/Ranger camp, a meeting or in church. — Watch a movie or T.V, program that shows the main character's (or author's) values in life and discuss their meaning; then discuss how your own values are similar or different. — Share important aspects of your Christian faith with your group. — Describe some of the mission work in Canada and around the world carried on by the United Church of Canada. — Assist with the leadership of another group (e.g., Beaver colony, Bixjwnie pack, Church school. Cub pack. Explorer group. Tyro group). — Consider some of the needs of your community and choose one in which you can make a contribution. Write a brief report of your experience. National Advisory Committee on Scouting of the United Church of Canada, Religion in Life Program, pamphlet. 458 APPENDIX M "TELKENG MY STORY— SHARING MY FAITH" OUTLINE 1. Beginning The Journey In this session, we'll get to know one another, (or get to knowone another better!);we'll begin to explore our faith;we'll do some thinking about what we want to give to the course and what we want to get out of the course. 2. The Purpose of The Journey In this session, we'll look at these questions:What does "covenant" mean to us?What was God's purpose for his people, Israel?What is God's purpose for humankind? 3. The Journey And Failure In this session we'll look at these questions:What happened when the people of Israel failed in their covenant with God?When we fail, are we letting God down?Are we still included in God's purpose, despite our failures? 4. Jesus; Travelling With Me? In this session we'll look at these questions;Who is Jesus?What is my relationship with him?What does he show me of God’s purpose? 5. The Journey and New Visions In this session we'll look at these questions;What did Jesus give up by his obedience to God's vision for human life?What is Jesus' good news for us?What keeps us from fully accepting the good news? 6. The Journey; Escape from Sin And Death In this session we'll look at these questions:What is the power of sin over us?What is the power of death over us?What happens to the power of sin and death when we respond to Christ? 7. The Journey and the Body Of Christ In this session we'll look at these questions:What are the implications of being in the body of Christ?What are my gifts? if59 8. Why Share Our Faith? In the next two sessions we’ll look at these questions;Why share the faith? Why he evangelists?To do this we'll look at;how God worked in and through persons telling their stories in the New Testament;how God works in and thirough our stories as well. 9. Why Share Our Faith? In this session we'll look again at;Why share the faith? Why be evangelists?To do this, we'll look at;The needs of the world.The Good News and the world. 10. Our Stories. Part of God's Story We are evangelists. We are good evangelists.In the next four sessions (10-13) we will focus on the skills and attitudes which will make us better evangelists.In this session, we'll see our stories more and more as part of God's story, and we'll practice telling them more clearly, 11. Becoming Better Story-Tellers Remember the assumptions in these four sessions (10-13) are;We are evangelists. We are good evangelists.We will continue to focus on the skills and attitudes which make us even better evangelists.In this session we'll work on our ability to hear, accept and affirm others, even when their values are different from ours. 12. Becoming Better Evangelists Our assumptions in these four sessions (10-13) are; we are evangelists; we are good evangelists.We will continue to focus on the skills and attitudes which make us even better evangelists.In this session, we'll work on our listening skills,we'll look at things that can hinder us from hearing one another'sstories,we'll practice expressing our faith in difficult situations, we'll look at God's role and ours in evangelism. 13. Becoming Better Evangelists Let's recall; We are evangelists. We are good evangelists.In this session we'll look at various situations where evangelism takes place,we'll look at various forms of evangelism. 14. The End of the Journey— and The Beginning In this session, we'll reflect on what we've learned, we'll decide where to go from here, we'll say goodbye. 460 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Abemethy, William Beaven. A New Look for Sunday Morning. New York: Abingdon Press, 1975» Ackroyd, P. R., and Evans, G. F., eds. The Cambridge History of The Bible, Vol. 1. Cambridge: The University Press, 1970. AIlmen, J.-J, von. Worship; Its Theology And Practice. London; Lutterworth Press, 1965» Barth, Karl. Prayer And Preaching. London : 8 CM Press Ltd., 1964. Beckett, David; Galbraith, Douglas; Griffiths, Dorothy; Scobie, Andrew; and Williamson, Colin. New Ways To Worship. Edinburgh: The St. Andrew Press, I98O. Bishop, Anne, and Hay, Eldon. Telling My Story— Sharing My Faith. Toronto: The Division of Mission in Canada», The United Church of Canada, 1978. ' Blazier, Kenneth D. A Growing Church School. Valley Forge: Judson Press, 1978. Bower, Robert K, Administering Christian Education, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1964. Bowman, Locke E., Jr. Straight Talk About Teaching in Today's Church. Philadelphia; The Westminster Press, 1967. Boy Scouts of Canada, By-Laws. Policies And Procedures. Ottawa; Boy Scouts of Canada, I969. " _______ , Scouts '68. Ottawa; Boy Scouts of Canada, I968. _______ . The Scout Leader. Ottawa; Boy Scouts of Canada, Vol. 47,No. 7, March, 1970. Cant, H. W. "Christian Worship Today; Its Crisis And Renewal." In Liturgical Review. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, Vol. V, No. 1, May, 1975» Cheney, Ruth G. Transition. New York; The Seabury Press, 1967. Christensen, James L, Don't Waste Your TimeJn Worship. Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, I978. Church of Scotland. Action 3. Hamilton: Scottish and Universal Newspapers Ltd., Autumn, 1979» _______ . The Book of Common Order. Edinburgh; The Saint AndrewPress, 1979. 461 Clark, Dorothy. "Religious Education Today," In Trends In Education. No. 4. London: McGorquodale and Go. Ltd., October, 19^6. Coe, George Albert. "The Starting Point of A Solution." In BasicWritings in Christian Education. Edited by Kendig Brubaker Cully. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, I960. Cooperative Curriculum. Development, Tools For Curriculum Development, Anderson, Indiana; Warner Press, 19^7. Cooperative Curriculum Project. A Design for Teaching-Learning.St. Louis, Missouri; The Bethany Press, 19^7. Cox, Alva I. Christian Education in the Church Today. Nashville: Graded Press, 19^5. Cox, Edwin. Changing Aims in Religious Education. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, I966. "The Aims of Religious Education." In Religious Educationin Integmted Studies. Edited by Ian H. Bimie. London; 8.C.M. Press Ltd., 1972. Cox, Harvey. The Secular City. London; SGM Press Ltd., I965. Cox, James T., ed. Practice and Procedure in The Church Of Scotland. Sixth Edition. Edinburgh: The Church of Scotland, 1976. Craddock, Fred B, Overhearing The Gospel. Nashville; Abingdon Press,1978, Cullman, Oscar. Early Christian Worship. London; SCM Press Ltd.,1933. Cully, Iris V. Christian Child Development. New York; Harper and Row, 1979. _______ . "Christian Education; Instruction Or Nurture?" In Who AreWe? Edited by John H. Westerhoff III. Birmingham, Alabama; Religious Education Press, 1978. . New Life for Your Sunday School. New York: Hawthorn BooksInc., 197 .^ The Dynamics of Christian Education. Philadelphia; TheWestminster Press, 1958. Darton, Michael, Modem Concordance to the New Testament. London; Darton Longman and Todd Ltd., 1976. Davies, J. G, Christians. Politics and Violent Revolution. London; SCM Press Ltd., 1976. _______ . Every Day God. London: SCM Press Ltd., 1973. . New Perspectives on Worship Today. London; SCM PressLtd., 1978. 462 Belling, D. Gerhard. Worship in the New Testament. London; Darton, Longman and Todd, I962. de Vaux, Roland. Ancient Israel: Its Life And Institutions. London; Darton Longman and Todd, 19^1. Edwards, Mary Alice Douty. Leadership Development and the Workers' Conference, New York: Abingdon ITess, 196?. Ellison, John W. Nelson's Complete Concordance of the RSV Bible, Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1957. Erlkson, Erik H. Childhood And Society. Second Edition, New York;W. W. Norrkon and Company Inc., 1963. ________. Identity; Youth And Crisis. London; Faber and Faber, I968. Etzioni, Amitai. Modern Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey; Prentice-Hall Inc., 1965. Fallaw, Wesner. Church Education For Tomorrow. Philadelphia; The Westminster Press, I960. " ^ "The Role of the Home in Religious Nurture." In ReligiousEducation. Edited by Marvin J. Taylor. New York; Abingdon Press,Ï9301 Forsyth, Nathaniel F. The Minister and Christian Nurture. New York; Abingdon Press, 1957. Fowler, James W. Ill, "Faith Patterns; Structures of Trust And Loyalty." In Life Maps. Edited by Jerome Berryman. Waco, Texas; Word Books, 197W. _______ . Stages Of Faith. San Fransisco; Harper and Row, I98I. "Toward a Developmental Perspective." In ReligiousEducation. Vol. IXEX. No. 2. Birmingham, Alabama; Religious Education Press, March-April, 1974. Fraser, S. J. ; Charlton, A.M.; and Duncan, G. S., eds. Kate Kennedy Annual 1980. St. Andrews: Kate Kennedy Club, April, I98O, Furnish, Dorothy Jean. Exploring the Bible With Children. New York; Abingdon Press, 1975. Galloway, Allan D. Faith in a Changing Culture. London; George Allen and Unwin Ltd., I967. Gibbs, Mark, and Morton, T. Ralph. God's Frozen People. London; Collins Press, 1964. Gill, Robin, "Who Goes to Church In Scotland?" In Liturgical Review. Edinburgh; Scottish Academic Press, Vol. VI, No.^H May, 1976, Goldman, Ronald. Readiness For Religion. London; Routledge and Kegan Paul, I965. 463 .• Religious Thinking from Childhood To Adolescence, London:Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964, Good News Bible. Toronto; Canadian Bible Society, 1976. Gray, Joyce G. Over the Fence and Into The Church. Margate; The Thanet Press, 1969. Griggs, Donald and Patricia. Generations Learning Together, Livermore, California; Griggs Educational Service, 1976. Hahn, Ferdinand, The Worship of the Early Church. Philadelphia; Fortress Press, 1973. Hansel, Robert R. Like Father, Like Son— Like Hell I New York; The Seabury Press, I969. Havighurst, Robert J-. Developmental Tasks And Education. New York; David McKay Co. Inc., 1952. Hirst, Paul H. Book Review. In Religious Studies. Vol. 4. No. 1. Cambridge; The University Press, 1969. Howe, Reuel L. Man's Need and God's Action. New York; The Seabury Press, 1953. . The Miracle Of Dialogue. New York; The Seabury Press,Ï9S3. Huber, Evelyn M, Doing Christian Education in New Ways. Valley Forge; Judson Press, 1978. Israel, Muriel. GGIT Handbook For Leaders. Toronto; The Canadian Council of Churches, 1973. Johnston, George. The Doctrine of the Church in the New Testament. Cambridge; University Press, 19431 “ Kelsey, Morton. Can Christians Be Educated? Mishawaka, Indiana; Religious Education Press Inc., 1977. Killinger, John. Leave it to The Spirit. London; SCM Press Ltd.,1971. ________, ed. The 11 O'Clock News. New York; Abingdon Press, 1975. Koehler, George E. Learning Together. Nashville; The United Methodist Church, 1977. Kohlberg, Lawrence. "From Is To Ought." In Cognitive Development And Epistemology. Edited by Theodore Mischelle. London; Academic Press, 1971. Laing, Donald W. Ideas for a Congregation's Education Program.Saskatoon; Paper developed for Saskatchewan Conference, the United Church of Canada, November, 1976. 46^ . Let's Celebrate. Ottawa: Boy Scouts of Canada, 1974. . ’’Scouting in the United Church," S.T.M. Thesis, Vancouver School of Theology, 1972. Lamb, John Alexander. The Psalms in Christian Worship. London: The Faith Press, I962, Lichtenwalner,. Muriel E, Discovering the Bible With Children. Opening The Bible. Valley Forge: Joint Educational Development, September, October, November, 1979. ________. Discovering the Bible With Children, Opening The Bible,Valley Forge: Joint Educational Development, December, 1979,January, February, I98O, . Discovering the Bible With Children, Teacher's Resource Book. Valley Forge: Joint Educational Development, September, October, November, 1979. Discovering the Bible With Children, Teacher’s ResourceBook. Valley Forge: Joint Educational Development, December, 1979, January, February, I98O. Little, Lawrence G, Foundations for a Philoso-ply of Christian Education, New York: Abingdon î^êss, 1962, _______ . "The Objectives of Protestant Religious Education." InReligious Education. Edited by Marvin J. Taylor. New York: Abingdon Press, I960. Lochhead, David. The Lordship Of Jesus. Toronto ; The United Church of Canada, 197^ Loder, James E, "Developmental Foundations for Christian Education."In Foundations for Christian Education in an Era Of Change.Edited by Marvin J. Taylor. Nashville; Abingdon, 1978. Lohse, Eduard. The New Testament Environment. London; SCM Press Ltd., 1976. Losconcy, Lawrence. Religious Education and the Life Cycle.Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: Catechetical Communications, 1977. Lynn, Robert W. "A Historical Perspective on the Futures of American Religious Education." In Foundations for Christian Education in an Era Of Chaise. Edited by Marvin J. Taylor, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1976. MacGregor, Geddes. The Rhythm Of God. New York: The Seabury Press, 1974. McLuhan, Marshall. The Medium is The Message. Watford: Taylor Garnett Evans, 19^7. ________. Understanding Media. London; Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.,ï ^ . 465 MacQuarrie, John, God And Seculazlty. London: Lutterworth Press,1968. Martin, Ralph P. New Testament Foundations. Vol. 2. Exeter: The Paternoster Press Ltd., 1978, _______ . Worship in the Early Church. London: Marshall, Morgan andScott, 1964. ” Micklem, Nathaniel, ed. Christian Worship. London: Oxford University Press, 1938. Micks, Marianne H. The Future Present: The Phenomenon of Christian Worship. New York: The Seabury Press, 1970. Miller, Randolph Crump, Christian Nurture and The Church. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, I96I. The Glue To Christian Education, New York: CharlesScribner's Sons, 1950. Mitchell, B. G. "Indoctrination," In The Durham Report; The Fourth R. London: National Society and SPCK, 1970. Murphy, Roger J. L. "An Investigation into Some Aspects of the Development of Religious Thinking in Children Aged Between Six and Eleven Years." Ph.D. thesis. University of St. Andrews,1979. National Advisory Committee on Scouting in the United Church of Canada. Minutes. Toronto : Committee minutes, October, 1979. _______ . Religion in Life Program, The United Church of Canada.0ttawa: Boy Scouts of Canada, I980I Neil, William. The Rediscovery of The Bible. London"; Hodder and Stoughton, 19541 Nelson, C. Ellis, "Is Church Education Someidiing Particular?" In Who Are We? Edited by John H. Westerhoff III. Birmingham,Alabama: Religious Education Press, 1978. _______ . Where Faith Begins. Richmond; John Knox Press, 1967. O'Connor, Elizabeth. Journey InwaM; Journey Outward. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1968. Oesterley, W. 0. E. The Jewish Background of the Christian Liturgy. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1925. Olson, Richard Allen, ed. The Pastor's Role in Educational Ministry, Philadelphia; Fortress Press, 1974. Pannenberg, Wolfhart, Basic Questions In Theology. Vol. 1. London; SCM Press Ltd., 1970. 466 Peatling, John H, "The Incidence of Concrete and Abstract Religious Thinking in the Interpretation of Three Bible Six)ries." Ph.D. thesis, The School of Education, New York University, 1973- Perry, Michael. The Paradox Of Worship. London, SPCK, 1977. Piaget, Jean, Genetic Epistemology. New York; Columbia University Press, 1970. Psychology And Epistemology. London: Allen Lane, ThePenguin Press, 1972. Reed, Bruce. The Dynamics Of Religion. London; Darton, Longman and Todd, 1978. Roberts, Dorothy M. Partners With Youth. New York: Association Press,1956. Robinson, H. Wheeler, "The Old Testament Background." In Christian Worship. Edited by Nathaniel Micklem. London; Oxford University Press, 1936. Rogers, Sharee and Jack. The Family Together. Los Angeles: Acton House Inc,, Publishers, 1976. Rowley, H. H. Worship in Ancient Israel: Its Forms And Meaning.London: S.P.G.K., 1976. Russell, Frances. The CGIT Manual For Leaders. Toronto : The Canadian Council of Churches, 1964. ~ Swain, Margaret. Educating by Family Groups. Rochester, New York: Family Cluster Inc., 1977. Shepherd, Massey H, Jr. The Psalms in Christian Worship. Minneapolis: Augsburgh Publishing House, 1976. Shinn, Roger Lincoln. The Educational Mission of Our Church. Philadelphia: United Chu^h Press, I962. Simpson, William W, Jewish Prayer And Worship. London: SCM Press Ltd., 1965. Smart, James D. The Strange Silence of the Bible in The Church.London: SCM Press Ltd., I97O. . The Teaching Ministry of The Church. Philadelphia: TheWestminster Press, 1954. Smith, Barbara. How to Teach Junior Highs. Philadelphia; The Westminster Press, 1965. Snyder, Ross, "Worship as Celebration And Nurture," In Foundations for Christian Education in an Era Of Change, Edited by Marvin J, Taylor, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1976, . Young People and Their Culture. New York; Abingdon Press,Ï W . 467 Sutcliffe, John M. Learning Community. HutfieM, Surrey; Denholm House Press, 19741 Taylor, Marvin J., ed. Religious Education. New York: Abingdon Press,i960. Taylor, Michael H. Variations on A Theme. London: Stainer and BellLtd., 1973. The Randon House Dictionary of the English Language, New York: Random1967. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1933. Tillich, Paul. Dynamics Of Faith. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1957. Underhill, Evelyn, Worship. London: Nisbet and Co. Ltd,, 1936. United Church of Canada, Board of Christian Education, Education in Your Church in The '70s. Toronto : United Church Publishing House,1970. United Church of Canada. Service Book for the Use Of Ministers. Toronto; The United Church of Canada and Ryerson Press, 1969. The Manual. Toronto : Canec Publishing and Supply House,1978. Vieth, Paul H, Objectives in Religious Education. New York: Harper and Brothers, I93O. _. The Church School. Philadelphia; The Christian EducationPress, 1957. Weatherhead, James L, "Children in Worship with Special Reference to Holy Communion." In Liturgical Review. Vol. 7. No, 2, Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, November, 1977. Webster's Third New International Dictionary. London; G, Bell and Sons Ltd., 1966, Westerhoff, John H. Ill, Bringing up Children in the Christian Faith. Minneapolis: Winston Press, 1980. .. Inner Growth/Outer Change, New York; The Seabury Press,1979. . Tomorrow's Church. Waco, Texas; Word Books, 1976, . Will Our Children Have Faith? New York; Seabury Press,197S. J ed. A Colloquy on Christian Education. Philadelphia:United Church Press, 1972. , ed. Who Are We? Birmingham, Alabama: Religious EducationPress, 1978. 468 Westerhoff, John H. Ill, and Neville, Gwen Kennedy,. Generation to Generation. Philadelphia: United Church Press, 1974, Westerhoff, John H, III, and Neville, Gwen Kennedy. Learning Through Liturgy. New York: The Seabury Press, 1978. Westerhoff, John H. Ill; Eastman, Francis W.; Goddard, Carolyn S.; and Koenig, Robert E. The Learning Centre Approach in Church Education. New York: United Church Board of Homeland Ministries, 1973. White, James F. 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